From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Chaetothyriomycetes
Order: Chaetothyriales
Family: Herpotrichiellaceae[1]
Genus: Exophiala
J.W.Carmich. (1966)
Type species
Exophiala salmonis
J.W.Carmich. (1966)

Foxia Castell. (1908)
Wangiella McGinnis (1977)

Exophiala is a genus of anamorphic fungi in the family Herpotrichiellaceae. The widespread genus contains 28 species.[3] The genus was formally described by J.W. Carmichael in 1966.[4]

Exophiala has been implicated in causing 'Saxophone Lung' or hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a disease that can be contracted by woodwind instrumentalists (saxophonists, clarinettists, oboists etc.). A case study presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology highlighted that it is possible to develop this allergic pulmonary disease through improper cleaning of instruments.[5][6]

Exophiala werneckii is the organism responsible for tinea nigra.

Some sources equate Hortaea werneckii, Cladosporium werneckii, Exophiala werneckii, and Phaeoannellomyces werneckii.[7]

Exophiala jeanselmei causes maduromycosis.[8] This is usually an asymtomatic disease which presents with black or brown macular lesions which enlarge by peripheral extension. The lesion is darkest at the periphery and has very distinct margins. Lab diagnosis- using a KOH mount. Typically seen is brown septate branching hyphae or dark brown budding cells. Treatment is topical antifungal: miconazole or econazole.



  1. ^ Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota – 2007". Myconet. Chicago, USA: The Field Museum, Department of Botany. 13: 1–58. Archived from the original on 2009-03-18.
  2. ^ "Exophiala J.W. Carmich. 1966". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
  3. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  4. ^ Carmichael JW. (1966). "Cerebral mycetoma of trout due to a Phialophora-like fungus". Sabouraudia. 5 (1): 120–3. PMID 6010250.
  5. ^ "What Happened When One Man Didn't Clean His Clarinet For More Than 30 Years". Huffington Post. 2013-11-08.
  6. ^ http://www.livescience.com/41057-what-is-saxophone-lung-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis.html
  7. ^ "Mycology Online -- Phaeoannellomyces". Archived from the original on 2008-12-05.
  8. ^ Exophiala at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)