Ewingella americana

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Ewingella
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Ewingella
Species

Ewingella Americana

Ewingella americana is a Gram-negative rod, and the only species in the genus Ewingella. It was first identified and characterized in 1983. Ewingella is in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The organism is rarely reported as a human pathogen, though it has been isolated from a variety of clinical specimens, including wounds, sputum, urine, stool, blood, synovial fluid,[1] conjunctiva and peritoneal dialysate.[2] The bacterium is named in honor of William H. Ewing, an American biologist who contributed to modern taxonomy.

Epidemiology[edit]

Respiratory tract infections following retainment in intensive care units has been observed in several instances. A case of E. americana causing osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the shoulder joint in a previous intravenous drug abuser has also been reported.[3] Vascular bypass surgery is a reported risk factor for colonization.[4][5] Debate currently exists as to this organism's predilection for immunocompromised patients.[6]

Pathophysiology and biochemistry[edit]

E. americana is an organism with simple nutritional needs that can survive in water and citrate solution, and preferentially grows at 4 °C. Domestic sources of water, including air conditioning units, ice baths and wound irrigation systems, have been cited as sources of infection.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hassan S, Amer S, Mittal C, Sharma R (2012). "Ewingella americana: an emerging true pathogen". Case reports in Infectious Diseases. 2012: 730720. doi:10.1155/2012/730720. PMC 3384899Freely accessible. PMID 22762003. 
  2. ^ Nam-Hee Ryoo; Jung-Sook Ha; Dong-Seok Jeon; Jae-Ryong Kim; Hyun-Chul Kim. (2005). "A Case of Pneumonia Caused by Ewingella americana in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure.". J Korean Med Sci. 20: 143–5. doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.1.143. ISSN 1011-8934. PMC 2808562Freely accessible. PMID 15716620. 
  3. ^ Hassan S, Amer S, Mittal C, Sharma R (2012). "Ewingella americana: an emerging true pathogen". Case reports in Infectious Diseases. 2012: 730720. doi:10.1155/2012/730720. PMC 3384899Freely accessible. PMID 22762003. 
  4. ^ Bear, N., K. P. Klugman, L. Tobiansky, and H. J. Koornhof. (1986). "Wound colonization by Ewingella americana.". J. Clin. Microbiol. 23 (3): 650–651. PMC 268717Freely accessible. PMID 3958154. 
  5. ^ Devreese, K.; G. Claeys & G. Verschraegen. (1992). "Septicemia with Ewingella americana.". J. Clin. Microbiol. 30 (10): 2746–2747. PMC 270514Freely accessible. PMID 1400980. 
  6. ^ Heizmann, W. R.; R. Michel. (1991). "Isolation of Ewingella americana from a patient with conjunctivitis.". Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10 (11): 957–959. doi:10.1007/bf02005452. PMID 1794367. 
  7. ^ Farmer, J. J., III, B. R. Davis, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, A. Mc-Whorther, G. P. Huntley-Carter, M. A. Asbury, C. Riddle, H. J. Wathern-Grady, C. Elias, G. R. Fanning, A. G. Steigerwalt, C. M. O’Hara, G. K. Morris, P. B. Smith, and D. J. Brenner. (1985). "Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens.". J. Clin. Microbiol. 21 (1): 46–76. PMC 271578Freely accessible. PMID 3881471. 

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