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In statistics, excess risk is a measure of the relationship between a specified risk factor and a specified outcome (such as contracting a disease). It is the difference between two proportions. In epidemiology it is typically defined to be the difference between the proportion of subjects in a population with a particular disease who were exposed to a specified risk factor and the proportion of subjects with that same disease who were not exposed. That is,
where denotes the event "not ". . Note that this definition entails that .
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