Evergreen Cemetery (Adams County, Pennsylvania)

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For the notable interments in this cemetery, see Evergreen Cemetery burials.
Evergreen Cemetery
cemetery
Pennsylvania, Gettysburg, Gateway of Cemetery - NARA - 533313.jpg
Evergreen Cemetery and gatehouse, July 1863,
following the Battle of Gettysburg.
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
County Adams
Township Cumberland
Part of Gettysburg Battlefield
Borders on
Historic District
Nearest town
Gettysburg (75000155)
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Location 799 Baltimore Pike [1]
 - coordinates 39°49′15″N 77°13′45″W / 39.820764°N 77.22928°W / 39.820764; -77.22928Coordinates: 39°49′15″N 77°13′45″W / 39.820764°N 77.22928°W / 39.820764; -77.22928 [1]
Original area
Current area[specify]
17.65 acres (7.1 ha) [2]
0 acres (0 ha)
Incorporated 1854 March 3 [8]
 - Gatehouse 1855 [9]
 - Lodge 1885 [5]
 - Expansion [when?]
 - ACW memorials 1901: Jennie Wade[10]
1904: John L. Burns[11]
2002: Women's Memorial [12]
Presidents 1854: David McConaughy
1869: J. L. Schick [3]
1880: Robt. G. McCreary [4]
1885: Dr. J. A. Swope[5]
Keepers,
Caretakers, &
Superintendents
1862: Peter Thorn [6]
1863: Elizabeth Thorn
1973: Howard Kitzmiller
1980: Arthur L. Kennell [7]
1991: Brian Kennell
Find A Grave CRid 44774 (19 famous interments)[13]

Evergreen Cemetery – formerly called Citizen's Cemetery[14][15] and Ever Green Cemetery – is a historic 29.12 acre private cemetery located just outside Gettysburg Borough, in Cumberland Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania.[16] It is part of Gettysburg Battlefield Historic District, and is surrounded by Gettysburg National Military Park and Soldiers' National Cemetery.

The cemetery played a strategic role in the July 1 to 3, 1863 Battle of Gettysburg. Four months after the battle, at the dedication of the immediately-adjacent National Cemetery, President Abraham Lincoln delivered his "Gettysburg Address" from a platform in Evergreen Cemetery.[17][18]


History[edit]

Founding[edit]

The Ever Green Cemetery Association of Gettysburg was established at a November 29, 1853 meeting.[8] The association managed the property and oversaw selection of its caretakers. By April 3, 1854, 118 lots had been sold, and the association members' first payments were due.[19] The first interment took place on October 29.[2] Opening ceremonies were held on November 7, 1854,[2] and in his dedication address Reverend John H. C. Dosh asked, "Could a more lovely spot have been chosen?"[20]

The Evergreen Cemetery gatehouse was designed by Philadelphia architect Stephen Decatur Button, built by local contractors George and Henry Chritzman, and completed in November 1855.[9] The Italianate gatehouse served as the caretaker residence.[citation needed]

Battle of Gettysburg[edit]

Evergreen Cemetery is eponymous with Cemetery Hill,[21] the landform noted as the keystone of the Union position during the Battle of Gettysburg.[22] Major-General Oliver Otis Howard lined the cemetery's high ground with cannons, turning it into an "artillery platform,"[23] and made its gatehouse into XI Corps (Union Army) headquarters.[24]

At dusk on July 2, 5 Louisiana regiments under Brigadier-General Harry T. Hays and 3 North Carolina regiments under Colonel Isaac E. Avery commenced the Battle of East Cemetery Hill, charging Howard's artillery batteries from the east. "Federal soldiers in the Cemetery laid many of the tombstones on the ground" to limit damage,[25] and some of the XI Corps batteries and infantry used the grave monuments "for shelter from the enemy's fire".[26] Historian Frederick Hawthorne wrote of Howard's successful defense: “Lying in reserve in the Evergreen Cemetery, they (73rd Pennsylvania Infantry) rushed out through the cemetery gateway to help drive the Confederates away from Rickett’s and Weidrich’s batteries.”[27]

