Executions during the Irish Civil War
The executions during the Irish Civil War took place during the guerrilla phase of the Irish Civil War (June 1922 – May 1923). This phase of the war was bitter, and both sides, the government forces of the Irish Free State and the anti-Treaty Irish Republican Army (IRA) insurgents, used executions and terror in what developed into a cycle of atrocities. From November 1922, the Free State government embarked on a policy of executing Republican prisoners in order to bring the war to an end. Many of those killed had previously been allies, and in some cases close friends (during the Irish War of Independence 1919–1921), of those who ordered their deaths in the civil war. In addition, government troops summarily executed prisoners in the field on several occasions. The executions of prisoners left a lasting legacy of bitterness in Irish politics.
The use of execution by the Irish Free State in the Civil War was relatively harsh compared to the recent British record. In contrast with 81 official executions by the Irish Free State government, the British had executed 24 IRA volunteers during the 1919–21 conflict.
- 1 Background
- 2 Legal basis for the executions
- 3 The first executions and reprisals
- 4 Official executions
- 5 Unofficial killings
- 6 Effects
- 7 In fiction
- 8 List of official executions
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
Michael Collins, commander of the Free State Provisional Government's National Army, had hoped for a speedy reconciliation of the warring Irish nationalist factions, demanding that Republicans must accept the people's verdict and then could go home without their arms... We want to avoid any possible unnecessary destruction and loss of life. We do not want to mitigate their weakness by resolute action beyond what is required.
However, following the death of Collins in an ambush on 22 August 1922, the Free State provisional government, under the new leadership of W. T. Cosgrave, Richard Mulcahy and Kevin O'Higgins, took the position that the Anti-Treaty IRA were conducting an unlawful rebellion against the legitimate Irish government and should be treated as criminals rather than as combatants. O'Higgins in particular voiced the opinion that the use of martial law was the only way to bring the war to an end.
Another factor contributing to the executions policy was the escalating level of violence. In the first two months of the Civil War (July–August 1922), Free State forces had successfully taken all the territory held by Republicans and the war seemed all but over. After the Anti-Treaty side resorted to guerrilla tactics in August–September, National Army casualties mounted and they even lost control over some of the territory taken in the Irish Free State offensive. The town of Kenmare, for example, was re-taken by Anti-Treaty fighters on 9 September and held by them until early December.
Legal basis for the executions
On 27 September 1922, three months after the outbreak of war, the Free State's Provisional Government put before the Dáil the Army Emergency Powers Resolution, proposing legislation to try suspects by military court martial. This had the effect of instituting martial law for the duration of the conflict. The legislation, commonly referred to as the Public Safety Bill, empowered military tribunals with the ability to impose penal servitude of any duration, as well as the death penalty, for a variety of offences including, for 'aiding or abetting attacks' on state forces, possession of arms and ammunition or explosive 'without the proper authority' and 'looting, destruction of public or private property or arson'.
By imposing capital punishment for anyone found in possession of either firearms or ammunition, without a lawful reason, the Free State could punish Republican sympathisers for storing any arms or ammunition that could be used by Republican forces.
A motion was put to the Dáil by the Minister for Defence on 26 September to amend the army's Emergency Powers Order; it stated:
- "(IV.) The breach of any general order or regulation made by the Army authorities; and the infliction by such Military Courts or Committees of the punishment of death, or of imprisonment for any period, or of a fine of any amount either with or without imprisonment, on any person found guilty by any such Court or Committee of any of the offences aforesaid;"
This motion was amended and approved by resolution of the Dáil, after considerable debate. The Republican, or Anti-Treaty, members had refused to take their seats in the Parliament and the opposition to the measures was provided by the Labour Party, who likened the legislation to a military dictatorship. On 3 October, the Free State had offered an amnesty to any Anti-Treaty fighters who surrendered their arms and recognised the government. However, there was little response. W. T. Cosgrave, the head of the Provisional Government, told the Dáil in response, "Although I have always objected to the death penalty, there is no other way that I know of in which ordered conditions can be restored in this country, or any security obtained for our troops, or to give our troops any confidence in us as a government".
The final version, passed on 18 October 1922, stated:
- "(4) The breach of any general order or regulation made by the Army Council and the infliction by such Military Courts or Committees of the punishment of death or of penal servitude for any period or of imprisonment for any period or of a fine of any amount either with or without imprisonment on any person found guilty by such Court or Committee of any of the offences aforesaid. Provided that no such sentence of death be executed except under the countersignature of two members of the Army Council".
