Evergreen Branch

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Evergreen Branch
1878 Manhattan Beach Railway.jpg
1878 map, including the Evergreen Branch to Greenpoint
Overview
System Long Island Rail Road
Status Abandoned
Locale Brooklyn, New York, USA
Termini Greenpoint
Cooper Avenue
Stations 8
Operation
Opened 1874
Closed 1984
Owner Long Island Rail Road
Operator(s) Long Island Rail Road
Technical
Number of tracks 2
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)

The Evergreen Branch was a branch of the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) that ran in Brooklyn and part of Queens in New York City. The line, at its fullest extent, ran between Greenpoint, Brooklyn and Ridgewood, Queens. The line consisted of two leased portions. The first portion, between Greenpoint and Jefferson Avenue, was leased from the Glendale and East River Railroad. The second portion, from Jefferson Avenue to Ridgewood, was leased from the Brooklyn and Rockaway Beach Railroad Company, and was known as the Evergreen Branch, a name later extended to the rest of the line.

The Glendale and East River was incorporated in 1874 to provide the South Side Railroad with an additional waterfront terminal, but was instead used to connect Austin Corbin's New York and Manhattan Beach Railroad to New York City via ferry service from Greenpoint. The Evergreen Branch opened in 1878, with service only running during the summer season from May to September. Two years later, it was consolidated into the LIRR, and service to Greenpoint was replaced with service to Long Island City instead, with a shuttle allowing passengers from Greenpoint to get to Manhattan Beach. The line was converted to standard gauge to allow for the transferring of freight along the line. Passenger service ended in May 1886, and freight service ended four years later. The right-of-way between Greenpoint and South Side Crossing was abandoned in 1896 and 1897, with few traces of that branch left.

With passenger service over, the line became exclusively used for freight. In 1939, the section of the line between Himrod Street and Starr Street was removed. While the LIRR was sold in 1966 to New York State, the branch was kept as part of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and through corporate changes became part of Conrail. In 1984, Conrail was granted permission to abandon the branch. While parts of the branch's right-of-way have been built upon in recent years, parking lots, newer buildings, and old rails, show where the line formerly went.

Etymology[edit]

The Evergreen Branch traces its name to the time period when map printers applied the name ‘Ridgewood’ to an area larger than that of the town limits. As a result, the tight-knit community changed its name to ‘Evergreen' after the large nearby Cemetery of the Evergreens. In 1910, the name Ridgewood was officially bestowed upon the entire area nestled between Glendale and Bushwick.[1]

Route description[edit]

The Evergreen Branch's original northern terminal was at Quay Street in Greenport along the East River, where passengers transferred to and from ferries to Manhattan. The line then ran southwest along North 15th Street to Richardson Street, and east along Richardson Street to Vandervoort Avenue where it turned southeast. From there, it crossed Metropolitan Avenue, Grand Street, and a portion of the Newtown Creek with a small bridge. After that, the line crossed over the South Side Railroad's Bushwick Branch and Varick Avenue, before continuing across Johnson Avenue. Varick Avenue Yard, located alongside the main tracks on the northwest side of Flushing Avenue, had a passing siding, seven team tracks, a house track, and four stub-ended tracks. The LIRR had freight houses along Varick Avenue alongside the yard. In 1963, the yard was removed and the freight houses were torn down. For a majority of the rest of the line, it ran east between Wyckoff Avenue and Irving Avenue. There were several sidings and factories between Flushing Avenue and Jefferson Street. A siding was located between Stockholm Street and DeKalb Avenue. Up to Himrod Streets, diamond railroad crossing signs indicating the line's presence. The line's grade crossings between Himrod Street and Palmetto Avenue had an unusual arrangement: instead of having crossing gates being across the streets to protect the tracks, the gates were across the tracks, protecting the streets.[2] At Palmetto Avenue, the LIRR had a freight office. Sidings were also located between Grove Street and Menahan Street and between Gates Street and Linden Street. At Putnam Avenue there was a small yard, named Evergreen Yard, that consisted of a private siding, two team tracks, and a freight office. The tracks dipped slightly southward at Cornelia Street before going back to the regular alignment.[2] At Halsey Street, Cover Street, and Decatur Street, there were additional sidings, serving factories and warehouses. From there, the line proceeded southeast and connected with the Bay Ridge Branch at Cooper Avenue Junction near the Cemetery of the Evergreens.[3][4]

History[edit]

A map from Beers Atlas, from the 1870s, showing the line's route.

