Exafroplacentalia

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Exafroplacentals
Temporal range: Paleocene - Holocene, 65–0 Ma
Talpa europaea MHNT.jpg
European mole (Boreoeutheria)
Myresluger2.jpg
Giant anteater (Xenarthra)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Placentalia
Clade: Exafroplacentalia
Waddell et al, 2001
Orders and Clades

Magnorder Boreoeutheria:

Exafroplacentalia or Notolegia is a clade of placental mammals proposed in 2001 on the basis of molecular research.[1][2]

Exafroplacentalia places Xenarthra as a sister group to the Boreoeutheria (comprising Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires),[3] thus making Afrotheria a primitive group of placental mammals (the group name roughly means "those which are not African placentals").

Classification[edit]

Eutheria  

Afrotheria


  Exafroplacentalia  

Xenarthra


  Boreoeutheria  
   

Laurasiatheria


   

Euarchontoglires





Alternative hypotheses[edit]

One alternative hypothesis is the Epitheria hypothesis:

Placentalia

Xenarthra


Epitheria

Afrotheria


Boreoeutheria

Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria





Another alternative hypothesis is the Atlantogenata hypothesis:

Eutheria
Atlantogenata

Xenarthra



Afrotheria



Boreoeutheria

Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria




Updated analysis of transposable element insertions around the time of divergence strongly supports the fourth hypothesis of a near-concomitant origin of the three superorders of mammals:[4]

Eutheria

Xenarthra



Afrotheria


Boreoeutheria

Euarchontoglires



Laurasiatheria




See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Murphy, W.J., Pringle, T.H., Crider, T.A., Springer, M.S. & Miller, W. 2007. Using genomic data to unravel the root of the placental mammal phylogeny. Genome Research 17, pp.413-421.
  2. ^ Kriegs, J.O., Churakov, G., Kiefmann, M., Jordan, U., Brosius, J. & Schmitz, J. 2006. Retroposed elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental mammals. Plos Biol 4, pp.e91.
  3. ^ Goloboff, Pablo A.; Catalano, Santiago A.; Mirande, J. Marcos; Szumik, Claudia A.; Arias, J. Salvador; Källersjö, Mari; Farris, James S. (2009). "Phylogenetic analysis of 73 060 taxa corroborates major eukaryotic groups". Cladistics. 25 (3): 211–230. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00255.x. 
  4. ^ Nishihara, H., Maruyama, S. & Okada, N. 2009. Retroposon analysis and recent geological data suggest near-simultaneous divergence of the three superorders of placental mammals. PNAS 106: 5235-40.

Further reading[edit]