The Order was strengthened in January 1923 to allow execution for many other categories of offence, including non-combatant Republican supporters carrying messages, assisting in escapes or using army or police uniforms; and also deserters from the National Army.
After the Civil War the government also felt the need to pass the Indemnity Act, 1923, which stipulated that all sentences passed on military prisoners taken by the Provisional Government's forces, before the passing of the Act, were retrospectively "valid". Two Public Safety Acts were also passed in 1923.
Soon after the passage of the resolution, several other pressures were brought to bear on Republican fighters.
On 10 October, the Catholic Hierarchy issued a statement condemning the Anti-Treaty fighters, ending with: "All who in contravention of this teaching, participate in such crimes are guilty of grievous sins and may not be absolved in Confession nor admitted to the Holy Communion if they persist in such evil courses." In effect this meant that the Anti-Treaty fighters would be excommunicated, and if killed could not expect a church burial or to pass on to heaven. In a population that was 90% Catholic and considered very observant, this was an extremely powerful social pressure applied at an opportune time for the Provisional Government.
On 15 October, directives were sent to the press by Free State director of communications, Piaras Béaslaí to the effect that Free State troops were to be referred to as the "National Army", the "Irish Army", or just "troops". The Anti-Treaty side were to be called "Irregulars" and were not to be referred to as "Republicans", "IRA", "forces", or "troops", nor were the ranks of their officers allowed to be given.
From now on, the Free State, equipped with updated military courts legislation, the support of the Church and of much of the Press, was prepared to treat the Republican fighters as criminals rather than as combatants.
The first executions and reprisals
The first four executions occurred shortly after the Republicans rejected the amnesty in mid-October 1922. On 17 November, four Anti-Treaty IRA fighters were shot in Dublin. They were followed by three more on 19 November.
The next to be executed was Erskine Childers, who had been secretary to the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations. Childers was a well-known Republican - it was on his boat, the Asgard, that the guns had been brought in during the Howth gun-running - he was a renowned columnist, novelist, and a member of the Anglo-Irish, Protestant landowning family of Glendalough House, Annamoe, County Wicklow. He had been captured on 10 November in possession of a Spanish-made .32-calibre pocket pistol which Collins had given to him. - or as Charles Gavan Duffy described the circumstances to the Dáil four days after Childers was shot, "The military authorities apparently ascertained that Erskine Childers was living at the home of his childhood in Wicklow; they surrounded the house in the early morning; they found him there and arrested him, as I understand, getting out of bed with a revolver." Childers and eight others appealed to the civilian judiciary. Judge O'Connor, the Master of the Rolls in Ireland, considered whether a state of war existed. He considered the existence of a Provisional Government in Ireland and its authority to act as proposed and execute the nine.
- 'The Provisional Government now is, de jure as well as de facto, the ruling authority in Ireland and its duty is to preserve the peace, administer the law, and to repress, by force if necessary, all attempts to overthrow it.'
On 24 November Childers was executed by firing squad. Childers was the Republican head of propaganda and it was widely speculated that seven low-ranking Republicans were shot before Childers so that it would not look as if he had been singled out to be executed.
In response to the executions, on 30 November, Liam Lynch, Chief of Staff of the Anti-Treaty IRA, ordered that any member of Parliament (TD) or senator who had signed or voted for the "murder bill" should be shot on sight. He also ordered the killing of hostile judges and newspaper editors. On the same day, three more Republican prisoners were executed in Dublin.
On 7 December, Anti-Treaty IRA gunmen shot two TDs, Sean Hales and Pádraic Ó Máille, in Dublin as they were on their way to the Dáil. Hales was killed and O'Máille was badly wounded. After an emergency cabinet meeting, the Free State government decided on the retaliatory executions of four prominent Republicans (one from each province). Accordingly, on 8 December 1922, the day after Hales' killing, four members of the IRA Army Executive, who had been in jail since the first week of the war - Rory O'Connor, Liam Mellows, Richard Barrett and Joe McKelvey - were executed in revenge. O'Connor and Mellows particularly were revered heroes of the War of Independence. This was arguably an unlawful act, as the four Republicans had been captured before the Dáil passed the legislation authorising executions. Later on the same day the Dáil debated the executions and retrospectively approved them by a vote of 39-14. One of the poignant aspects of the incident was that O'Connor and Kevin O'Higgins were formerly close friends, and O'Connor had been best man at O'Higgins' wedding just a few months previously. Historian Michael Hopkinson reports that Richard Mulcahy had pressed for the executions and that Kevin O'Higgins was the last member of cabinet to give his consent.