The origin of the Evergreen Branch traces back to the Glendale and East River Railroad (G&ER), which was incorporated on March 26, 1874,[5]:38[6] to build from Quay Street in Greenpoint, Brooklyn to Huntington on Long Island, running through Glendale, Queens.[7][8] It was incorporated to provide the South Side Railroad with an alternate terminal on the Greenpoint waterfront. The line was no longer needed once the Poppenhusens bought the South Side. The idea for a line to Greenpoint reemerged when Austin Corbin proposed the New York & Manhattan Beach Railway Company (NY&MB) to connect his resorts in Manhattan Beach with New York City via ferry service in Greenpoint. On April 3, 1878 he leased the G&ER to serve as the northern portion of his line,[6] and to bridge the gap between that line and his line in East New York, the G&ER's southern terminus was extended from Jefferson Avenue to East New York.[9] The charter of the Brooklyn and Rockaway Beach Railroad (part of the present-day BMT Canarsie Line),[6][10] which gave its right to construct an extension to Hunter's Point to the NY&MB, allowed for the extension to be completed.[11] The route for the extension, which came to be known as the Evergreen Branch, was approved on February 20, 1877.[12] The grading took place in 1877 and the tracks were mostly laid in early 1878. The line from East New York to Greenpoint opened at the beginning of the season on May 16, 1878.[13][14] On this date, stations were also opened at Humboldt Street, Grand Street, and South Side Railroad Crossing, which was removed from timetables effective May 25, 1881. In spring 1879 a second track was laid, and it was completed for the opening of the summer season on May 24.[15]

After Corbin purchased the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) in December 1880, the line was consolidated within the LIRR. Corbin, after the line's acquisition, was one of the tax directors of the G&ER.[16]:1221 On May 1, 1882, the NY&MB was acquired by the New York, Brooklyn and Manhattan Beach Railroad (NYB&MB), transferring the lease of the G&ER's property. On that date, the NYB&MB leased its property and subleased the G&ER to the LIRR for 99 years.[6] In February 1883, the Long Island City & Manhattan Beach Railroad Company was organized to build a standard-gauge right-of-way to connect the Manhattan Beach Branch with the Brooklyn & Montauk Railroad. The new line ran between from Cooper Avenue Junction to the Montauk Division at Fresh Pond, opening on June 2, 1883. Starting with the 1883 season, direct service to Manhattan Beach from Greenpoint was ended in favor of direct service from Long Island City as service to Greenpoint was still narrow-gauge. However, service was maintained to Greenpoint with a shuttle running to Cooper Avenue Junction in Bushwick, where passengers connected to Manhattan Beach trains. Since it was no longer the main line, the line to Greenpoint became known as the Greenpoint Division.[17] During the 1883 season, an equal number of trains ran to Long Island City and Greenpoint–each received 25 trains on weekdays. Even with the high level of service to Greenpoint, the expensive ferry service was abandoned, requiring passengers to walk five blocks for the East 10th Street and East 23rd Street Ferries. In 1884, the LIRR contracted out work to rebuild the line as a standard-gauge line, requiring the complete rebuilding of the roadbed between Greenpoint and Cooper Avenue. The following year, the roadbed from Greenpoint to Cooper Avenue was completely rebuilt, allowing standard gauge trains to use the line. This allowed for freight to serve the line, beginning its transition from a passenger line to a freight line.[18]:92[19]

In April 1886, service to Greenpoint was abandoned due to the expiration of the eight-year lease for the Quay Street station and facilities. The LIRR, with its new terminals at Flatbush Avenue and Long Island City available, did not see any reason to pay $6000 a year in rent for an unneeded facility. As a result, service on 2.33 miles (3.75 km) of the line, from Greenpoint to South Side Crossing ended on September 28, 1885 with the end of the 1885 season.[6] In 1886, a Bushwick shuttle was instituted–running through the 1894 season.[17] In 1891 and 1892 the depots at Humboldt Street and Grand Street were sold, as well as some of the old rails. Between 1896 and 1897 the right of way between Greenpoint and South Side Crossing was abandoned and sold, leaving the portion between Jefferson Avenue and South Side Crossing as the only remaining portion of the G&ER.[18]:93 This portion of the G&ER was later considered as part of the Evergreen Branch.[20][21]

While it was thought that there was no trace of the Greenpoint service to the west of South Side Crossing, an odd triangular lot exists at Leonard Street between Bayard Street and Richardson Street that was once part of the right-of-way. The two buildings adjacent to the lot are angled against where the tracks would have run, and tax map records show that this is lot is separated from nearby lots, and has never been developed upon–there only is a tree located at this location.[22]

Decline[edit]

The remnants of the Evergreen Branch crossing Halsey Street in Bushwick.

