Evonne Goolagong Cawley
Goolagong at the 1971 Dutch Open
31 July 1951 |
Griffith, New South Wales, Australia
|Prize money||US$ 1,399,431|
|Int. Tennis HoF||1988 (member page)|
|Career titles||86 (68 during the open era)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (26 April 1976)|
|Grand Slam Singles results|
|Australian Open||W (1974, 1975, 1976, 1977Dec)|
|French Open||W (1971)|
|Wimbledon||W (1971, 1980)|
|US Open||F (1973, 1974, 1975, 1976)|
|Grand Slam Doubles results|
|Australian Open||W (1971, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977Dec)|
|French Open||SF (1971)|
|US Open||SF (1972, 1973, 1974)|
|Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results|
|French Open||W (1972)|
|Fed Cup||W (1971, 1973, 1974)|
Evonne Goolagong Cawley AO MBE (born 31 July 1951) is an Australian former World No. 1 female tennis player. She was one of the world's leading players in the 1970s and early 1980s, when she won 14 Grand Slam titles: seven in singles (four at the Australian Open, two at Wimbledon and one at the French Open), six in women's doubles, and one in mixed doubles.
Born Evonne Fay Goolagong, she is the third of eight children from an Australian Aboriginal family. Her parents, Kenny Goolagong (an itinerant sheep shearer) and Melinda, are members of the Wiradjuri people. She was born in Griffith, New South Wales, and grew up in the small country town of Barellan. Although Aboriginal people faced widespread discrimination in rural Australia at this time, Goolagong was able to play tennis in Barellan from childhood thanks to local resident, Bill Kurtzman, who saw her peering through the fence at the local courts and encouraged her to come in and play. In 1965, Vic Edwards, the proprietor of a tennis school in Sydney, was tipped off by two of his assistants and travelled to Barellan to take a look at the young Goolagong and immediately saw her potential. He persuaded Goolagong's parents to allow her to move to Sydney, where she attended Willoughby Girls High School. Here, she completed her School Certificate in 1968 and was at the same time coached by Edwards and lived in his household.
Career and Grand Slam success
Cawley is 12th on the list of all-time singles grand slam winners level with Venus Williams and ended her career with 82 single titles in all. She took singles and doubles titles at the Australian and French Opens and Wimbledon, but she was unable to win any title at all at the US Open. She won seven Grand Slam singles titles in her career, reaching a total of eighteen Grand Slam singles finals. During the 1970s, she played in seventeen Grand Slam singles finals, a period record for any player, man or woman. From her first Grand Slam singles final appearance in January 1971 and her last for the decade in December 1977, she played in 21 Grand Slam events. Her only four defeats prior to the finals came at the US Open 1972 in the third round; Wimbledon 1974 where she was defeated in a quarter final; and she lost at the semi final stage at both the French Open and Wimbledon in 1973. In 1971, 1975, 1976 and 1977, Goolagong reached the final of every Grand Slam in which she competed. Between 1973 and 1978, she reached the final of almost every Grand Slam singles event she entered. The sole exception was Wimbledon, where she played in only two finals in that period, 1975 and 1976, losing both; she lost in 1973 to eventual champion Billie-Jean King in the semi-finals, in 1974 to Australian Kerry Melville at the quarter-final stage, and in 1978 to eventual champion Martina Navratilova in the semi-finals; she did not enter in 1977, the year her daughter was born. Also in 1974, Cawley teamed up with Peggy Michel to win the Ladies' Doubles title. She has won the women's doubles title at the Australian Open five times and the French Open once, as well as mixed doubles at the French Open once.
Following her victory at the season-ending WTA Championships in 1976 - known at the time as the Virginia Slims Championships - her sixth tournament victory of the year, Cawley continued to play on the WTA tour until 1983, but never again played a full season. After her victory over Chris Evert in the WTA Championship, she only played in two tournaments for the remainder of 1976, losing in both finals to Evert (Wimbledon & US Open). She focused instead on WTT Team Tennis and exhibition events.
Cawley realized during the 1976 US Open final that she was pregnant and did not play again on the regular tour until the late summer of 1977, continuing through to Wimbledon 1978. An ankle injury forced her to miss the remainder of 1978 (other than an exhibition event played in December 78) and she did not return to competitive play until March 1979. Injuries at the beginning of 1980 kept her away from the tour for many weeks in the first six months of the year, but she returned in triumph at Wimbledon, yet only played three further tournaments for the remainder of the year after her final grand slam victory, these being the US Clay Court Championship where she lost in a semi-final to Andrea Jaeger and the Canadian Open where she lost in a quarter final match. She withdrew from the US Open where she had been seeded fourth, due to a recurring back injury and in the early stages of her second pregnancy, although she did play the Australian Open championships at the end of the year. Cawley was then absent for almost all of 1981, returning to tournament play in Australia towards the end of the year and reaching the quarter-finals of the Australian Open. She played sporadically throughout 1982, before retiring after Wimbledon 1983.
She is the only mother to have won the Wimbledon title since before World War I. Married to Roger Cawley in 1975, she had a daughter in 1977. She won the 1980 Wimbledon title.