Sean Hales was the only TD to be killed in the war. However, Republicans continued to burn the homes of elected representatives in reprisal for executions of their men. On 10 December, the house of TD Seán McGarry was burned down, killing his seven-year-old son whom the attackers had not realised was inside. Homes of senators were among the 199 houses burned or destroyed by the IRA in the war. In February 1923, Kevin O'Higgins' elderly father was murdered by Republicans at the family home in Stradbally. The President of the Executive Council W. T. Cosgrave's home was burned and his uncle was assassinated.
In all, the Free State formally sanctioned the execution of 81 Anti-Treaty fighters during the war. Republican historian Dorothy Macardle popularised the number of 77 executions in Republican consciousness, but she appears to have left out those executed for activities such as armed robbery. Those executed were tried by court-martial in a military court and had to be found guilty merely of bearing arms against the State.
After the initial round of executions, the firing squads got under way again in earnest in late December 1922. On 19 December, seven IRA men from Kildare were shot in the Curragh Camp, Co. Kildare. and ten days later, two more were shot in Kilkenny. Most of those executed were prisoners held in Kilmainham and Mountjoy Gaols in Dublin, but from January 1923, Kevin O'Higgins argued that executions should be carried out in every county in order to maximise their impact. Accordingly, in that month, 34 prisoners were shot in such places as Dundalk, Roscrea, Carlow, Birr and Portlaoise, Limerick, Tralee, Roscrea and Athlone. From 8–18 February, the Free State suspended executions and offered an amnesty in the hope that Anti-Treaty fighters would surrender. However, the war dragged for another two months and witnessed at least 20 more official executions, amongst them six men executed on 11 April in Tuam Military Barracks found guilty of the unlawful possession of arms on 21 February. There is a commemorative plaque in Tuam on the site of the old Military Barracks.
Several Republican leaders narrowly avoided execution. Ernie O'Malley, captured on 4 November 1922, was not executed because he was too badly wounded when taken prisoner to face a court martial and possibly because the Free State was hesitant about executing an undisputed hero of the recent struggle against the British. Liam Deasy, captured in January 1923, avoided execution by signing a surrender document calling on the Anti-Treaty forces to lay down their arms.
The Anti-Treaty side called a ceasefire on 30 April 1923 and ordered their men to "dump arms", ending the war, on 24 May. Nevertheless, executions of Republican prisoners continued after this time. Four IRA men were executed in May after the ceasefire order and the final two executions took place on 20 November, months after the end of hostilities. It was not until November 1924 that a general amnesty was offered for any acts committed in the civil war.
In highlighting the severity of the Free State's execution policy, however, it is important not to exaggerate its extent. The Free State took a total of over 12,000 Republicans prisoner during the war, of whom roughly 80 (less than 1%) were executed. How those who were executed were chosen from the others captured in arms is unclear; however, many more men were sentenced to the death penalty than were actually shot. This was intended to act as a deterrent to anti-Treaty fighters in the field, who knew that their imprisoned comrades were likely to be executed if they kept up their armed campaign.
In addition to the judicial executions, Free State troops conducted many extrajudicial killings of captured anti-Treaty fighters. From an early point in the war, from late August 1922 (coinciding with the onset of guerrilla warfare), there were many incidents of National Army troops killing prisoners.
In Dublin, a number of people were killed by the new (police) Intelligence service, the Criminal Investigation Department (CID), which was headed by Joseph McGrath and was based in Oriel House in Dublin city centre. By 9 September, a British intelligence report stated that "Oriel House" had already killed "a number of Republicans" in Dublin, including Joseph Bergin, a Military Policeman from the Curragh Camp who was believed to have been passing information to Republican prisoners. In a number of cases, Anti-Treaty IRA men and boys were abducted by Free State forces, killed and their bodies dumped in public places; Republican sources detail at least 25 such cases in the Dublin area. There were also allegations of abuse of prisoners during interrogation by the CID. For example, Republican Tom Derrig had an eye shot out while in custody.
County Kerry, where the guerrilla campaign was most intense, would see many of the most vicious episodes in the Civil War. On 27 August, in the first such incident of its type, two anti-treaty fighters were shot after they had surrendered in Tralee, County Kerry. One of them, James Healy, was left for dead but survived to tell of the incident. Republicans also killed prisoners. After their successful attack on Kenmare on 9 September, the Anti-Treaty IRA separated National Army officer Tom "Scarteen" O'Connor and his brother from the 120 other prisoners and shot them dead. There was a steady stream of similar incidents after this point in Kerry, culminating in a series of high-profile atrocities in the month of March 1923.
