Expansion of Major League Soccer
The expansion of Major League Soccer has occurred several times since the league began play in 1996. Major League Soccer was established as the top level of professional soccer in the United States in 1993 with 10 teams and began play in 1996. It has expanded several times since 1998 into new markets across the United States, and since 2006, into Canada.
MLS is currently at 20 teams, and the league plans to expand to 24 teams by 2020. The league plans to add its 21st and 22nd teams in 2017 – Atlanta United FC and Los Angeles FC. Additionally, MLS plans to add Minnesota United FC in 2018 (or earlier, if Los Angeles is not ready in 2017) and a Miami team, pending a finalized stadium plan. Expanding and establishing a bigger national footprint is seen as essential to securing television rights fees needed to reach MLS's stated goal of becoming one of the top leagues in the world by 2022.
Major League Soccer considers several criteria when determining where to award expansion franchises:
- owners that are committed to MLS and have the financial wherewithal to invest in a team,
- a stadium or approved plans for a stadium (preferably a soccer-specific stadium) that allows the team to control revenue streams such as parking and concessions,
- the size of the market of the metropolitan area, and
- an established local fan base.
|Progression of MLS Expansion|
- 1 Early history: 1993–2003
- 2 Growth phase: 2004–present
- 2.1 Los Angeles (2005) and Salt Lake City (2005)
- 2.2 Relocation: Houston (2006)
- 2.3 Toronto (2007)
- 2.4 San Jose (2008)
- 2.5 Seattle (2009)
- 2.6 Philadelphia (2010)
- 2.7 Vancouver (2011) and Portland (2011)
- 2.8 Montreal (2012)
- 2.9 Dissolution of Chivas USA (2014)
- 2.10 New York City (2015) and Orlando (2015)
- 3 Growth plans
- 4 Growth beyond 2020
- 5 Markets under consideration
- 6 Failed, stalled, or speculated expansion efforts
- 7 See also
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 References
Early history: 1993–2003
MLS expansion got off to a mixed start in its initial years. MLS began playing with 10 teams in 1996, grew to 12 teams in 1998, but put expansion plans on hold and then eliminated two teams following the 2001 season to return to 10 teams.
Major League Soccer was established in 1993, as part of an agreement with FIFA that the United States set up a professional first division to gain the right to host the 1994 FIFA World Cup. No successful professional outdoor soccer league existed since the North American Soccer League folded in 1985. Due to rapid over-expansion and poor franchise placement, the NASL collapse led future MLS leaders to be extremely cautious of establishing new franchises.
Initially twelve new teams were to be placed in carefully selected cities where a strong soccer market was thought to exist. This was scaled back to ten after potential backers could not be found. Eventually 22 communities submitted formal bids to host an inaugural MLS franchise.
The initial ten teams created were the Columbus Crew, D.C. United, the New England Revolution, the NY/NJ MetroStars, the Tampa Bay Mutiny, the Colorado Rapids, the Dallas Burn, the Kansas City Wiz, the Los Angeles Galaxy and the San Jose Clash. While New York and Los Angeles were awarded franchises, the next four largest American cities—Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and Detroit—were all without a team. Using American football stadiums, the new league kicked off in April 1996.
Expansion: Chicago (1998) and Miami (1998)
In 1998, the league expanded for the first time, rising from ten teams to twelve. The new teams were the Chicago Fire and Miami Fusion. Miami owner Ken Horowitz paid a $20 million expansion fee for the right to join MLS.
Contraction from Florida (2002)
Major League Soccer had reportedly lost an estimated $250 million during its first five years. The league's poor financial condition forced MLS to stop the bleeding. During the winter break between the 2000 and 2001 seasons, reports began circulating that MLS was considering trimming the league from 12 teams back to 10 teams. MLS announced in January 2002 that it had decided to contract the two Florida franchises, the Tampa Bay Mutiny and Miami Fusion. Both teams were withdrawn from the league and folded. The league had chosen to fold the Miami Fusion, in part because the Fusion's ownership reportedly lacked financial resources, had been trying to run the Fusion on a bare-minimum budget, and had asked the League to pay some of the club's expenses. Miami ownership had reportedly experienced $15 million in operating losses since Miami joined the league. The League chose to fold the Tampa Bay Mutiny, in part because the team was operated by the League instead of by an individual owner, meaning that the League had to absorb 100% of the team's operating losses. This contraction left the league with 10 teams, the same number as when MLS began.