Upon the dissolution of the Manhattan Beach Branch in 1924, the line became a freight spur between the Bushwick Branch and Bay Ridge Branch in Brooklyn. On February 9, 1939, eight blocks of track, between Starr Street and Himrod Street, were removed.[17] Further dismantling took place between 1957 and 1962 and throughout much of the late 20th century. On January 20, 1966, when New York State purchased the Long Island Rail Road, the Bay Ridge Branch and the Evergreen Branch (not the G&ER portion) remained part of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Subsequently, they became part of Penn Central and Conrail. it still served a few customers until the 1970s. Some of this property, i.e. a triangular lot at Flushing Avenue and Stewart Avenue, are still owned by the MTA.[17][23] By 1972, the line was cut back to Grove Street.[2]

By the late 1970s, the Cooper Junction end of the line only had one remaining customer: Tulnoy Lumber, located at Putnam Avenue. After they closed this location, Conrail filed to abandon the line on September 15, 1983.[24]:64 However, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) postponed authorization for abandonment to review offers from the Long Island Rail Road and the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). Conrail filed to abandon the line as it was "earning insufficient revenues over the tracks." NYSDOT offered $2 million for the line, while the LIRR offered $3 million for the line. However, Conrail valued the line at $5,259,988.[25]:70[26]:28, 57 In 1984, the ICC approved Conrail's application for abandonment after the NYDOT and the LIRR dropped out of the bidding.[27]:56 Soon after, it quickly sold every lot from Cooper Avenue to Putnam Avenue. While the Bay Ridge Branch was sold to the LIRR in 1984,[17] the Evergreen Branch was not part of the transaction. The property that was owned by Tulnoy Lumber was sold to be used as the parking lot for Food Bazaar.[23] Portions of the Evergreen Branch near the location where Cooper Avenue Junction was located are owned by the Long Island Rail Road.[28] The line was out of service in January 1985.[29]

Traces of the line[edit]

Upon the sale of the Evergreen Branch's lots to private entities or individuals, the rails in many locations were either removed or paved over.[2] Even though it has been out of service since 1984 (33 years ago) (1984), there are is plenty of evidence of the line's past existence. There are several locations, such as at Halsey Street, Hancock Street, and Cornelia Street, along the line's right-of-way where the old rails can be seen poking through the pavement of the streets.[23] On April 29, 2005, rails from the line were dug up at Greene Avenue as road crews stripped off the pavement in preparation for resurfacing the road.[3][30] The right-of-way can also be found by looking for properties that do not fit in with their surroundings. On Humboldt Street, an eleven-story building from 2007 built in a modern style is completely out of character from its neighboring buildings.[22] Many of the lots have been used as parking lots or as receiving areas for local businesses.[12] Some lots along the line's right-of-way are still vacant, including a lot at Kingsland Avenue, and an undeveloped small odd triangular lot exists at Leonard Street between Bayard Street and Richardson Street. Between Richardson Street and Frost Street linear lots run behind the homes, of which, only some have merged into adjacent lots. Some of these lots are in the center of blocks, are not fronted by any street and are only 25 feet wide.[19]

Until 2005, a railroad crossing sign was present at Hancock Street, confusing passers-by that had no knowledge of the rail line's existence.[30][31]

In 2014 there were three applications to acquire property along the former right of way of the Evergreen Branch. The three properties are at: 375 Grove Street, for which the sale was completed; 406 Cornelia Street; and 1503 Jefferson Avenue.[32]

Station list[edit]

Miles Name Opened Closed Notes
0[33] Greenpoint May 16, 1878[18]:206-207 September 28, 1885[18]:206-207
0.56[33] Fifth Street 1878[18]:207 1879[18]:207
0.99[33] Humboldt Street May 16, 1878[18]:207 September 28, 1885[18]:207
1.75[33] Grand Street May 16, 1878[18]:207 September 28, 1885[18]:207
2.33 South Side Railroad Crossing May 16, 1878
June 1886[18]:207
May 25, 1881
1890[18]:207
Crossing with Bushwick Branch near Varick Avenue
Ridgewood
earlier DeKalb Avenue
July 14, 1878[18]:207-208 1894[18]:207-208 Renamed Ridgewood in June 1882.
3.26[33] Myrtle Avenue May 16, 1878[18]:208 May 1882[18]:208
3.95[33] Cooper Avenue June 2, 1883[18]:208 1894[18]:208 Opened as a transfer station to allow passengers from Greenpoint get to Manhattan Beach. Located at the crossing with the Bay Ridge Branch; Also called Cooper Avenue Junction