Also in September, a party of nine Anti-Treaty fighters was wiped out near Sligo by Free State troops. Four of them, (including Brian MacNeill, the son of Eoin MacNeill) were later found to have been shot at close range in the forehead, indicating that they had been shot after surrendering.
The Ballyseedy Massacre and its aftermath
March 1923 saw a series of notorious incidents in Kerry, where 23 Republican prisoners were killed in the field (and another five judicially executed) in a period of just four weeks.
Five Free State soldiers were killed by a booby trap bomb while searching a Republican dugout at the village of Knocknagoshel, County Kerry, on 6 March. The next day, the local Free State commander authorised the use of Republican prisoners to "clear mined roads". Paddy Daly justified the measure as "the only alternative left to us to prevent the wholesale slaughter of our men".
That night, 6/7 March, nine Republican prisoners who had previously been tortured, with bones broken with hammers, were taken from Ballymullen Barracks in Tralee to Ballyseedy crossroads and tied to a landmine which was detonated, after which the survivors were machine-gunned. One of the prisoners, Stephen Fuller, was blown to safety by the blast of the explosion. He was taken in at the nearby home of Michael and Hannah Curran. They cared for him and although he was badly injured, he survived. Fuller later became a Fianna Fáil TD. The Free State troops in nearby Tralee had prepared nine coffins. There was a riot when the bodies were brought back to Tralee, where the enraged relatives of the killed prisoners broke open the coffins in an effort to identify their dead.
This was followed by a series of similar incidents with mines within 24 hours of the Ballyseedy killings. Five Republican prisoners were blown up with another landmine at Countess Bridge near Killarney and four in the same manner at Cahersiveen. Another Republican prisoner, Seamus Taylor, was taken to Ballyseedy woods by National Army troops and shot dead.
On 28 March, five IRA men, captured in an attack on Cahersiveen on 5 March, were officially executed in Tralee. Another, captured the same day, was summarily shot and killed. Thirty-two Anti-Treaty fighters died in Kerry in March 1923, of whom only five were killed in combat. Free State officer Niall Harrington has suggested that reprisal killings of Republican prisoners continued in Kerry up to the end of the war.
The Free State unit the Dublin Guard, and in particular their commander, Paddy Daly, were widely held to be responsible for these killings. They claimed that the prisoners had been killed while clearing roads by landmines laid by Republicans. When questioned in the Dáil by Labour Party leader Thomas Johnson, Richard Mulcahy, the National Army's commander-in-chief, supported Daly's story. A military Court of Inquiry conducted in April 1923 cleared the Free State troops of the charge of killing their prisoners.
It has since emerged that the prisoners were beaten, tied to explosives and then killed. At Cahersiveen, the prisoners were reportedly shot in the legs before being blown up to prevent their escape. Two Free State officers, Lieutenants Niall Harrington and W McCarthy (who both resigned over the incidents) later stated that not only were the explosives detonated by the Free State troops, they had also been made by them and laid there for this purpose. Documents released in 2008 show that the Free State Cabinet was aware that the Army's version of events was untrue. An investigation concluded that the prisoners had been killed by a party of National Army soldiers from Dublin known as the 'visiting committee' and that those at Cahersiveen had been beaten and shot before being blown up.
What exactly prompted this outbreak of vindictive killings in March 1923 is unclear. A total of 68 Free State soldiers had been killed and 157 wounded in Kerry up to that point. A total of 85 would die in Kerry before the war was over. Why the deaths at Knocknagoshel prompted such a savage response remains an open question.
Two other episodes of revenge killing took place elsewhere in the country in the same month. On 13 March, three Republican fighters were judicially executed in Wexford in the southeast. In revenge, three National Army soldiers were captured and killed.
On 14 March at Drumboe Castle in County Donegal in the northwest of Ireland, four Anti-Treaty IRA fighters, Charles Daly (26), Sean Larkin (26), Daniel Enwright (23), and Timothy O'Sullivan (23), who had been captured and held in the castle since January, were summarily shot in retaliation for the death of a National Army soldier in an ambush.
The end of the war
According to historian Tom Mahon, the Irish Civil War, "effectively ended," on 10 April 1923, when the Free State Army mortally wounded IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch during a skirmish in County Tipperary. Twenty days later, Lynch's successor, Frank Aiken, gave the order to "dump arms".
