Ewa Kłobukowska

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ewa Kłobukowska
Ewa Klobukowska (5494508884) CROPPED.jpg
Ewa Kłobukowska c. 1967
Personal information
NationalityPolish
Born1 October 1946 (1946-10) (age 74)
Warsaw, Poland
Height1.70 m (5 ft 7 in)
Weight60 kg (132 lb)
Sport
SportAthletics
Event(s)Sprint
ClubSkra Warszawa
Achievements and titles
Personal best(s)100 m – 11.1 (1965)
200 m – 22.9 (1967)[1]

Ewa Janina Kłobukowska (born 1 October 1946) is a former Polish sprinter. She competed at the 1964 Olympics in the 4×100 m relay and 100 m sprint and won a gold and a bronze medal, respectively.[2] She also won two gold and one silver medal at the 1966 European Championships. Kłobukowska set three world records, one in the 100 m (11.1 s, 9 July 1965 in Prague) and two in the 4×100 m relay (44.2 s, 13 September 1964, Lodz and 43.6 s, 21 October 1964, Tokyo). They were annulled by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) after a gender identification test in 1967 wrongly labeled her as not female.[3]. The test procedures were later found to be inadequate.[4][5]

Personal life[edit]

Kłobukowska was born in a family of intellectuals. In 1965, she graduated from a Technical School of Economics No. 6 and in 1972 from the Warsaw School of Economics.[4] In 1968, she became pregnant and successfully bore a son.[6]

Intersex condition[edit]

The gender test used for European Cup women's track and field competition in Kiev in 1967 wrongly identified her as not female, and Kłobukowska was subsequently banned from competing in professional sports.[7] According to the IAAF she had "one chromosome too many." Medical publications revealed that Klobukowska is a genetic mosaic of XX/XXY. If she had been tested one year later at the Mexico Olympics she would have been eligible on the grounds that she was Barr Body positive. Klobukowska has a Barr Body in all of her cells. Athletes without such a Barr Body (inactive X-chromosome) were suspended from competition by 1968 in Mexico City. Her humiliation led to a change in the gender verification policies by the International Olympic Committee, which from then on kept test results secret.[8]

IAAF erased the three world records set by Kłobukowska, including the two team records in the 4×100 m relay.[4][9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ewa Klobukowska. trackfield.brinkster.net
  2. ^ Ewa Kłobukowska. sports-reference.com
  3. ^ Wallechinsky, David (2012). The Book of Olympic Lists. p. 19. ISBN 978-1845137731.
  4. ^ a b c Kłobukowska Ewa. Polish Olympic Committee
  5. ^ Ritchie, R.; Reynard, J.; Lewis, T. (2008). "Intersex and the Olympic Games". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 101 (8): 395–9. doi:10.1258/jrsm.2008.080086. PMC 2500237. PMID 18687862.
  6. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/sport/olympics/tarnished-gold-some-of-the-great-olympics-cheats-7869830.html
  7. ^ Ferguson-Smith, M A; Ferris, E A (1991). "Gender verification in sport: The need for change?". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 25 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1136/bjsm.25.1.17. PMC 1478807. PMID 1817477.
  8. ^ Schultz, Jaime (2012). "Disciplining Sex: 'Gender Verification' Policies and Women's Sports". In Helen Jefferson Lenskyj (ed.). The Palgrave Handbook of Olympic Studies. Stephen Wagg. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 443–60. ISBN 9780230367463. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  9. ^ Athletics at the 1964 Tokyo Summer Games: Women's 4 × 100 metres Relay. sports-reference.com

External links[edit]