Ewa Kłobukowska

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Ewa Kłobukowska
Halina Górecka and Ewa Kłobukowska 1964.jpg
Ewa Kłobukowska (right) at the 1964 Olympics
Personal information
NationalityPolish
Born1 October 1946 (1946-10) (age 72)
Warsaw, Poland
Height1.70 m (5 ft 7 in)
Weight60 kg (132 lb)
Sport
SportAthletics
Event(s)Sprint
ClubSkra Warszawa
Achievements and titles
Personal best(s)100 m – 11.1 (1965)
200 m – 22.9 (1967)[1]

Ewa Janina Kłobukowska (born 1 October 1946) is a former Polish sprinter. She competed at the 1964 Olympics in the 4×100 m relay and 100 m sprint and won a gold and a bronze medal, respectively.[2] She also won two gold and one silver medal at the 1966 European Championships. Kłobukowska set three world records, one in the 100 m (11.1 s, 9 July 1965 in Prague) and two in the 4×100 m relay (44.2 s, 13 September 1964, Lodz and 43.6 s, 21 October 1964, Tokyo). They were annulled by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) after she failed a gender identification test in 1967, though the test procedures were later found to be inadequate.[3][4]

Personal life[edit]

Kłobukowska was born in a family of intellectuals. In 1965, she graduated from a Technical School of Economics No. 6 and in 1972 from the Warsaw School of Economics.[3]

Intersex condition[edit]

Kłobukowska failed a traditional gender test for European Cup women's track and field competition in Kiev in 1967 and was subsequently banned from competing in professional sports.[5] According to the IAAF she had "one chromosome too many." Medical publications revealed that Klobukowska is a genetic mosaic of XX/XXY. If she had been tested one year later at the Mexico Olympics she would have been eligible on the grounds that she was Barr Body positive. Klobukowska has a Barr Body in all of her cells. Athletes without such a Barr Body (inactive X-chromosome) were suspended from competition by 1968 in Mexico City. Her humiliation led to a change in the gender verification policies by the International Olympic Committee, which from then on kept test results secret.[6]

IAAF erased the three world records set by Kłobukowska, including the two team records in the 4×100 m relay.[3][7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ewa Klobukowska. trackfield.brinkster.net
  2. ^ Ewa Kłobukowska. sports-reference.com
  3. ^ a b c Kłobukowska Ewa. Polish Olympic Committee
  4. ^ Ritchie, R.; Reynard, J.; Lewis, T. (2008). "Intersex and the Olympic Games". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 101 (8): 395. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080086. PMC 2500237.
  5. ^ Ferguson-Smith, M A; Ferris, E A (1991). "Gender verification in sport: The need for change?". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 25 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1136/bjsm.25.1.17. PMC 1478807. PMID 1817477.
  6. ^ Schultz, Jaime (2012). "Disciplining Sex: 'Gender Verification' Policies and Women's Sports". In Helen Jefferson Lenskyj. The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Stephen Wagg. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 443–60. ISBN 9780230367463. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  7. ^ Athletics at the 1964 Tokyo Summer Games: Women's 4 × 100 metres Relay. sports-reference.com