Evelyn Boyd Granville
|Evelyn Boyd Granville|
Evelyn Boyd Granville
May 1, 1924|
Washington, D.C., United States
|Awards||honorary doctorate by Smith College, Sam A. Lindsey Chair of the University of Texas at Tyler|
|Fields||Mathematics and Education|
|Thesis||On Laguerre Series in the Complex Domain|
|Doctoral advisor||Einar Hille|
Evelyn Boyd Granville (born May 1, 1924) was the second African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics from an American University; she earned it in 1949 from Yale University (she attended Smith College before Yale). She performed pioneering work in the field of computing.
Evelyn Boyd was born in Washington, D.C.; her father worked odd jobs due to the Great Depression but separated from her mother when Boyd was young. Boyd and her older sister were raised by her mother and aunt, who both worked at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. She was valedictorian at Dunbar High School, which at that time was a segregated but academically competitive school for black students in Washington.
With financial support from her aunt and, later, a small partial scholarship from Phi Delta Kappa, Boyd entered Smith College in the fall of 1941. She majored in mathematics and physics, but also took a keen interest in astronomy. She was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and to Sigma Xi and graduated summa cum laude in 1945. Encouraged by a graduate scholarship from the Smith Student Aid Society of Smith College, she applied to graduate programs in mathematics and was accepted by both Yale University and the University of Michigan; she chose Yale because of the financial aid they offered. There she studied functional analysis under the supervision of Einar Hille, finishing her doctorate in 1949. Her dissertation was "On Laguerre Series in the Complex Domain".
Following graduate school, Boyd wend to New York University Institute for Mathematics and performed research and teaching there. After, in 1950, she took a teaching position at Fisk University, a college for black students in Nashville, Tennessee (more prestigious postings being unavailable to black women). Two of her students there, Vivienne Malone-Mayes and Etta Zuber Falconer, went on to earn doctorates in mathematics of their own. But by 1952 she left academia and returned to Washington with a position at the Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratories. After four years there she moved to IBM as a computer programmer; at IBM, she moved from Washington to New York City in 1957.
Boyd moved to Los Angeles in 1960, where she worked for the U.S. Space Technology Laboratories, which became the North American Aviation Space and Information Systems Division in 1962. There she worked on various projects for the Apollo program, including celestial mechanics, trajectory computation, and "digital computer techniques".
Forced to move because of a restructuring at IBM, she took a position at California State University, Los Angeles in 1967 as a full professor of mathematics. After retiring from CSULA in 1984 she taught at Texas College in Tyler, Texas for four years, and then in 1990 joined the faculty of the University of Texas at Tyler as the Sam A. Lindsey Professor of mathematics. There she developed elementary school math enrichment programs. Since 1967, Granville has remained a strong advocate for women's education in tech.
Experience of discrimination
In 1951, Granville and two African American colleagues were denied entrance to a regional meeting of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), because it was held at a whites-only hotel. The MAA and the American Mathematical Society (AMS) subsequently changed their practices, under pressure from Lee Lorch, to improve their inclusivity.
Awards and honors
She was appointed to the Sam A. Lindsey Chair of the University of Texas at Tyler (1990-1991).
In 2001, she was cited in the Virginia state senate's Joint Resolution No. 377, Designating February 25 as "African-American Scientist and Inventor Day."
- Euphemia Haynes, another African-American woman who earned a Ph.D. in mathematics even earlier, in 1943.
- "10 Famous Women in Tech History". Dice Insights. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Evelyn Boyd Granville", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Williams, Scott W. "Evelyn Boyd Granville". Black Women in Mathematics. Mathematics Department, State University of New York at Buffalo. Retrieved 2014-06-21..
- Schlager, Neil; Lauer, Josh (2001). "Evelyn Boyd Granville". Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. Gale Group. ISBN 9780787639334.
- Nowlan, Robert A. (2017). Masters of Mathematics: The Problems They Solved, Why These Are Important, and What You Should Know about Them. Springer. p. 453.
Granville [contributed] her expertise in the field of computer science during its pioneer years.
- Inventors and Inventions, Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish. 2008. p. 343. ISBN 9780761477648.
During the 1960s, perhaps the greatest achievement in computing was guiding Apollo space rockets to the moon. Some of the important Apollo programs were written by Elizabeth Boyd Granville (1924-).
