Ewa Kłobukowska (right) at the 1964 Olympics
|Born||1 October 1946 (age 69)
|Height||1.70 m (5 ft 7 in)|
|Weight||60 kg (130 lb)|
|Achievements and titles|
|Personal best(s)||100 m – 11.1 (1965)
200 m – 22.9 (1967)
Ewa Kłobukowska (born 1 October 1946) is a former Polish sprinter. She competed at the 1964 Olympics in the 4×100 m relay and 100 m sprint and won a gold and a bronze medal, respectively. She also won two gold and one silver medal at the 1966 European Championships. Kłobukowska set three world records, one in the 100 m (11.1 s, 9 July 1965 in Prague) and two in the 4 × 100 m relay (44.2 s, 13 September 1964, Lodz and 43.6 s, 21 October 1964, Tokyo). They were annulled by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) after she failed a gender identification test in 1967, though the test procedures were later found to be inadequate.
Kłobukowska was born in a family of intellectuals. In 1965 she graduated from a Technical School of Economics No. 6 and in 1972 from the Warsaw School of Economics.
Kłobukowska failed a traditional gender test for European Cup women's track and field competition in Kiev in 1967 and was subsequently banned from competing in professional sports. According to the IAAF she had "one chromosome too many." Medical publications revealed that Klobukowska is a genetic mosaic of XX/XXY. If she had been tested one year later at the Mexico Olympics she would have been eligible on the grounds that she was Barr Body positive. Klobukowska has a Barr Body in all of her cells. Athletes without such a Barr Body (inactive X-chromosome) were suspended from competition by 1968 in Mexico City. She gave birth to her son in 1968, and thus must have had a genetic abnormality. Her humiliation led to a change in the gender verification policies by the International Olympic Committee, which from then on kept test results secret.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ewa Kłobukowska.|
- Ewa Klobukowska. trackfield.brinkster.net
- Ewa Kłobukowska. sports-reference.com
- Kłobukowska Ewa. Polish Olympic Committee
- Ritchie, R.; Reynard, J.; Lewis, T. (2008). "Intersex and the Olympic Games". JRSM 101 (8): 395. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080086.
- Ferguson-Smith, M A; Ferris, E A (1991). "Gender verification in sport: The need for change?". British Journal of Sports Medicine 25 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1136/bjsm.25.1.17. PMC 1478807. PMID 1817477.
- Adams, Guy. (1 August 2012) Tarnished gold: Some of the 'great' Olympics cheats. The Independent.
- Schultz, Jaime (2012). "Disciplining Sex: 'Gender Verification' Policies and Women's Sports". In Helen Jefferson Lenskyj. The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Stephen Wagg. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 443–60. ISBN 9780230367463. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
- Athletics at the 1964 Tokyo Summer Games: Women's 4 × 100 metres Relay. sports-reference.com
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