Executive agency

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An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate, to carry-out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive. Executive agencies are "machinery of government" devices distinct both from non-ministerial government departments and non-departmental public bodies (or "quangos"), each of which enjoy a real legal and constitutional separation from ministerial control. The model was also applied in several other countries.

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Size and scope[edit]

Agencies[1] range from Her Majesty's Prison Service to the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. The annual budget for each agency, allocated by Her Majesty's Treasury ranges from a few million pounds for the smallest agencies to £700m for the Court Service. Virtually all government departments have at least one agency.

Issues and reports[edit]

The initial success or otherwise of executive agencies was examined in the Sir Angus Fraser's Fraser Report of 1991. Its main goal was to identify what good practices had emerged from the new model and spread them to other agencies and departments. The report also recommended further powers be devolved from ministers to chief executives.

A series of reports and white papers examining governmental delivery were published throughout the 1990s, under both Conservative and Labour governments. During these the agency model became the standard model for delivering public services in the United Kingdom. By 1997 76% of civil servants were employed by an agency. The new Labour government in its first such report – the 1998 Next Steps Report endorsed the model introduced by its predecessor. The most recent review (in 2002, linked below) made two central conclusions (their emphasis):

"The agency model has been a success. Since 1988 agencies have transformed the landscape of government and the responsive and effectiveness of services delivered by Government."
"Some agencies have, however, become disconnected from their departments ... The gulf between policy and delivery is considered by most to have widened."

The latter point is usually made more forcefully by Government critics, describing agencies as "unaccountable quangos".

List by department[edit]

Attorney General's Office[edit]

Non-ministerial department[edit]

Other[edit]

  • HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate

Cabinet Office[edit]

Ministerial department[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

Other[edit]

Civil Service[edit]

Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy[edit]

Non-ministerial department[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

Tribunal non-departmental public body[edit]

Other[edit]

Department for Communities and Local Government[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

Tribunal non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Valuation Tribunal for England

Public corporation[edit]

Other[edit]

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport[edit]

Non-ministerial department[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

Public corporation[edit]

Other[edit]

Department for Education[edit]

Non-ministerial department[edit]

  • Ofqual
  • Ofsted

Executive agency[edit]

  • Education and Skills Funding Agency
  • National College for Teaching and Leadership
  • Standards and Testing Agency

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Construction Industry Training Board
  • Engineering Construction Industry Training Board
  • Equality and Human Rights Commission
  • Higher Education Funding Council for England
  • Institute for Apprenticeships
  • Office for Fair Access
  • Office of the Children's Commissioner
  • Student Loans Company

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • School Teachers' Review Body
  • Social Mobility Commission

Other[edit]

  • Government Equalities Office
  • Office of the Schools Adjudicator

Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs[edit]

Non-ministerial department[edit]

  • Forestry Commission
  • The Water Services Regulation Authority

Executive agency[edit]

  • Animal and Plant Health Agency
  • Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science
  • Rural Payments Agency
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board
  • Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
  • Consumer Council for Water
  • Environment Agency
  • Joint Nature Conservation Committee
  • Marine Management Organisation
  • National Forest Company
  • Natural England
  • Sea Fish Industry Authority

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment
  • Independent Agricultural Appeals Panel
  • Science Advisory Council
  • Veterinary Products Committee

Tribunal non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Plant Varieties and Seeds Tribunal

Other[edit]

  • Broads Authority
  • Covent Garden Market Authority
  • Dartmoor National Park Authority
  • Drinking Water Inspectorate
  • Exmoor National Park Authority
  • Lake District National Park Authority
  • New Forest National Park Authority
  • North York Moors National Park Authority
  • Northumberland National Park Authority
  • Peak District National Park Authority
  • South Downs National Park Authority
  • UK Co-ordinating Body
  • Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority

Department for Exiting the European Union[edit]

Department for International Development[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Commonwealth Scholarship Commission in the UK

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Independent Commission for Aid Impact

Department for International Trade[edit]

Department for Transport[edit]

Non-ministerial department[edit]

  • Office of Rail and Road

Executive agency[edit]

  • Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency
  • Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency
  • Maritime and Coastguard Agency
  • Vehicle Certification Agency

