||It has been suggested that this article be merged into High Speed Packet Access. (Discuss) Proposed since January 2016.|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015)|
Evolved High-Speed Packet Access, or HSPA+, is a technical standard for wireless, broadband telecommunication. HSPA+ enhances the widely used WCDMA (UMTS) based 3G networks with higher speeds for the end user that are comparable to the newer LTE networks. HSPA+ was first defined in the technical standard 3GPP release 7 and expanded further in later releases.
HSPA+ provides an evolution of High Speed Packet Access and provides data rates up to 168 Megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the mobile device (downlink) and 22 Mbit/s from the mobile device (uplink). Technically these are achieved through the use of a multiple-antenna technique known as MIMO (for "multiple-input and multiple-output") and higher order modulation (64QAM) or combining multiple cells into one with a technique known as Dual-Cell HSDPA.
The 168 Mbit/s and 22 Mbit/s represent theoretical peak speeds. The actual speed for a user will be lower. In general, HSPA+ offers higher bitrates only in very good radio conditions (very close to the cell tower) or if the terminal and network both support either MIMO or Dual-Cell HSDPA, which effectively use two parallel transmit channels with different technical implementations.
The technology also delivers significant battery life improvements and dramatically quicker wake-from-idle time, delivering a true always-on connection. HSPA+ should not be confused with LTE, which uses an air interface based on OFDMA modulation and multiple access. HSPA+ is an evolution of HSPA that upgrades the existing 3G network and provides a method for telecom operators to migrate towards 4G speeds without deploying a new radio interface.
A flattened all-IP architecture is an option for the network within HSPA+. In this architecture, the base stations connect to the network via IP (often Ethernet providing the transmission), bypassing legacy elements for the user's data connections. This makes the network faster and cheaper to deploy and operate. The legacy architecture is still permitted with the Evolved HSPA and is likely to exist for several years after adoption of the other aspects of HSPA+ (higher order modulation, multiple streams, etc.).
This 'flat architecture' connects the 'user plane' directly from the base station to the GGSN external gateway, using any available link technology supporting TCP/IP. The definition can be found in 3GPP TR25.999. The user's data flow bypasses the Radio Network Controller (RNC) and the SGSN of the previous 3GPP UMTS architecture versions, thus simplifying the architecture, reducing costs and delays. This is nearly identical to the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) flat architecture as defined in the 3GPP standard Rel-8. The changes allow cost effective modern link layer technologies such as xDSL or Ethernet, and these technologies are no longer tied to the more expensive and rigid requirements of the older standard of SONET/SDH and E1/T1 infrastructure.
There are no changes to the 'control plane'.
- Comparison of wireless data standards
- High Speed Packet Access
- High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
- High-Speed Uplink Packet Access
- List of UMTS networks
- List of HSDPA networks
- List of HSUPA networks
- List of HSPA+ networks
- Klas Johansson, Johan Bergman, Dirk Gerstenberger, Mats Blomgren and Anders Wallén (28 January 2009). "Multi-Carrier HSPA Evolution" (PDF). Ericsson.com. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- "White paper Long Term HSPA Evolution Mobile broadband evolution beyond 3GPP Release 10" (PDF). Nokiaslemensnetworks.com. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- "Ericsson Review #1 2009 - Continued HSPA Evolution of mobile broadband" (PDF). Ericsson.com. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
-  Archived January 2, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (February 2015)|
- 3GPP Specifications Home Page
- ETSI GSM UMTS 3GPP Numbering Cross Reference
- HSPA LTE Link Budget Comparison
- Public HSPA Discussion Forum
- EDGE, HSPA & LTE
- QUALCOMM to Deliver 28 Mbps Mobile Broadband with HSPA+
- HSPA+ Upgrade in Sri Lanka 
- Sri Lanka; Local 28.8 Mbit/s downlink HSPA trial a 'success'
- HSPA now "officially" 4G