Evergreen International Aviation
|Fate||Chapter 7 bankruptcy liquidation|
|Founded||1960 as Evergreen Helicopters|
|Headquarters||McMinnville, Oregon, United States|
|Delford M. Smith|
Evergreen International Aviation, Inc. was a global aviation services company based in McMinnville, Oregon, United States, closely tied to the CIA. Founded in 1960, Evergreen was primarily known publicly for commercial helicopter operations in agricultural and forestry applications. Covertly, it supported Agency operations abroad the globe, from illegal drug-abatement spraying to flying an exiled US-allied deposed monarch.
The airline division, Evergreen International Airlines, operated in 168 countries abroad the globe, and by the end had been reduced to a fleet of all-cargo Boeing 747 freighters. The company also operated a helicopter division, Evergreen Helicopters which was sold to Erickson Air-Crane, an Oregon-based helicopter operator, for $250 million in 2013. Faced with bankruptcy and tax investigations, Evergreen ceased all aviation-related operations in 2013 and shut down in 2014.
Delford M. Smith founded the company as Evergreen Helicopters in 1960. Smith was involved in the development of the commercial use of helicopters, and his company was one of the first to use helicopters for spraying fertilizer and herbicides, spreading seeds and fighting forest fires. Smith helped develop a helicopter spray system called the "PaceSpreader" which permitted accurate, fast delivery of granular agents over large areas. The PaceSpreader allowed the helicopter to operate at relatively high speeds while still delivering the product evenly and with measured precision. In 1972 the company expanded into the use of heavy lift helicopters, acquiring a number of Sikorsky S-61. In March 1973 the massive Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane was added to the fleet, with a lift capacity of 20,000 pounds.
In 1974 Smith became aware that the Johnson Flying Service was looking to sell its assets. The business was a small supplemental carrier that had two 94-passenger Lockheed L-188 Electra four-engine turbo-prop passenger aircraft. More importantly, it held a supplemental air carrier operating certificate which allowed it to operate as an airline. After significant deliberation, the Civil Aeronautics Board approved the transfer in 1975. Evergreen International Airlines was officially formed and incorporated on 16 April 1975 as a subsidiary of Evergreen Helicopters, Inc. The business subsequently continued to expand and split into a number of subsidiary divisions. The main subsidiary was Evergreen International Airlines which operated the Boeing 747 as a cargo or tanker aircraft to destinations around the world. The 747-200 "Evergreen Supertanker" can deliver 20,000 gallons of water on a fire, nearly ten times what can be delivered by a conventional forest service tanker such as the Lockheed P-3 Orion.
Scheduled passenger airline operations
The airline division conducted some scheduled passenger operations with Douglas DC-8 jet and Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop aircraft with Detroit (DTW), Minneapolis/St. Paul (MSP), Seattle (SEA) and Spokane (GEG) being served in 1978.  The company also operated a commuter airline, Evergreen Airspur, in southern California with de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter STOL turboprops in 1985.
U.S. government work
Evergreen was part of the US Civil Reserve Air Fleet and the International Peace Operations Association. It was known to do work for the United States federal government, including fire suppression for the U.S. Forest Service, troop transportation in the Gulf War of 1991, as well as helicopter transportation for oil rig firefighters at the end of hostilities.
Wherever there was a hot spot in the world, Evergreen’s helicopters and later airplanes were never far behind. Evergreen’s hardware was so inextricably linked with political intrigue that rumors swirled that the company was owned by, or a front for, the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Indeed, several of the company’s senior executives either worked for the agency or had close ties to it.
Smith never let on, disingenuously telling the Portland Oregonian in 1988, “We don’t know when we’ve ever worked for them [the CIA], but if we did we’re proud of it. We believe in patriotism, and, you know, they’re not the [Russian spy service] KGB.”
Evergreen bought assets during the 1970s that were previously linked to CIA operations, "including Montana’s Johnson Flying Service and the CIA’s aviation "skunk works" at Pinal Airpark in Marana, Arizona, which under Evergreen did special aircraft modifications such as building the Boeing Dreamlifters (outsized 747s designed to transport Boeing 787 composite fuselage barrels) and servicing the 747 NASA operated Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) used to transport the Space Shuttle. Evergreen subsequently sold the Pinal Airpark facility to Relativity Capital in 2011.
Sale of Evergreen Helicopters
Evergreen Helicopters was sold to Erickson Air-Crane in March 2013 for $250 million. The sale provided Evergreen International Aviation with the liquidity needed to continue operations. Smith said: "The sale of EHI provides us with needed capital to repay existing debt and gives us the liquidity to support our airline and remaining businesses." The deal was contingent upon Erickson Air-Crane obtaining the necessary financing.
