Born in Pirna, Saxony, Eva Schulze-Knabe studied from 1924 to 1926 in Leipzig and from 1928 to 1932 at the Dresden Art Academy. From 1929 she was a member of the artists' group ASSO, and from 1931 she was a member of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). The same year, she married the artist Fritz Schulze.
She was arrested in 1933 and 1934 and confined at Hohnstein concentration camp. In 1941 and 1942, she was tried before the Volksgerichtshof at Münchner Platz in Dresden, where she was sentenced to life in labour prison (Zuchthaus).
After being freed from Waldheim labour prison in 1945, she lived as a freelancer in Dresden and received Dresden's Martin Andersen Nexö Art Prize in 1959. Moreover, she oversaw the painting and drawing circle founded in 1848 at the Sachsenwerk (a factory) in Niedersedlitz (part of Dresden). The Demokratischer Frauenbund Deutschlands (Democratic Women's Association of Germany, an East German organization), Group 540, bore her name.
She died in Dresden in 1976.
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