Cawley reached four consecutive US Open singles finals, from 1973 to 1976, but lost them all. She is the only player in the open era of the event to have lost four consecutive finals and the only woman to do so in U.S. championships history. Cawley made seven consecutive finals at the Australian Open, winning four titles in a row, both records for the open era, although she did not compete in the January 1977 event. Despite reaching the final at her first two appearances in 1971 and 1972, after 1973 Cawley did not compete at the French Open championships for a decade. She returned in 1983 for her final Grand Slam singles appearance. She lost in the last thirty-two to Chris Evert and did not compete in any further Grand Slam singles events. Her last appearance at Grand Slam level came at the following 1983 Wimbledon Championship when she partnered Sue Barker to a first round defeat in the doubles, having withdrawn from the singles event earlier.
Her career win-loss percentage was 81.01% (704–165). Her win-loss performance in all Grand Slam singles tournaments was 82.09% (133–29), at the French Open, 84.21% (16–3), at Wimbledon, 83.33% (50–10), at the US Open, 81.25% (26–6), and at the Australian Open, 80.39% (41–10).
Cawley was ranked number one in women's world tennis for two weeks in 1976, though it was not reported at the time because incomplete data were used to calculate the rankings. This was discovered in December 2007, 31 years later. She was the second woman to hold the top spot, the 16th recognized at the time.
Life after touring
Cawley spent some time as the touring professional at the Hilton Head Racquet Club in South Carolina before returning to Australia.
Cawley was a member of the Board of the Australian Sports Commission from 1995 to 1997 and since 1997 has held the position of Sports Ambassador to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. She was appointed captain of the Australian Fed Cup team in 2002. In 2003, she was winner for the Oceania region of the International Olympic Committee's 2003 Women and Sports Trophy. Cawley also runs an annual "Goolagong National Development Camp", with the aim of facilitating Aboriginal children playing competitive tennis.
Awards and recognition
Cawley was awarded Australian of the Year in 1971. She was appointed an MBE in 1972 and made an Officer of the Order of Australia (AO) in 1982. In 1985 she was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame. In 1988, Cawley was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.
The National Museum of Australia holds the Evonne Goolagong Cawley collection of memorabilia. This includes her 1971 and 1980 Wimbledon singles trophies, the trophy from her 1974 doubles win and two racquets used in these tournaments. The museum's collection also includes a signed warm-up jacket and a dress with a bolero style top designed by Ted Tinling in the early 1970s.
While competing in the doubles event of the Wimbledon warm up event in Eastbourne, Goolagong married former junior British tennis player Roger Cawley in London on 19 June 1975. She continued in the tournament, losing two days later in the final partnering with Olga Morozova. As the draw had already taken place prior to the marriage ceremony, Wimbledon was unable to record her entry as Mrs. R.A. Cawley in the official draw sheet until the second round. Following her wedding, Cawley settled in Naples, Florida.
After living in the U.S. for eight years, the couple bought a home in Noosa Heads, Queensland, where they settled with their two United States-born children, Kelly and Morgan. Daughter Kelly (born 1977) helps run her tennis camps, and son Morgan Kiema Cawley (born 1981) was a National Soccer League player.
- Home! The Evonne Goolagong Story, Cawley, Evonne Goolagong and Jarrett, Phil (1993), ISBN 0-7318-0381-7
- These records were attained in the Open Era of tennis.
- Records in bold indicate peer-less achievements.
|Championship||Years||Record accomplished||Player tied|
|French Open||1971||Won title on the first attempt||Stands alone[a]|
|Australian Open||1974–1976||3 consecutive titles||Margaret Court
|Australian Open||1971–1976||6 consecutive finals||Martina Hingis|
|Australian Open||1971–1977[b]||7 finals overall||Serena Williams|
|Australian Open||1975–1977[b]||3 wins without losing a set||Steffi Graf|
|US Open||1973–1976||4 consecutive runners-up||Stands alone|
- a Margaret Osborne duPont and Althea Gibson also hold these records; however, they attained those in the pre-Open Era.
- b The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January and December. Goolagong did not play in the January edition but made the final in the December tournament.
- Goolagong discusses aborigine roots, The Day, 1 November 1980.
- Matt Majendie, for CNN (30 January 2015). "Evonne Goolagong: Defying prejudice to become a star". CNN.
- Past Champions – Grand Slam Tennis
- Computer glitch denied Goolagong No. 1 WTA ranking in '76, Associated Press, ESPN Sports, 31 December 2007.
- Tennis.com: Where Are They Now? – Evonne Goolagong Cawley
- Grand Slam champ Evonne Goolagong uses camp to search for next aboriginal player or coach, 13 January 2008, By Dennis Passa, AP Sports Writer, USA Today.
- Lewis, Wendy (2010). Australians of the Year. Pier 9 Press. ISBN 978-1-74196-809-5.
- "Evonne Cawley AO MBE". Sport Australia Hall of Fame. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- "Evonne Goolagong - The Goolagong Impact".
- Brisbane International women's trophy named in honour of Evonne Goolagong Cawley, Courier Mail, 23 December 2011
- "National Museum of Australia - Evonne Goolagong Cawley tennis collection".
- ", Retrieved 17 May 2016
- People in Sports; Evonne Goolagong Married, 20 June 1975, The New York Times, p. 14.
- Evonne Gives Birth to Daughter, Page 3 °F (−16 °C), Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 13 May 1977.
- John Roberts,"Where Are they Now?": Evonne Goolagong, The Independent, 20 April 1993.
- Evonne Goolagong, Tennis Champion – 25 May 1998 – SI Vault .. ..whose '93 autobiography, Home! The Evonne Goolagong Story, was an Australian bestseller.
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