Exceptionalism is the perception or belief that a species, country, society, institution, movement, individual, or time period is "exceptional" (i.e., unusual or extraordinary). The term carries the implication that the referent is superior in some way, whether specified or not. Although the idea appears to have developed with respect to an era, today the term is particularly applied in national or regional contexts. Other uses include medical and genetic exceptionalism.
The German romantic philosopher-historians, especially Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803) and Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762–1814), dwelt on the theme of uniqueness in the late 18th century. They de-emphasized the political state and instead emphasized the uniqueness of the Volk, comprising the whole people, their languages and traditions. Each nation, considered as a cultural entity with its own distinctive history, possessed a "national spirit", or "soul of the people" (in German: Volksgeist). This idea had a strong influence in the growth of nationalism in 19th-century European lands—especially in ones ruled by élites from somewhere else.
Claims of exceptionality have been made for many countries, including the United States, Australia, France, Germany, Greece, India, Pakistan, Imperial Japan, Iran, Israel, North Korea, South Africa, Spain, Britain, the USSR, the European Union, and Thailand. Historians have added many other cases, including historic empires such as China, the Ottoman Empire, ancient Rome, and ancient India, along with a wide range of minor kingdoms in history.
Belief in exceptionalism can represent erroneous thought analogous to historicism in that it overemphasizes peculiarities in an analysis and ignores or downplays meaningful comparisons. A group may assert exceptionalism in order to exaggerate the appearance of difference, to invoke a wider latitude of action, and to avoid recognition of similarities that would reduce perceived justifications. This can be an example of special pleading, a form of spurious argumentation that ignores relevant bases for meaningful comparisons.
Exceptionalism can represent an error analogous to historicism in assuming that only peculiarities are relevant to analysis, while overlooking meaningful comparisons. "[W]hat is seemingly exceptional in one country may be found in other countries."[attribution needed]
In ideologically-driven debates, a group may assert exceptionalism, with or without the term, in order to exaggerate the appearance of difference, perhaps to create an atmosphere permissive of a wider latitude of action, and to avoid recognition of similarities that would reduce perceived justifications. If unwarranted, this represents an example of special pleading, a form of spurious argumentation that ignores relevant bases for meaningful comparison.
The term "exceptionalism" can imply criticism of a tendency to remain separate from others. For example, the reluctance of the United States government to join various international treaties is sometimes called "exceptionalist".
African American Exceptionalism
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In African American exceptionalism, Black U.S. culture becomes the defining culture for Blackness in the rest of the Diaspora. Inside the United States, it is difficult for Black people to define their Blackness because with such a long history of Blackness in the United States, it is already so clearly defined for them. The problem with this is in the notion of Black exceptionalism there is an underlying assumption that there exists a single and one-dimensional manifestation of blackness and those outside of this 'standard' of Black living are seen as exceptional to these rules. More recently there has been a move to discuss internal differences inside the Black community.
Use of the term "HIV exceptionalism" implies that AIDS is a contagious disease that is or should be treated differently from other contagions or entails benefits not available to those suffering from other diseases.
Genetic exceptionalism is a policy program that medicalizes genetic information. Like the exceptionalism surrounding HIV testing, genetic exceptionalism is based on the belief that the average person needs a licensed health professional for guidance and support through the discovery of information with health implications, even if this information is common knowledge, such as that the person has red hair, which is associated with a higher risk of sunburns and skin cancer. In countries with strong genetic exceptionalism laws, permission from a physician is necessary to obtain information about one's genes.
- American exceptionalism (United States of America)
- Chosen people
- Cultural exception
- European exceptionalism
- God's Own Country (Australia and New Zealand)
- Holy Rus
- Mission civilisatrice de la France
- Hindutva (India)
- Nihonjinron (Japan)
- Sonderweg (Germany)
- Third Rome
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- du même auteur (2011-01-01). "Becoming Exceptional? American and European Exceptionalism and their Critics: A Review". Cairn.info. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
- See Christopher K. Chase-Dunn, Thomas D. Hall, and E. Susan Manning, "Rise and Fall: East-West Synchronicity and Indic Exceptionalism Reexamined", Social Science History, Volume 24, Number 4, Winter 2000, pp. 727–54 in Project Muse
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- "ejcjs - Exceptionalism in Political Science: Japanese Politics, US Politics, and Supposed International Norms". Japanesestudies.org.uk. 2003-08-13. Retrieved 2015-11-14.
- Park, Jeanne (November 2000). "The New Sovereigntists: American Exceptionalism and Its False Prophets". Foreign Affairs (November/December 2000). Retrieved 2015-11-14.
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- George M. Fredrickson. "From Exceptionalism to Variability: Recent Developments in Cross-National Comparative History," Journal of American History, Vol. 82, No. 2 (Sep., 1995), pp. 587–604 in JSTOR
- Gallant, Thomas W. "Greek Exceptionalism and Contemporary Historiography: New Pitfalls and Old Debates," Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Volume 15, Number 2, October 1997, pp. 209–16
- Michael Kammen, "The Problem of American Exceptionalism: A Reconsideration," American Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Mar., 1993), pp. 1–43 in JSTOR
- Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword (1996)
- Lund, Joshua. "Barbarian Theorizing and the Limits of Latin American Exceptionalism," Cultural Critique, 47, Winter 2001, pp. 54–90 in Project Muse
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- Thompson, Eric C. "Singaporean Exceptionalism and Its Implications for ASEAN Regionalism," Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs, Volume 28, Number 2, August 2006, pp. 183–206.