Exercise and music

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The interplay of exercise and music has long been discussed, crossing the disciplines of biomechanics, neurology, physiology, and sport psychology. Exercise and music involves the use of music before, during, and/or after performing a physical activity. Listening to music while exercising is done to improve aspects of exercise, such as strength output, exercise duration, and motivation.[1][2][3] The use of music during exercise can provide physiological benefits as well as psychological benefits.[4]

Major empirical findings[edit]

Physiological effects[edit]

People "automatically feel the beat" of the music they listen to and instinctively adjust their walking pace and heart rate to the tempo of the music[5] .[6] Listening to music during exercise can promote rhythmic activity due to synchronous music.[7]

In a study published in 2009, researchers at the Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences at Liverpool John Moores University had 12 subjects ride a stationary bicycle at a pace that they could sustain for 30 minutes while listening to a song of the subject's choice. In successive trials, they rode the bikes again, with the tempo of the music variously increased or decreased by 10%, without the subject's knowledge. The researchers results showed that the riders heart rate and mileage decreased when the tempo was slowed, while they rode a greater distance, increased their heart rate and enjoyed the music more at the faster tempo. Though the participants thought their workout was harder at the more upbeat tempo, the researchers found that when the faster-paced music was heard while exercising "the participants chose to accept, and even prefer, a greater degree of effort".[8]

In young untrained subjects, music was found to cause an increase in exercise duration due to fast and loud music when compared to other subjects that did not listen to music at all.[9] Loud music may improve performance however overexposure may lead to noise-induced hearing problems.[10]

Scientists at the University of Wisconsin–La Crosse found in a 2003 study that participants who chose to listen to faster-paced music generated a higher heart rate, pedaled harder and generated more power, increasing their level of work by as much as 15% by diverting their focus to the music. The study tested 20 volunteers who listened to an MP3 player loaded with a mix of 13 songs that they selected and then rode an exercise bike for an hour at a pace and gear of their choice. The study found that heart rates rose from 133 to 146 beats per minute and power output increased accordingly, when listening to the tempo-less sound of crashing waves versus music with a medium to fast tempo.[11][12]

To further this idea, a study from the New York Times shows how music helps boost workouts. This experiment was done by testing a control group of people working out in a normal workout setting and the same group of people working out with machines that incorporated beats and rhythms into each rep. To do this, they installed the kits into three different workout machines, one a stair-stepper, the other two weight machines with bars that could be raised or pulled down to stimulate various muscles. Thomas Hans Fritz, a researcher at the Max Planck Institute who led the study said, “Participants could express themselves on the machines by, for instance, modulating rhythms and creating melodies.” Throughout each workout, the researchers monitored the force their volunteers generated while using the machines, as well as whether the weight lifters’ movements tended to stutter or flow and how much oxygen the volunteers consumed, a reliable measure of physical effort. Afterward, the scientists asked the volunteers to rate the tolerability or unpleasantness of the session, on a scale from 1 to 20.[13]

Max strength is unaffected by the use of music during exercise.[14][15]

Psychological effects[edit]

Listening to music while exercising has been found in multiple studies to create an increased sense of motivation, distracting the mind while increasing heart rate. Faster tempo music has been found by researchers to motivate exercisers to work harder when performing at a moderate pace, but peak performance has been found to be unaffected by listening to music.[16][6]

A 2004 study by a research team from Australia, Israel and the United States found that runners performing at a pace where they were at 90% of their peak oxygen uptake enjoyed listening to music. The music had no effect however on their heart rate or running pace, regardless of the music's tempo.[16][17]

Generally, studies suggest that athletes use music in purposeful ways to facilitate training and performance. In one study, seventy elite Swedish athletes completed a questionnaire relating the empirical motives for listening to music. The results showed that most of them often listened to music during pre-event, pre-training sessions, and warm-ups. The athletes gave as reasons for listening to music that they felt that it increased activation, positive affect, motivation, performance levels, and flow.[2][18] There are also types workout music using brainwave entrainment that claims to boost performance.[19]