Growth phase: 2004–present
By 2003, the league was at 10 teams — the same number of teams as when MLS began in 1996. In 2004, MLS began an expansion phase, growing from 10 teams up to 20 teams today.
Los Angeles (2005) and Salt Lake City (2005)
The performance of the US national team at the 2002 World Cup, where they reached the quarter-final, sparked a recovery in the league's fortunes, and attendances once again began to rise. MLS began looking to expand once more with a number of cities interested in hosting new teams. The demand for an expansion team grew.
In 2004, MLS awarded a second franchise to the Los Angeles area, Chivas USA. The team was owned partly by C.D. Guadalajara owner Jorge Vergara, and took the name and colors from the Mexican club with the aim of appealing to the Hispanic community in Southern California. Chivas and the Los Angeles Galaxy shared The Home Depot Center (now StubHub Center) and played in the league's first local derby game.
The league also announced Real Salt Lake in 2004. The franchise received permission to use the "Real" name from Real Madrid as part of a business agreement between the Salt Lake owner Dave Checketts and the Spanish club. Real Salt Lake initially played its home games at Rice–Eccles Stadium on the University of Utah campus before moving to Rio Tinto Stadium in the suburb of Sandy in October 2008.
Relocation: Houston (2006)
In 2005, the San Jose Earthquakes were put on hiatus because of a failure to secure a soccer-specific stadium. The players and the coach were moved to an expansion team in Houston, Texas, where they became the Houston Dynamo playing out of Robertson Stadium. The number of teams in the league did not change.
In November 2005, Major League Soccer announced that it had approved an expansion franchise in Toronto to be owned and operated by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, which also owns the Toronto Maple Leafs and Toronto Raptors. The Toronto City Council had previously approved $9.8 million in funding for a $62.8-million stadium, with the rest of the money coming from MLSE, the federal government, and the provincial government. The team name Toronto FC and logo were announced in May 2006. The club played their first season in MLS in 2007, finishing at the bottom of the table. The introduction of the MLS into Canada took MLS into a separate country for the first time.
San Jose (2008)
Seattle was awarded a franchise in 2007, and following a vote by supporters, the team chose the name Seattle Sounders FC, after the Seattle Sounders that played in the North American Soccer League in the 1970s and '80s. The city did not have a soccer-specific stadium or any plans to construct one, and instead, it shared Qwest Field (now known as CenturyLink Field) with the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League who, like the Sounders, are owned in part by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. The stadium was built as a combined football/soccer stadium with an MLS team in mind, including soccer-specific features.
On February 28, 2008, MLS announced that the sixteenth franchise would be awarded to Philadelphia. Philadelphia was appealing to MLS because Philadelphia was the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. without an MLS franchise, and it had a strong ownership group. There had been a strong campaign to bring a team to the city, with intense lobbying by supporters groups such as the Sons of Ben.
Philadelphia won the bid over a competing bid from St. Louis that was led by St. Louis investor Jeff Cooper. St. Louis had a stadium deal in Collinsville, Illinois, but lacked sufficient financing.
On May 11, 2009, it was announced that the team name would be Philadelphia Union. The new team announced their intention to construct an 18,500 seat stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania, which opened as PPL Park and is now known as Talen Energy Stadium.
Vancouver (2011) and Portland (2011)
One of three Canadian cities in the running for 2011 MLS expansion, Vancouver's bid was led by local businessman Greg Kerfoot, at that time owner of the Vancouver Whitecaps FC in USSF D2 Pro. NBA star Steve Nash was also involved as a minority stakeholder. The city's bid was boosted by the proposed construction of the Whitecaps Waterfront Stadium, with an initial capacity of 20,000 and the potential for further expansion. Don Garber called the bid presentation by Vancouver "one of the best I've ever seen." On March 18, 2009, MLS commissioner Don Garber announced that Vancouver had been awarded one of the two 2011 expansion spots. Vancouver continued to field the second-tier Whitecaps until the MLS team made its debut in 2011. The MLS Whitecaps began the 2011 season at Empire Field, sharing it with the BC Lions of the Canadian Football League, before both teams moved into the renovated BC Place in October 2011.