Evergreen experienced three days as battlefield, and its resulting condition inspired a Union officer to lament: "A beautiful cemetery it was, but now is trodden down, laid a waste, desecrated. The fences are all down, the many graves have been run over, beautiful lots with iron fences and splendid monuments have been destroyed or soiled, and our infantry and artillery occupy those sacred grounds where the dead are sleeping. It is enough to make one mourn."[28]

Two Confederate soldiers mortally wounded during the battle were buried in Evergreen Cemetery.[29]

Post-battle[edit]

Detail of a 1904 map showing the National Cemetery (semi-circles right of center) and Evergreen Cemetery (right)

The Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg took place on November 19, 1863. The speaker's platform used by orator Edward Everett, and then by President Abraham Lincoln to deliver his Gettysburg Address, was located just east of the National Cemetery, on the grounds of Evergreen Cemetery.[30]

From 1893 to 1916, the Gettysburg Electric Railway operated along the cemetery's east and south borders. Following the 1917 demolition of the trolley railway, Evergreen Cemetery expanded southward.[specify]

In 1972, the "Evergreen Cemetery archway house" was designated an historic district contributing structure by the Gettysburg Borough Council[31] (1 of 38 outside of the borough).[32] Civilian remains at the site of the 1804[33] Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church cemetery were reinterred at Evergreen Cemetery in 1992.[34]