Even after the war was over, National Army troops killed anti-Treaty fighters. For example, Noel Lemass, a captain in the anti-Treaty IRA, was abducted in Dublin and summarily executed in July 1923, two months after the war had ended. His body was dumped, probably first in the River Liffey at Manor Kilbride, then moved to Killakee in the Dublin Mountains, near Glencree, where it was found in October 1923. The spot where his body was found is marked by a memorial erected by his brother Seán Lemass - a future Taoiseach of Ireland. There are no conclusive figures for the number of unofficial executions of captured Anti-Treaty fighters, but Republican officer Todd Andrews put the figure for "unauthorised killings" at 153.
In August 1923 W.T Cosgrave stated that all such unlawful killings would be investigated: "There was one matter I wished to refer to—first, the case of Mr. Noel Lemass, and secondly, the case of Mr. McEntee, who apparently was murdered during the last few days. I have to say that we condemn those acts unhesitatingly, and we wish to exhort all sections of the State to remember that there are means provided for dealing with any such cases, and it will be the duty of the Ministry to make every effort to bring to justice persons who contravene the law; that in securing life and property here we have to secure it for no one section more than another; and that the life and property of those who differ politically from us, or who may take extreme measures, will be dealt with according to law, and only according to law. Those acts have got no sanction, direct or indirect, or in any way, from us, and we will do our duty to every citizen regardless of what section he belongs to."
It has been argued that the Free State Government's policy of executions helped to end the Civil War. After the executions in reprisal for the killing of Seán Hales, there were no further attempts to assassinate members of parliament. On the other hand, there had been no previous attempts to assassinate TDs either, and the burning of senators' and TDs' homes continued after the executions. Another continuing argument is whether Anti-Treaty leaders believed that continuing the war would mean exposing their prisoners to further executions. This may have been a factor in Frank Aiken calling a halt to the Anti-Treaty campaign in April 1923.
There is no doubt that the executions and assassinations of the Civil War left a poisonous legacy of bitterness. The Free State's official executions of 77-81 Anti-Treaty prisoners during the Civil War was recalled by members of Fianna Fáil (the political party that emerged from the anti-Treaty side in 1926) with bitterness for a decade afterwards. In the Irish republican tradition, those IRA members executed in the Civil War became martyrs and were venerated in songs and poems. (For example, the ballad "Take It Down From The Mast", written in 1923 by James Ryan and later popularised by Dominic Behan).
As a result of the executions in the Civil War, many Republicans would never accept the Free State as a legitimate Irish government, but rather saw it as a repressive, British-imposed government. This attitude was partially alleviated after 1932, when Fianna Fáil, the party that represented the bulk of the Republican constituency, entered government peacefully. Ironically, in 1939 De Valera himself enacted the Offences against the State Act and the Emergency Powers Act 1939, under which a further 5 Republicans were executed by hanging.
Kevin O'Higgins, the man Republicans saw as most directly responsible for the enactment of the Public Safety Act, with its sanction of executions, himself fell victim to assassination by the IRA in 1927 - becoming one of the last victims of Civil War era violence in Ireland. Richard Mulcahy became a leader of Fine Gael in 1948, but never became Taoiseach because of his role in the Civil War.
The 2006 film The Wind That Shakes the Barley climaxes with an IRA guerrilla being executed by a firing squad commanded by his own brother, who supports the Free State. This was inspired by the case of Sean and Tom Hales who were both leaders, but on opposing sides of the war.
The Republican: An Irish Civil War Story by T.S. O'Rourke follows the Irish Civil War from a Republican perspective in Dublin and includes details of the reprisal executions carried out by the Free State.
List of official executions
Below is a list of formally sanctioned executions by the Irish Free State government during the Civil War.