- "Smith E-News 2006". Smith College. 2006. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
[Granville has] long been a pioneer in applied mathematics and computer technology, having joined the staff of IBM in 1956 to work on projects for NASA.
- Kessler, James H. (1996). Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 9780897749558.
[At] the Space Technology Laboratories in Los Angeles, [Granville] continued her pioneering work on orbit computations for manned space vehicles.
- Beckenham, Annabel (January 2001). A Woman's Place in Cyberspace: critical analysis of discourse, purpose and practice with regard to women and new communication technologies (PDF) (MA). University of Canberra.
[The Ada Project,] originally developed at Yale University, is designed to serve as a clearing house for information and resources related to women and computing. Given its aim and its authority, it is telling that the site lists precisely twelve women as 'pioneering women of computing'. They are, in order of appearance; Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace (1815-1852), Edith Clarke (1883-1959), Rosa Peter (1905-1977), Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992), Alexandra Illmer Forsythe (1918-1980), Evelyn Boyd Granville, Margaret R. Fox, Erna Schneider Hoover, Kay McNulty Mauchly Antonelli, Alice Burks, Adele Goldstine, and Joan Margaret Winters.
- "Newsletter of the Department of Mathematics at the University of Michigan Summer 2001" (PDF). University of Michigan. 2001.
At IBM, Dr. Granville played an exciting and fundamental role in the dawn of the computer age, especially as it was being applied to celestial mechanics. For example, she was part of the team of scientists responsible for writing the computer programs that tracked the paths of vehicles in space on NASA’s Project Vanguard and Project Mercury.
- Collins, Sibrina (2016-06-13). "African-American Women & the Space Race".
Another groundbreaker is Dr. Evelyn Boyd Granville, a mathematician who worked on orbit computations and computer procedures for three space-related projects — Project Vanguard (originally managed by the Naval Research Laboratory and later transferred to NASA); Project Mercury (the nation’s first effort to put a man in space); and the program that eventually put a man on the moon, Project Apollo.
- Mirjana, Ivanović; Zoran, Putnik; Anja, Šišarica; Zoran, Budimac (2010). "A Note on Performance and Satisfaction of Female Students Studying Computer Science". Innovation in Teaching and Learning in Information and Computer Sciences. 9 (1).
Another important figure of that time was Evelyn Granville, a pioneer in information technology who began her career in academia, went on to programming challenges at IBM and ultimately worked on the NASA space programme before returning to teach others.
- Evelyn Boyd Granville at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
- Boyd Granville, Evelyn (Fall 1989). "My Life as a Mathematician". Biographies of Women Mathematicians.
- Ray Spangenburg; Diane Moser; Douglas Long (1 January 2003). African Americans in Science, Math, and Invention. Infobase Publishing. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-1-4381-0774-5.
- "Media Highlights". The College Mathematics Journal. Mathematical Association of America. 42 (2): 163–172. March 2011. JSTOR 10.4169/college.math.j.42.2.163.
- Dr. Evelyn Boyd Granville '45 Archived 2014-11-01 at the Wayback Machine., Smith College, retrieved 2014-06-21.
- Smith History: Honorary Degrees Archived March 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine., Smith College, retrieved 2014-06-21.
- Ray Spangenburg; Diane Moser; Douglas Long (1 January 2003). African Americans in Science, Math, and Invention. Infobase Publishing. pp. 98–. ISBN 978-1-4381-0774-5.
- "Academy Honors Three During African American History Month". NAE Website.
- "Pioneer in science: Evelyn Granville". New Pittsburgh Courier. March 27, 1999..
- "Yale Bulletin and Calendar - News". Archives.news.yale.edu. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "2001 SESSION SENATE JOINT RESOLUTION NO. 377 : Designating February 25 as "African-American Scientist and Inventor Day."". Lis.virginia.gov. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- "Spelman College: Honorary Degree Recipients, 1977–Present" (PDF). Spelman.edu. Retrieved 29 October 2017.
- Jordan, Robyn. "'Mount Codemore' Honors Four Women Technology Titans". blog.newrelic.com.
- The Lives We Lead: Evelyn Boyd Granville '45, interview with Granville for the Smith alumnae association
- Granville, Evelyn Boyd (Fall 1989). "My Life as a Mathematician". Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women. 6 (2): 44–46.
- Evelyn Granville's oral history video excerpts at The National Visionary Leadership Project