On November 8, 2013 Evergreen International Airlines, a subsidiary of Evergreen International Aviation, announced via a voicemail to their employees that all operations would cease effective November 29, 2013.
In addition to its work for the CIA, Evergreen’s airplanes and helicopters had once "supported United Nations peacekeeping operations in 30 countries, flew insect-eradication missions throughout Africa, were used for illegal-drug abatement spraying in Mexico and South America, helped build the Trans-Alaska oil pipeline and developed and serviced the offshore energy market worldwide. All told, Smith said his company flew in 168 countries over the years. 'We were all over the world. Everywhere they needed a helicopter, they needed an airplane as well,'" said Smith.
By the time of Smith's death November 7, 2014, the remains of his once billion-dollar Evergreen Aviation empire had been sold off, shut down, or was in bankruptcy and under investigation by tax authorities.
Current fleet at the time of the end of aviation operations in 2013
|Boeing 747-100F||1||10||1 Converted to Evergreen Supertanker|
Previous fixed wing aircraft
- Beechcraft King Air - including BE-90 King Air and BE-200C Super King Air aircraft
- Beechcraft 1900D
- Boeing B-17 - converted for use as a firefighting air tanker
- Boeing 727-100
- CASA 212
- de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
- Douglas DC-8 - including DC-8-52, Super DC-8-63 and Super DC-8-73F aircraft
- Douglas DC-9-15
- Gulfstream IV
- Learjet 35A
- Lockheed L-188 Electra
- Lockheed P-2 Neptune - converted for use as a firefighting air tanker
- McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30
Previous helicopter types
- Aerospatiale Alouette III - SA 316B models
- Aerospatiale SA 315B Lama
- Aerospatiale SA 330 Puma
- AgustaWestland AW139
- Bell 206 JetRanger - B206B-3 JetRanger III models
- Bell 206 LongRanger - B206L-3 LongRanger III & B206L-4 LongRanger IV models
- Bell 205
- Bell 212
- Bell 214ST
- Bell 412EP
- Eurocopter AS332 Super Puma - AS332L1 models
- Eurocopter AS350 AStar - AS350B2 and AS350B3 models
- Hiller UH-12E
- Hughes 500D
- MBB BO 105
- Sikorsky S-61R
- Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane
- Sikorsky S-76C++
- Sikorsky S-92
- Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum
- Intermountain Airlines
- Pinal Airpark
- List of defunct airlines of the United States
- Evergreen's Del Smith Dead at 84", Aviation International News online, Mark Huber, December 7, 2014
- William Yardley (13 November 2014). "Delford Smith, Founder of Aviation Company, Dies at 84". The New York Times.
- Yenne, Bill (2008). The Evergreen Story. AGS Bookworks Inc. p. 66. ISBN 0-9776374-1-7.
- "Evergreen International Airlines, Inc.: Private Company Information - Businessweek". investing.businessweek.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- Bates, David (21 December 1999). "Airline With an Attitude: A Special Report on Evergreen Aviation". Yamhill Valley News-Register. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011.
- Copenhaver, Larry (28 October 2006). "Giant Jet Unlikely to Attack California Fire". Tucson Citizen.
- http://www.airliners.net, photo of Evergreen Airspur DHC-6 Twin Otter at LAX
- Evergreen International Aviation at sourcewatch.org
- Evergreen Aviation (19 March 2013). "Press Release". Archived from the original on 11 May 2013.
- Siemers, Erik (19 March 2013). "Erickson Air-Crane to acquire Evergreen Helicopters in $250M deal". Portland Business Journal. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Evergreen International Airlines, McMinnville-based air freight company, will reportedly close Nov. 29". The Oregonian. 7 November 2013.
- "Evergreen International Airlines files voluntary Chapter 7 petition on New Year's Eve". OregonLive.com. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Evergreen International Airlines Chapter 7 Petition" (PDF). PacerMonitor. PacerMonitor. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Giegerich, Andy (20 August 2014). "Report: Evergreen's McMinnville campus draws interest from three buyers". Portland Business Journal. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- https://www.airliners.net, photos of Evergreen fixed wing aircraft listed under Evergreen International Airlines section
- https://www.airliners.net, photos of fixed wing aircraft listed under Evergreen Helicopters section
- https://www.fireaviation.com/2013/03/20/erickson-to-buy-evergreen-helicoptersinc/, photos of Evergreen fixed wing aircraft
- https://www.airliners.net, photos of Evergreen Helicopters rotorcraft
- https://www.fireaviation.com/2013/03/20/erickson-to-buy-evergreen-helicoptersinc/, photos of Evergreen Helicopters rotorcraft