|17 November 1922||James Fisher||18||Kilmainham Gaol||Dublin|
|17 November 1922||Peter Cassidy||21||Kilmainham Gaol||Dublin|
|17 November 1922||Richard Twohig||19||Kilmainham Gaol||Dublin|
|17 November 1922||John Gaffney||19||Kilmainham Gaol||Dublin|
|24 November 1922||Erskine Childers||52||Beggars Bush Barracks||Dublin|
|30 November 1922||Joseph Spooner||–||Beggars Bush Barracks||Dublin|
|30 November 1922||Patrick Farrelly||–||Beggars Bush Barracks||Dublin|
|30 November 1922||John Murphy||–||Beggars Bush Barracks||Dublin|
|8 December 1922||Rory O'Connor||39||Mountjoy Gaol||Dublin|
|8 December 1922||Liam Mellows||30||Mountjoy Gaol||Dublin|
|8 December 1922||Joseph McKelvey||24||Mountjoy Gaol||Dublin|
|8 December 1922||Richard Barrett||32||Mountjoy Gaol||Dublin|
|19 December 1922||Stephen White||19||Curragh Camp||Kildare|
|19 December 1922||Joseph Johnston||20||Curragh Camp||Kildare|
|19 December 1922||Patrick Mangan||22||Curragh Camp||Kildare|
|19 December 1922||Patrick Nolan||20||Curragh Camp||Kildare|
|19 December 1922||Brian Moore||28||Curragh Camp||Kildare|
|19 December 1922||James O'Connor||19||Curragh Camp||Kildare|
|19 December 1922||Patrick Bagnel||19||Curragh Camp||Kildare|
|29 December 1922||John Phelan||–||Kilkenny Military Barracks||Kilkenny|
|29 December 1922||John Murphy||–||Kilkenny Military Barracks||Kilkenny|
|8 January 1923||Leo Dowling||21||Portobello Barracks||Dublin||National Army soldier; tried by court martial for aiding the IRA.|
|8 January 1923||Sylvester Heaney||22||Portobello Barracks||Dublin||National Army soldier; tried by court martial for aiding the IRA.|
|8 January 1923||Laurence Sheehy||20||Portobello Barracks||Dublin||National Army soldier; tried by court martial for aiding the IRA.|
|8 January 1923||Anthony O'Reilly||22||Portobello Barracks||Dublin||National Army soldier; tried by court martial for aiding the IRA.|
|8 January 1923||Terence Brady||20||Portobello Barracks||Dublin||National Army soldier; tried by court martial for aiding the IRA.|
|13 January 1923||Thomas McKeown||–||Dundalk Gaol||Louth|
|13 January 1923||John McNulty||–||Dundalk Gaol||Louth|
|13 January 1923||Thomas Murray||–||Dundalk Gaol||Louth|
|15 January 1923||Fred Burke||28||Roscrea Castle Barracks||Tipperary|
|15 January 1923||Patrick Russell||26||Roscrea Castle Barracks||Tipperary|
|15 January 1923||Martin O'Shea||22||Roscrea Castle Barracks||Tipperary|
|15 January 1923||Patrick McNamara||22||Roscrea Castle Barracks||Tipperary|
|15 January 1923||James Lillis||–||Carlow Barracks||Carlow|
|20 January 1923||James Daly||23||Tralee Barracks||Kerry|
|20 January 1923||John Clifford||22||Tralee Barracks||Kerry|
|20 January 1923||Michae Brosnan||28||Tralee Barracks||Kerry|
|20 January 1923||James Hanlon||25||Tralee Barracks||Kerry|
|20 January 1923||Cornelius (Con) McMahon||28||Limerick Prison||Limerick|
|20 January 1923||Patrick Hennessey||29||Limerick Prison||Limerick|
|20 January 1923||Thomas Hughes||–||Custume Barracks||Westmeath|
|20 January 1923||Michael Walsh||–||Custume Barracks||Westmeath|
|20 January 1923||Herbert Collins||–||Custume Barracks||Westmeath|
|20 January 1923||Stephen Joyce||–||Custume Barracks||Westmeath|
|20 January 1923||Martin Bourke||–||Custume Barracks||Westmeath|
|22 January 1923||James Melia||20||Dundalk Military Barracks||Louth|
|22 January 1923||Thomas Lennon||19||Dundalk Military Barracks||Louth|
|22 January 1923||Joseph Ferguson||27||Dundalk Military Barracks||Louth|
|25 January 1923||Michael Fitzgerald||–||Waterford Infantry Barracks||Waterford|
|25 January 1923||Patrick O'Reilly||–||Waterford Infantry Barracks||Waterford|
|26 January 1923||Patrick Cunningham||22||Birr Castle||Offaly|
|26 January 1923||William Conway||20||Birr Castle||Offaly|
|26 January 1923||Colum Kelly||18||Birr Castle||Offaly|
|27 January 1923||Patrick Geraghty||27||Maryborough (Portlaoise) Barracks||Laois|
|27 January 1923||Joseph Byrne||24||Maryborough (Portlaoise) Barracks||Laois|
|26 February 1923||Thomas Gibson||23||Maryborough (Portlaoise) Barracks||Laois||National Army soldier; tried by court martial for aiding the IRA.|
|13 March 1923||James O'Rourke||–||Beggars Bush Barracks||Dublin|
|13 March 1923||William Healy||–||Cork County Gaol||Cork|
|13 March 1923||James Parle||24||Wexford Gaol||Wexford|
|13 March 1923||Patrick Hogan||22||Wexford Gaol||Wexford|
|13 March 1923||John Creane||18||Wexford Gaol||Wexford|
|13 March 1923||Luke Burke||20||Mullingar Barracks||Westmeath||Civilian tried by military court and executed by the National Army.|
|13 March 1923||Michael Grealy||–||Mullingar Barracks||Westmeath||Civilian tried by military court and executed by the National Army.|
|14 March 1923||John (Seán) Larkin||26||Drumboe Castle||Donegal|
|14 March 1923||Timothy O'Sullivan||24||Drumboe Castle||Donegal|
|14 March 1923||Daniel Enright||23||Drumboe Castle||Donegal|