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wilkinson, Christina (July 2005). "RIDGEWOOD, Queens". forgotten-ny.com. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d Huneke, Arther (2015). "EVERGREEN BRANCH PAGE 3". www.arrts-arrchives.com. Retrieved September 17, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Anderson, Bob. "Evergreen Branch". lirrhistory.com. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  4. ^ * Emery, Robert. "Evergreen Branch Track Map Linden Street to Decatur Street". lirrhistory.com. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  5. ^ Ron Ziel and George H. Foster, Steel Rails to the Sunrise, ©1965
  6. ^ a b c d e * "Valuation Reports Vol. 36 pp 79-81". rnetzlof.pennsyrr.com. Interstate Commerce Commission. 1932. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  7. ^ "PRR Chronology, 1874" (PDF).  (95.9 KiB), March 2005 Edition
  8. ^ "THE GLENDALE AND EAST RIVER ROAD.". The New York Times. April 23, 1876. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 10, 2017. 
  9. ^ "PRR Chronology, 1876" (PDF).  (116 KiB), April 2006 Edition
  10. ^ "PRR Chronology, 1877" (PDF).  (156 KiB), June 2006 Edition
  11. ^ "P. R. R. Interests Win and Keep L. I. City Rights". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. May 29, 1902. p. 3. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Huneke, Arthur (2015). "EVERGREEN BRANCH PAGE 2". www.arrts-arrchives.com. Retrieved September 17, 2017. 
  13. ^ "Manhattan Beach". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. May 16, 1878. p. 1. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Opened". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. May 17, 1878. p. 4. 
  15. ^ "Modern Urban Neighborhood: A Look at Williamsburg with a Focus on its Infrastructure". Derek Stadler. July 2, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2017. 
  16. ^ Railway Locomotives and Cars. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation. 1881. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Huneke, Arthur (2009). "THE L.I.R.R.'S EVERGREEN BRANCH". arrts-arrchives.com. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Seyfried, Vincent (1966). The Long Island Rail Road : a comprehensive history. Part four, The Bay Ridge & Manhattan Beach Divisions ; L.I.R.R. operation on the Brighton and Culver Lines. Garden City, New York. 
  19. ^ a b Long Island Railroad Information Bulletin. February 20, 1924. 
  20. ^ Annual Report. Long Island Rail Road. 1916. p. 26. 
  21. ^ Annual Report of the Public Service Commission, Second District. The Commission. 1914. 
  22. ^ a b Anastasio, Joe (September 6, 2017). "Brooklyn’s long forgotten railroad, Part 1". LTV Squad. Retrieved September 14, 2017. 
  23. ^ a b c Anastasio, Joe (September 6, 2017). "Brooklyn’s long forgotten railroad, Part 2". LTV Squad. Retrieved September 14, 2017. 
  24. ^ The Traffic World. Traffic Service Corporation. 1983. 
  25. ^ The Traffic World. Traffic Service Corporation. 1983. 
  26. ^ Traffic World. Traffic Service Corporation. 1984. 
  27. ^ Traffic World. Traffic Service Corporation. 1984. 
  28. ^ "Metropolitan Transportation Authority Real Property Reports Covering Fiscal Year 2010" (PDF). mta.info. March 2, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  29. ^ Baer, Christopher (April 2015). "A GENERAL CHRONOLOGY OF THE SUCCESSORS OF THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD COMPANY AND THEIR HISTORICAL CONTEXT 1980-1989" (PDF). prrths.com. Retrieved September 18, 2017. 
  30. ^ a b Walsh, Kevin (October 2000). "EVERGREEN BRANCH: another lost LIRR line - Forgotten New York". forgotten-ny.com. Retrieved September 14, 2017. 
  31. ^ Boland Jr, Ed (August 26, 2001). "F.Y.I.". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 17, 2017. 
  32. ^ "Real Estate Round Up". wyckoffheights.org. September 30, 2014. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f "1879 REPORT TO NEW YORK STATE RAILROAD COMMISSION". arrts-arrchives.com. p. 72. Retrieved September 7, 2017. 

External links[edit]