Examen philosophicum

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Examen philosophicum, often abbreviated ex. phil., is a mandatory introductory course in philosophy that was introduced at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark-Norway's only university, in 1675. It was discontinued in Denmark in 1971, but still exists in Norway, albeit greatly reduced.


The content of the course varies from university to university, but in general it contains philosophy, philosophy of science, history of science, ethics and/or rhetoric. In the arts the course is often combined with examen facultatum (ex. fac.). Under the old cand.mag.-system the course was worth 5 vekttall (half a single semester nominal course load) and along with ex. fac. it made up an introductory semester at the universities.