  1. ^ Barney, David; Gust, Anita; Liguori, Gary (2012). "College Students' Usage of Personal Music Players (PMP) during Exercise". ICHPER-SD Journal of Research. 7 (1): 23–26. ISSN 1930-4595.
  2. ^ a b Laukka, Petric, and Lina Quick. "Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes." Psychology of Music 41 (2011): 198-215. Print.
  3. ^ Karow, Morgan C.; Rogers, Rebecca R.; Pederson, Joseph A.; Williams, Tyler D.; Marshall, Mallory R.; Ballmann, Christopher G. (October 2020). "Effects of Preferred and Nonpreferred Warm-Up Music on Exercise Performance". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 127 (5): 912–924. doi:10.1177/0031512520928244. ISSN 0031-5125. PMID 32493179. S2CID 219315986.
  4. ^ Terry, Peter C.; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Curran, Michelle L.; Martin, Olwenn V.; Parsons-Smith, Renée L. (February 2020). "Effects of music in exercise and sport: A meta-analytic review". Psychological Bulletin. 146 (2): 91–117. doi:10.1037/bul0000216. ISSN 1939-1455. PMID 31804098. S2CID 208645971.
  5. ^ Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš (2014-12-02). "Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context". Frontiers in Psychology. 5: 1361. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01361. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 4251309. PMID 25520682.
  6. ^ a b "The BASES expert statement on the use of music in exercise". Functional U. 9 (4): 10–13. July 2011.
  7. ^ "Can Listening to Music Improve Your Workout?". National Center for Health Research. 2015-08-04. Retrieved 2020-11-08.
  8. ^ Waterhouse J, Hudson P, Edwards B (2010). "Effects of music tempo upon submaximal cycling performance". Scand J Med Sci Sports. 20 (4): 662–9. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00948.x. PMID 19793214.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi (2017-04-15). "Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults". International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. 9 (2): 35–39. ISSN 1944-8171. PMC 5435671. PMID 28533890.
  10. ^ Van Dyck, Edith (2019-05-15). "Musical Intensity Applied in the Sports and Exercise Domain: An Effective Strategy to Boost Performance?". Frontiers in Psychology. 10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01145. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 6529527. PMID 31156525.
  11. ^ Fauber, John via Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. "Workout with a tempo: Choice of music can affect exercise intensity", The Free Lance–Star, November 9, 2003. Accessed August 26, 2010.
  12. ^ Staff. "Upbeat Music Boosts Exercise Intensity", Medical News Today, October 20, 2003. Accessed August 26, 2010.
  13. ^ "How Music Can Boost Our Workouts".
  14. ^ Kose, Bereket (2018). "Does Motivational Music Influence Maximal Bench Press Strength and Strength Endurance?". Asian Journal of Education and Training. 4 (3): 197–200. doi:10.20448/journal.522.2018.43.197.200.
  15. ^ Bartolomei, Sandro; Michele, Rocco Di; Merni, Franco (June 2015). "Effects of Self-Selected Music on Maximal Bench Press Strength and Strength Endurance". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 120 (3): 714–721. doi:10.2466/06.30.PMS.120v19x9. ISSN 0031-5125.
  16. ^ a b Reynolds, Gretchen. "Phys Ed: Does Music Make You Exercise Harder?", The New York Times, August 25, 2010. Accessed August 26, 2010.
  17. ^ Tenenbaum, G.; Lidor, R.; Lavyan, N.; Morrow, K.; Tonnel, S.; Gershgoren, A.; Meis, J.; and Johnson, M. "The effect of music type on running perseverance and coping with effort sensations", Psychology of Sport and Exercise Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2004, Pages 89-109. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(02)00041-9
  18. ^ Mohammadzadeh, Hasan; Tartibiyan, Bakhtiyar; Ahmadi, Azhdar (March 2008). "The Effects of Music on the Perceived Exertion Rate and Performance of Trained and Untrained Individuals During Progressive Exercise". EFEKTI MUZIKE NA PRIMETAN STEPEN NAPORA (NAPREZANJA) I IZVOÐENJE TRENIRANIH I NETRENIRANIH INDIVIDUA TOKOM PROGRESIVNOG VEŽBANJA. 6 (1): 67–74.
  19. ^ Fit Catalyst - Workout Brainwave Entrainment