On July 31, 2008, Merritt Paulson announced that he would apply for an MLS franchise for Portland as an MLS continuation of the Portland Timbers. Paulson further outlined his plan by launching a website. The MLS Timbers would play in a renovated PGE Park, which was renamed to Jeld-Wen Field by the time the team made its MLS debut in 2011 and is now known as Providence Park, sharing with the Portland State University football team. On March 20, 2009, commissioner Don Garber confirmed in a news conference that Portland would receive the 18th franchise.
The city of Montreal had been in consideration by Major League Soccer for a club since the league's founding and planning stages in 1993. In the fall of 2008, the Joey Saputo group was on a short list for the next round of expansion. On May 7, 2010, Commissioner Don Garber announced that Saputo and the Impact group would join the league as its 19th club for the 2012 MLS season with Stade Saputo being renovated to increase the seating capacity to around 20,000.
Dissolution of Chivas USA (2014)
Chivas USA was dissolved following the end of the 2014 regular season, after the league bought the franchise and took over the operations from Jorge Vergara and Angélica Fuentes in February that year, leaving the league with 20 teams for the 2015 season. The club had suffered poor performance on the field, low attendance and a series of discrimination lawsuits against the ownership. Commissioner Garber cited the "brand that was targeted specifically to the Hispanic market" and the belief that "the club could coexist with the Galaxy and share the StubHub Center" as mistakes.
Later the same week, the league announced the formation of a new Los Angeles-area team that begins play in 2017 with the working name, "Los Angeles Football Club".
New York City (2015) and Orlando (2015)
In May 2010, league commissioner Don Garber announced the league's desire to place its 20th team in New York City On June 27, 2012, MLS announced plans to build a new soccer-specific stadium in Queens, New York, with a seating capacity of 25,000 and located near the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows.
On May 21, 2013, MLS announced New York City FC as the next expansion team. The team's expansion rights were purchased by the English Premier League club Manchester City and the New York Yankees baseball team for $100 million, and the team began play in 2015.
On October 25, 2010, Phil Rawlins and his investor group of Orlando City SC, announced their intentions of joining Major League Soccer within the next 3 to 5 years. Commissioner Garber and other MLS officials met with Orlando City team officials in February 2011 and again in November 2011 to discuss MLS expansion in Orlando. In March 2012, Garber met with Orlando city and county officials, and said, "It's not a matter of if, but when," when addressing Orlando's chances of joining MLS.
In April 2013, the City of Orlando purchased downtown land to be used towards the construction of a $110 million MLS soccer stadium. Orange County Mayor Teresa Jacobs and Orlando Mayor Buddy Dyer reached an agreement on a deal to provide financial support for a variety of Orlando projects including the new MLS soccer stadium on August 8, 2013. The Orange County Board of Commissioners voted 5-2 on October 22, 2013 to approve the use of $20 million in tourist development tax funds to build an $84 million multi-purpose soccer stadium in downtown Orlando.
On November 19, 2013, Orlando was officially announced as the league's 21st team (Chivas USA later shut down returning the number to 20) and began play in MLS in 2015.
Major League Soccer plans to grow from 20 to 24 teams by 2020. MLS has confirmed that it will add expansion teams in Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Minnesota. MLS has stated it will add an expansion team in Miami if a stadium deal there is finalized.
The league announced it was awarding an expansion franchise in Atlanta to Atlanta Falcons owner and Home Depot co-founder Arthur Blank on April 16, 2014, with plans to begin play in 2017. The team will share Mercedes-Benz Stadium, which is scheduled to be completed in 2017, with the Falcons. Discussions between Blank and MLS had "accelerated" following approval of the stadium plans in late 2013.
Atlanta became the third city in the southeastern United States in five months to announce an expansion team, following Orlando City in late 2013 and Miami, whose tentative approval was announced earlier in 2014. The Atlanta metropolitan area was at the time the largest media market without an MLS franchise.
Los Angeles (2018)
On October 30, 2014, the league announced the formation of a new Los Angeles-area team to replace Chivas USA that shut down operations following the 2014 season. The new team was announced with the working name, "Los Angeles Football Club", with an ownership group led by venture capitalist Henry Nguyen, film producer Peter Guber, and former National Basketball Association executive Tom Penn. The team plans to begin play in 2018 in a new, dedicated stadium.
