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In commerce and management, exnovation, an opposite of innovation, can occur when products and processes that have been tested and confirmed to be best-in-class are standardized to ensure that they are not innovated further. Companies that have followed exnovation as a strategy to improve organizational performance include General Electric, Ford Motor Company and American Airlines.
One of the earliest usages of the term came in 1981, when John Kimberly referred to "removal of innovation from an organisation". In 1996 A. Sandeep provided the modern definition of exnovation as the philosophy of not innovating – in other words, ensuring that best-in-class entities are not innovated further. Since then "exnovation" has become a notable parlance in various practices, from management to medicine.
- Collaborative innovation network – a social construct used to describe innovative teams
- Design strategy
- Diffusion of innovations – a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures
- Frugal innovation – process of reducing the complexity and cost of a good and its production
- Ideas bank – shared resource, usually a website, where people post, exchange, discuss, and polish new ideas
- Open innovation – a paradigm that assumes that organizations can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas
- Pro-innovation bias – the belief that an innovation should be adopted by whole society without the need of its alteration
- Technology forecasting – the prediction of future characteristics of useful technological machines, procedures or techniques
- Technology scouting – a method of technology forecasting
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