|14 March 1923||Charles Daly||28||Drumboe Castle||Donegal|
|11 April 1923||James (Seamus) O'Malley||28||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway|
|11 April 1923||Francis (Frank) Cunnane||24||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway|
|11 April 1923||Michael Monaghan||30||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway|
|11 April 1923||John Newell||28||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway|
|11 April 1923||John Maguire||30||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway|
|11 April 1923||Martin Moylan||22||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway|
|25 April 1923||Edward Greaney||25||Ballymullen Barracks||Kerry|
|25 April 1923||Reginald Hathaway||23||Ballymullen Barracks||Kerry|
|25 April 1923||James McEnery||28||Ballymullen Barracks||Kerry|
|26 April 1923||Patrick Mahoney||22||Home Barracks Ennis||Clare|
|2 May 1923||Christopher Quinn||19||Home Barracks Ennis||Clare|
|2 May 1923||William O'Shaughnessy||18||Home Barracks Ennis||Clare|
|30 May 1923||Michael Murphy||26||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway||Civilian tried before a military tribunal and executed by the National Army.|
|30 May 1923||Joseph O'Rourke||23||Tuam Military Barracks||Galway||Civilian tried before a military tribunal and executed by the National Army.|
- Timeline of the Irish Civil War
- Free State Intelligence Department – Oriel House
- Capital punishment in Ireland
- McConville 2002, p. 697.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 177.
- Hopkinson 2004, pp. 222–223.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 181, "The Public Safety Bill was introduced to the Dail on 27 September. It instituted military courts which were given powers, including that of execution, for sundry offences, including the possession of arms and the aiding and abetting of attacks on government forces".
- Litton 1995, pp. 110–111, "The first business at hand was to pass a new constitution. This was followed by a Public Safety Bill, introduced on 27 September, which set up military court. These courts could impose the death penalty on anyone found carrying arms or ammunition or who committed any act of war; prisoners would no longer be treated as political prisoners".
- Campbell 1994, p. 196.
- BT Murphy, The Government's Execution Policy during the Irish Civil War text of Public Safety Resolution, including penalties for specified offences, p.302-304
- "Motion By Minister For Defence (Mr. E. Blythe)". oireachtas.ie. Houses of the Oireachtas. 26 September 1922. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Rebel Defeat In Kerry. The Amnesty Terms". The Times. 5 October 1922.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 181.
- "Statement on Army Emergency Powers". oireachtas.ie. Houses of the Oireachtas. 18 October 1922. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- The Army Council approved a wider Order, signed by General Mulcahy. The Order also permitted searches by police and government security forces without a search warrant. It was debated in the Dáil on 17 January, as required by law, and after considerable debate a motion by opposition leader Thomas Johnson to negate it was defeated by a vote of 41 to 13. "Army Council General Order". oireachtas.ie. Houses of the Oireachtas. 17 January 1923. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Section 3, "...for enquiry into the cases of or for the trial of persons taken prisoner as military captives by the military forces of the Provisional Government or persons charged with offences shall be deemed to be and always to have been a validly established tribunal, and every sentence passed, judgment given, or order made before the passing of this Act by any such military tribunal shall be deemed to be and always to have been valid...""Indemnity Act 1923, s. 3". Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- See the "Public Safety (Emergency Powers) Act, 1923". Retrieved 29 July 2010. and the "Public Safety (Emergency Powers) (No. 2) Act, 1923". Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- Purdon 2000.
- FitzGerald, Garret. "Reflections On The Foundation of the Irish State". University College Cork. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 189.
- "Dail In Committee – Army". oireachtas.ie. Houses of the Oireachtas. 28 November 1922. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "The Childers Case. Judge's Reasons For Refusing Writ". The Times. 24 November 1922.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 189, "De Valera said the first executions were, 'a forerunner for Childers' execution'.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 190.
- See "Debate on Mountjoy Executions". oireachtas.ie. Houses of the Oireachtas. 8 December 1922. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 191.