On March 25, 2015, the league announced that it had awarded the 23rd MLS team to Minneapolis (later changed to Saint Paul) to an investor group led by Bill McGuire, owner of the current NASL team Minnesota United FC. Club president Nick Rodgers said he expected much of the team, including the name, logo, coach and some players, to remain intact. The team had been expected to begin play in MLS in 2017 or 2018. However, Minnesota did not meet its July 1, 2015 deadline to present stadium plans to MLS after the Minnesota state legislature did not take up the club's proposal by the end of its session in May 2015.
In October 2015, the team announced it had selected a stadium site in St. Paul, and that the team hoped to begin play in MLS in 2017. As of November 2015, the team expects the stadium to be completed during 2018.
On February 5, 2014, the league announced that it would award a franchise in Miami to an investment group led by former player David Beckham, his business partner Simon Fuller, and Miami-based businessman Marcelo Claure, assuming that stadium financing and location could be agreed upon. However, the ownership group's two stadium sites were rejected by city and county governments by July 2014. Commissioner Garber said he hoped to see Miami join the league with Atlanta in 2017, but repeated that the team would not play without political support for a downtown stadium.
The next development in the Beckham plan came on July 17, 2015, when Miami mayor Tomás Regalado announced a tentative deal with the ownership group, now known as Beckham United, for a new privately financed stadium in Little Havana next to Marlins Park, at the former site of the Orange Bowl.
Growth beyond 2020
Garber stated in March 2015 that MLS would evaluate during 2015 whether to expand beyond 24 clubs. Garber then stated in April 2015 "We will expand beyond 24 teams. It's not an if but a when."
In April 2013, in response to a question about whether MLS might grow to 30 teams, Garber answered that "30 seems like too many."
On December 5, 2015 following a meeting of the Board of Governors, the league announced support for an expansion to 28 teams. Commissioner Garber stated, "We will evaluate how to grow the league to 28 teams and establish a process and timeline for future expansion."
Markets under consideration
Garber confirmed in a July 5, 2013 interview on that Miami, Atlanta, Orlando, and Texas were all candidates for MLS expansion. Commissioner Garber, in his 2013 State of the League Address, identified four additional cities – Minneapolis, San Antonio, Austin, and St. Louis – as under consideration for the final expansion candidate to join MLS before 2020. In February 2014, Garber again confirmed Minneapolis and San Antonio as candidates, and also mentioned San Diego and Sacramento as expansion candidates. Garber discussed several expansion candidates in March 2014, saying that expansion into San Antonio or elsewhere in Texas was likely but not any time soon. In an August 2014 Q&A session, deputy commissioner Mark Abbott identified Sacramento and Las Vegas as new candidates for the 24th and final expansion team, in addition to the previously mentioned San Antonio, Austin and Minneapolis, and said Miami would be the 23rd team as long as a downtown stadium deal could be reached.
In November 2014, representatives from Las Vegas, Minneapolis, and Sacramento made presentations to MLS in advance of the December 2014 MLS Board of Governors meeting, and an update was provided regarding developments in San Antonio. In early December 2014, Garber stated that San Antonio was "not as far along" as the bids for the other three cities. In January 2015, Garber indicated that MLS would soon be visiting (and evaluating efforts toward expansion) in San Antonio and St. Louis. In February 2015, MLS informed the City of Las Vegas that MLS would not consider Las Vegas as an expansion market until after 2018.
In December 2011, a group led by former California Assembly Speaker Fabian Núñez began exploring the possibility of landing an MLS franchise for the Sacramento area, with the suburb of Elk Grove as a possible stadium site. On March 13, 2013, the Elk Grove city council voted unanimously to study potential sites for a soccer-specific stadium in the city that could host either an MLS or NASL team.
Sacramento was granted a USL Pro team that began play in the 2014 season. A group of investors, led by local business leader Warren Smith, expressed their hope to convert this Sacramento franchise to an MLS team. Warren previously helped bring the Sacramento River Cats, an MiLB franchise, to Sacramento. In November 2013, Warren Smith re-confirmed his goal of his Sacramento Republic FC USL Pro team landing in MLS in 2016.
In August 2014, owners of the Sacramento Kings NBA basketball team led by businessman Vivek Ranadivé expressed an interest in buying Republic FC with the ultimate goal of elevating the team to MLS. They met with league officials during the week of the 2014 MLS All-Star Game, and deputy commissioner Mark Abbott said league executives would visit the city and tour possible stadium locations. Kings owner Ranadive announced in January 2015 that he had joined the Sacramento Republic ownership group, in a move seen as bolstering Sacramento's chances of landing an MLS berth. Also in January 2015, the owners of the NFL's San Francisco 49ers agreed to invest in the Sacramento Republic.