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • British Transport Police Authority
  • Directly Operated Railways Limited
  • High Speed Two (HS2) Limited
  • Northern Lighthouse Board
  • Transport Focus
  • Trinity House

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee

Tribunal non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Traffic Commissioners for Great Britain

Public corporation[edit]

  • Civil Aviation Authority
  • London and Continental Railways Ltd

Other[edit]

  • Air Accidents Investigation Branch
  • Highways England
  • Marine Accident Investigation Branch
  • Rail Accident Investigation Branch

Department for Work and Pensions[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Disabled People’s Employment Corporation
  • Health and Safety Executive
  • National Employment Savings Trust (NEST) Corporation
  • The Pensions Advisory Service
  • The Pensions Regulator

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Industrial Injuries Advisory Council
  • Social Mobility Commission
  • Social Security Advisory Committee

Tribunal non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Pension Protection Fund Ombudsman
  • Pensions Ombudsman

Public corporation[edit]

  • Office for Nuclear Regulation
  • Pension Protection Fund

Other[edit]

  • Independent Case Examiner

Department of Health[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

  • Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency
  • Public Health England

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Care Quality Commission
  • Health Education England
  • Health Research Authority
  • Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority
  • Human Tissue Authority
  • NHS Blood and Transplant
  • NHS Business Services Authority
  • NHS Digital
  • NHS England
  • NHS Litigation Authority
  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee
  • Advisory Committee on Clinical Excellence Awards
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission
  • Commission on Human Medicines
  • Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment
  • Independent Reconfiguration Panel
  • NHS Pay Review Body
  • Review Body on Doctors' and Dentists' Remuneration

Other[edit]

  • Accelerated Access Review
  • Morecambe Bay Investigation
  • NHS Improvement
  • National Data Guardian
  • National Information Board
  • Porton Biopharma Limited

Foreign & Commonwealth Office[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

  • FCO Services
  • Wilton Park

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • British Council
  • Great Britain-China Centre
  • Marshall Aid Commemoration Commission
  • Westminster Foundation for Democracy

Public corporation[edit]

  • BBC World Service

Other[edit]

  • Chevening Scholarship Programme
  • Government Communications Headquarters
  • Secret Intelligence Service

HM Treasury[edit]

Non-ministerial department[edit]

  • NS&I

Executive agency[edit]

  • Government Internal Audit Agency
  • UK Debt Management Office

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Office for Budget Responsibility

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Royal Mint Advisory Committee

Other[edit]

  • The Crown Estate
  • Financial Conduct Authority
  • National Infrastructure Commission
  • Payment Systems Regulator
  • Royal Mint
  • UK Financial Investments Limited
  • UK Government Investments

Home Office[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Disclosure and Barring Service
  • Gangmasters Licensing Authority
  • Independent Police Complaints Commission
  • Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner
  • Security Industry Authority

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs
  • Animals in Science Committee
  • Biometrics and Forensics Ethics Group
  • Migration Advisory Committee
  • Police Advisory Board for England and Wales
  • Police Remuneration Review Body
  • Technical Advisory Board

Tribunal non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Investigatory Powers Tribunal
  • Office of Surveillance Commissioners
  • Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal

Independent monitoring body[edit]

  • Independent Anti-slavery Commissioner
  • Other
  • Biometrics Commissioner
  • Forensic Science Regulator
  • HM Inspectorate of Constabulary
  • Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration
  • Independent Family Returns Panel
  • Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation
  • Intelligence Services Commissioner
  • Interception of Communications Commissioner
  • National Counter Terrorism Security Office
  • National Crime Agency Remuneration Review Body
  • The Security Service
  • Surveillance Camera Commissioner

Ministry of Defence[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

  • Defence Electronics and Components Agency
  • Defence Science and Technology Laboratory
  • UK Hydrographic Office

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • National Army Museum
  • National Museum of the Royal Navy
  • Royal Air Force Museum
  • Single Source Regulations Office

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Advisory Committee on Conscientious Objectors
  • Armed Forces' Pay Review Body
  • Defence Nuclear Safety Committee
  • Independent Medical Expert Group
  • National Employer Advisory Board
  • Nuclear Research Advisory Council
  • Scientific Advisory Committee on the Medical Implications of Less-Lethal Weapons
  • Veterans Advisory and Pensions Committees