- Litton 1995, p. 113.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 222.
- "Tuam Executions: One who got away". Tuam Herald. 29 May 2003. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "The Tuam Martyrs, April 11, 1923". mooregroup.ie. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Tuam Herald, Saturday, April 11, 1998; Page 4.
- Wallace 2016, p. 76.
- "The State and Civil War, 1921-1923" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 215.
- Hopkinson 2004, p. 241.
- Valiulis 1992, p. 189.
- Harrington 1987, p. 149.
- Doyle 2008.
- "Free State account of controversial Kerry IRA deaths in 1923 contradicted by Garda report". The Irish Times. 12 December 2008.
- Dorney, John (14 March 2011). "March 1923 – The Terror Month". theirishstory.com. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "The Drumboe Martyrs 1923-2003". An Phoblacht. 13 March 2003. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- Mahon & Gillogly 2008, p. 66.
- Andrews 1979, p. 269.
- Dáil Debates, 9 August 1923; the Dissolution debate.
- Durney J., The Civil War in Kildare (2011) Mercier Press; pp.161-165.
- "The truth behind the murder of Sean Hales". Irish Independent. 17 February 2002. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Dorney, John (1 October 2010). "Book Review: The Republican – An Irish Civil War Story". theirishstory.com. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Murphy 2010, pp. 299–301.
- Registered death record says the five soldiers were executed in either Kilmainham Gaol or Keogh Barracks (now called Richmond Barracks).
- Murphy 2010, p. 98.
- "Registered Deaths in Dublin, 1923" (PDF). irishgenealogy.ie. See entries 278–282. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Surname also recorded as Conroy.
- Murphy 2010, pp. 214–215.
- "Registered Deaths in Mountmellick, 1923" (PDF). irishgenealogy.ie. See entry 449. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Also known as Henry Keenan.
- Murphy 2010, p. 226.
- "Registered Deaths in Mullingar, 1923" (PDF). irishgenealogy.ie. See entries 316–317. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Surname also recorded as Greery.
- Murphy 2010, p. 239.
- "Registered Deaths in Tuam, 1923" (PDF). irishgenealogy.ie. See entries 475–476. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- Andrews, C.S. (1979). Dublin Made Me. Mercier Press. ISBN 978-0853426066.
- Campbell, Colm (1994). Emergency Law in Ireland 1918–1925. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-825675-5.
- Collins, M.E. (1993). Ireland, 1868–1966: History in the Making. Dublin: The Educational Company of Ireland. ISBN 978-0861673056.
- Doyle, Tom (2008). The Civil War in Kerry. Mercier Press. ISBN 978-1856355902.
- Harrington, Niall C. (1987). Kerry Landing. Mercier Press. ISBN 978-0947962708.
- Hopkinson, Michael (2004). Green Against Green: The Irish Civil War (2Rev ed.). Gill Books. ISBN 978-0717137602.
- Litton, Helen (1995). The Irish Civil War: An Illustrated History. Merlin Publishing. ISBN 978-0863274800.
- Mahon, Tom; Gillogly, James J. (2008). Decoding the IRA. Mercier Press. ISBN 978-1856356046.
- McConville, Seán (2002). Irish Political Prisoners 1848–1922. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415219914.
- Murphy, Breen Timothy (2010). "The Government's Policy During The Irish Civil War 1922–1923" (PDF). maynoothuniversity.ie. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
- Purdon, Edward (2000). The Irish Civil War, 1922–1923. Mercier Press. ISBN 978-1856353007.
- Ryan, Meda (2001). Real Chief, Liam Lynch. Mercier Press. ISBN 978-1856354608.
- Valiulis, Maryann Gialanella (1992). General Richard Mulcahy. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 978-0716524946.
- Wallace, Colm (2016). Sentenced to Death: Saved from the Gallows. Somerville Press. ISBN 9780992736491.
- Walsh, Paul V. (1998). "The Irish Civil War 1922–1923". New York Military Affairs Symposium. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "The State and Civil War, 1921-1923" (PDF). Oxford University Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- Republican perspective in an An Phoblacht article on the executions
- Irish writer Ulick O'Connor in the Irish Independent on the executions of December 8, 1922
- Article on the executions of seven republicans from Kildare
- New York Times, 9 December 1922 on the Executions of Mellows, O'Connor, McKelvey and Barrett
- Article on executions in Offaly
- An Phoblacht article about summary executions
- Republican article about killings in Dublin
- An article on the memory of the Civil War Killings in Dublin