Photo Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 799 Evergreen Cemetery Est. 1854. Retrieved 2011-07-16 (image of sign).  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ a b c "Public Cemetery" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. April 22, 1880. Retrieved 2012-01-18. 
  3. ^ "National Monument". Gettysburg Compiler. June 18, 1869. 
  4. ^ History and Directory of the Boroughs of Gettysburg, Oxford, Littlestown, York Springs, Berwick, and East Berlin, Adams County, Pa: With Historical Collections. J.E. Wible, printer. 1880. 
  5. ^ a b "Cemetery" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Compiler. June 30, 1885. Retrieved 2011-07-16. Dr. J. A. Swope, in his report as President of Evergreen Cemetery Association… The gateway is to be thoroughly repaired and a brick lodge built for the keeper and family. 
  6. ^ "Gettysburg residents face hunger death in battle". Gettysburg Times. June 30, 1993. 
  7. ^ Jay Zech (Dec 16, 1987). "A flock of 'birders' plan Adams County bird count next Monday". Gettysburg Times. 
  8. ^ a b Beitel, Calvin Gustavus (1874). A Digest of Titles of Corporations Chartered by the Legislature… (Google books). J. Campbell & son. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
    For the Senate bill committed earlier, see "Ever Green Cemetery" (Google News Archive). The Adams Sentinel. February 6, 1854. Retrieved 2011-07-16. On Tuesday last, in the Senate of Pa., Mr. McClintock, from the Committee on Corporations, reported, as committed, the bill to incorporate the Ever Green Cemetery Association of Gettysburg 
  9. ^ a b Kennell, Brian A. "Gatehouse Miniatures". EvergreenCemetery.org. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
  10. ^ "Jennie Wade Memorial". The Star and Sentinel. Sep 11, 1901. 
  11. ^ "Round About Town". Gettysburg Compiler. June 1, 1904. 
  12. ^ Jorgensen, Kathryn (November 2002). "Gettysburg Civil War Women's Memorial Dedication Nov. 16" (transcription). The Civil War News. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 
  13. ^ "All famous names: Evergreen Cemetery". FindAGrave.com. Retrieved 2011-05-07. 
  14. ^ "General Gettys' Grandson Here" (Google News Archive). The Gettysburg Times. September 5, 1923. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 
  15. ^ Skelly, Daniel Alexander (1999 John Heiser transcription @NPS.gov) [1932 booklet]. A Boy's Experiences During the Battle of Gettysburg. Archived from the original on c. 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-06. Reaching the Citizens Cemetery we found a battery of artillery posted there… The soldiers stopped us and would not let us pass.  Check date values in: |date=, |archive-date= (help)
  16. ^ Adams County. "Public Interactive GIS Mapping". Parcel ID: 09F13-0150---000. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  17. ^ Historical Marker Database. "The Gettysburg Address". Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  18. ^ National Park Service. "National Cemetery Walking Tour" (PDF). Retrieved 5 May 2013. 
  19. ^ "Article". The Adams Sentinel. Apr 3, 1854. 
  20. ^ Alfred L. Brophy, "The Road to the Gettysburg Address," Florida State University Law Review 43 (2016):831.
  21. ^ "East Cemetery Hill – Gettysburg, PA". American Guide Series on Waymarking.com. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 
  22. ^ Pfanz, Harry (1993). Gettysburg-Culp's Hill & Cemetery Hill. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. p. 263. ISBN 978-0-8078-2118-3. 
  23. ^ Barnett, Bert H. ""Our Position Was Finely Adapted To Its Use"-The Guns of Cemetery Hill" (PDF). Gettysburg Seminars. National Park Service. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Gen. Howard's Best Supper: Back to Gettysburg to Thank Mrs. Thorn 39 Years Later" (Google News Archive). Easton Daily Free Press. September 25, 1902. Retrieved 2011-10-12. meal was eaten rather late on the night of July 1st, in the Evergreen Cemetery house,… which was the headquarters of General Howard from the evening of the first day's battle until the close, and was partaken of by…General Howard,…General Sickles and…General Slocum. 
  25. ^ "Battle of Gettysburg" (Google News Archive). The Compiler. July 20, 1863. Retrieved 2012-02-26. 
  26. ^ Haskell, Frank A. (2006) [1910]. The Battle of Gettysburg (Google books) (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-4286-6012-0. Retrieved 2012-03-08. The Eleventh Corps…was posted at the Cemetery, some of its batteries and troops, actually among the graves and monuments, which they used for shelter from the enemy's fire … rifled guns in the Cemetery, at the left of the Eleventh Corps, opened fire—almost the first shots of any kind this morning…at a Rebel line of skirmishers 
  27. ^ Hawthorne, Frederick W., Gettysburg: Stories of Men and Monuments, Hanover, Pennsylvania: The Association of Licensed Battlefield Guides, 1988, p. 107.
  28. ^ Pfanz, Harry (1993). Gettysburg-Culp's Hill & Cemetery Hill. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. pp. 263–283. ISBN 978-0-8078-2118-3. 
  29. ^ Bill Neil (Jul 11, 1990). "Confederate soldiers get headstones 127 yrs later". Gettysburg Times. 
  30. ^ National Park Service. "National Cemetery Walking Tour" (PDF). Retrieved December 15, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Borough of Gettysburg …historic crossroads". Borough Office. Retrieved 2011-04-11. 
  32. ^ "List 38 More Properties In Historic Area". The Gettysburg Times. April 15, 1972. Retrieved 2012-03-18 – via Google News Archive. 
  33. ^ "Chapter XXX: Cumberland Township". History of Cumberland and Adams Counties, Pennsylvania: Part III, History of Adams County. Chicago: Warner, Beers & Co. 1886. pp. 236–247. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  34. ^ Bartlett, Joanne (June 10, 1995). "Remains from 16 old graves on Ice House Property reburied". Gettysburg Times. Retrieved 2012-02-25. The remains included six adults, nine children [only a finger bone of one] and one adult. …discovered in the spring of 1992 when at the former church site. 
  35. ^ Frassanito, William A. (1995). Early Photography at Gettysburg. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications. pp. 160–167. ISBN 0939631865. 
  36. ^ Historical Marker Database. "Army of the Potomac Artillery Reserve Second Volunteer Brigade Fifth New York Light Artillery". Retrieved December 15, 2012. 

External links[edit]

  • Evergreen Cemetery Tour is a seventeen-part, comprehensive, audio-visual introduction to this subject by Debra A. Novotny, who has served both as a Licensed Battlefield Guide and as a boardmember of the Evergreen Cemetery Association.

Further reading[edit]

  • Brian A. Kennell (2000). Beyond the Gatehouse: Gettysburg's Evergreen Cemetery. ISBN 978-0-9664772-0-7.