Public corporation[edit]

  • The Oil and Pipelines Agency

Ad-hoc advisory group[edit]

  • Central Advisory Committee on Compensation

Other[edit]

  • Advisory Group on Military Medicine
  • Defence Academy of the United Kingdom
  • Defence Sixth Form College
  • Defence and Security Media Advisory Committee
  • Fleet Air Arm Museum
  • Reserve Forces' and Cadets' Associations
  • Royal Marines Museum
  • Royal Navy Submarine Museum
  • Service Complaints Ombudsman
  • Service Prosecuting Authority
  • United Kingdom Reserve Forces Association

Ministry of Justice[edit]

Executive agency[edit]

  • Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority
  • HM Courts & Tribunals Service
  • HM Prison Service
  • Legal Aid Agency
  • Office of the Public Guardian

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Cafcass
  • Criminal Cases Review Commission
  • Judicial Appointments Commission
  • Legal Services Board
  • Parole Board
  • Youth Justice Board for England and Wales

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Advisory Committees on Justices of the Peace
  • Civil Justice Council
  • Civil Procedure Rule Committee
  • Criminal Procedure Rule Committee
  • Family Justice Council
  • Family Procedure Rule Committee
  • Independent Advisory Panel on Deaths in Custody
  • Law Commission
  • Prison Service Pay Review Body
  • Sentencing Council for England and Wales
  • Tribunal Procedure Committee

Other[edit]

  • Academy for Social Justice Commissioning
  • HM Inspectorate of Prisons
  • HM Inspectorate of Probation
  • Independent Monitoring Boards
  • Judicial Appointments and Conduct Ombudsman
  • Judicial Office
  • The Legal Ombudsman
  • Official Solicitor and Public Trustee
  • Prisons and Probation Ombudsman
  • Victims' Commissioner

Northern Ireland Office[edit]

Executive non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission
  • Parades Commission for Northern Ireland

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Boundary Commission for Northern Ireland

Office of the Advocate General for Scotland[edit]

Office of the Leader of the House of Commons[edit]

Office of the Leader of the House of Lords[edit]

Office of the Secretary of State for Wales[edit]

Scotland Office[edit]

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Boundary Commission for Scotland

UK Export Finance[edit]

Advisory non-departmental public body[edit]

  • Export Guarantees Advisory Council

Non ministerial departments[edit]

  • The Charity Commission
  • Competition and Markets Authority
  • Crown Prosecution Service
  • Food Standards Agency
    • Advisory Committee on Animal Feedingstuffs
    • Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes
    • Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food
    • Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment
    • Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment
    • General Advisory Committee on Science
    • Social Science Research Committee
  • Forestry Commission
    • Forest Enterprise (England)
    • Forest Research
  • Government Actuary's Department
  • Government Legal Department
  • HM Land Registry
  • HM Revenue & Customs
    • Valuation Office
    • The Adjudicator’s Office
  • NS&I
  • The National Archives
  • National Crime Agency
  • Office of Rail and Road
  • Ofgem
  • Ofqual
  • Ofsted
  • Ordnance Survey
  • Serious Fraud Office
  • Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
  • UK Statistics Authority
    • Office for National Statistics
  • The Water Services Regulation Authority

Other countries[edit]

Several other countries have an executive agency model.

In the United States, the Clinton administration imported the model, but with a modification of the name to "performance-based organizations."[2]

In Canada, executive agencies were adopted on a limited basis under the name "special operating agencies."[3]

Executive agencies were also established in Australia, Jamaica, Japan and Tanzania.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cabinet Office - UK Government executive agencies (Archived Page, retrieved 29 August 2014)
  2. ^ Roberts, Alasdair. Performance-Based Organizations: Assessing the Gore Plan. Public Administration Review, Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 465-478, December 1997.
  3. ^ Roberts, Alasdair. Public Works and Government Services: Beautiful Theory Meets Ugly Reality. HOW OTTAWA SPENDS, G. Swimmer, ed., pp. 171-203 Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1996

External links[edit]