Sacramento's bid is also strengthened by its fan support. As of January 2015, the club had nearly 10,000 ticket deposits as part of its "Built for MLS" campaign. Sacramento is the 20th largest television market in the United States.
In March 2015, Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson announced a joint initiative of the city and the club dubbed "Operation Turnkey", which would have stadium construction ready to begin should one of the other expansion candidates without a firm stadium plan yet – Minneapolis, Miami, or Los Angeles – fail to come up with one or the league decided to expand beyond 24 teams.
In late 2011, San Antonio announced its bid to be MLS's 20th team. The city's North American Soccer League franchise, the San Antonio Scorpions, launched in 2012 and led the league in attendance in 2012 and 2013 seasons. The Scorpions played at Toyota Field, a soccer-specific stadium with a capacity of 8,000, and an expansion capability to 18,000.
A previous San Antonio expansion bid ended in 2005, when negotiations between the league and then-mayor Ed Garza ended. Incoming mayor Phil Hardberger criticized the proposed deal, while Garber claimed that the criticisms were politically motivated and hurt efforts to sell season tickets and recruit local investors.
In Commissioner Garber's December 2013 State of the League address, San Antonio was one of five cities listed on a presentation map of potential expansion locations.
In January 2014, Garber met with Mayor Julian Castro and Scorpions owner Gordon Hartman concerning San Antonio's bid to receive an expansion franchise. In March 2014, Garber said that expansion in the immediate future was "premature" for both San Antonio and Texas, though it was "something that is likely to happen".
In December 2014, Garber stated that the league was continuing to evaluate and receive updates on developments in San Antonio. Potential developments include the emergence of an outside investment group and the expansion plan of the current North American Soccer League stadium. In early December 2014, Garber revealed that San Antonio was "not as far along" as the three other cities under consideration at the time. But the league continues to monitor progress and efforts toward expansion in San Antonio.
On November 4, 2015, the city of San Antonio and Bexar County announced plans to purchase Toyota Field for $18 million with the intentions of acquiring a MLS franchise. Additionally, Spurs Sports & Entertainment, owners of the NBA's San Antonio Spurs, would hold a 20-year lease to operate the stadium; if SS&E fails to secure a MLS franchise for the stadium within 10 years, the group would owe the city and county a $5 million penalty.
St. Louis announced in late 2014 that it was planning a new stadium to host both American football and soccer. Garber stated in January 2015 that: “St. Louis has got a lot of activity going on with a stadium that they’re trying to get done for the NFL Rams". There's a big soccer community out there and we'd love to see a soccer stadium downtown like they're thinking about a football stadium. In May 2015, Garber visited St. Louis to talk about a possible new multi-purpose stadium that would be capable of holding soccer games. Garber stated that "We really hope to be able to work with them," although he cautioned that any possible expansion to St. Louis would occur after 2020.
On January 27, 2016, St. Louis lawmaker, Keith English proposed a bill that would put a tax of not more than one-tenth of one percent on the ballot in St. Louis and St. Louis County, it also calls for the RSA to oversee the soccer stadium. That money could only be earmarked if a team signs s 30-year lease with the authority. The proposed tax would only go into effect if MLS awards a team to St. Louis by December 20, 2020. There is also a proposal to build a soccer-specific stadium south of Union Station. The MLS will begin searching for a stadium site in St. Louis and planning for its financing and operations immediately. Don Garber said he was "very excited" by the idea of an expansion team playing on the riverfront.
Previously, Jeff Cooper had twice attempted in 2008 and 2009 to bring an MLS expansion team to St. Louis, only to have both bids turned down in favor of other cities. Despite approved stadium plans to build the $600 million Collinsville Soccer Complex, MLS was not impressed with the bid's financial backing and suggested Cooper expand his group of investors. Cooper instead launched a second division men's club and a Women's Professional Soccer franchise. AC St. Louis played only one season in Division 2 averaging 2,750 fans during the 2010 season before folding,[self-published source?] and the Saint Louis Athletica folded midway through its second season in 2010.
Dennis Porter, Henderson, Nevada Utility Services Director, expressed interest in 2011 in bringing a new MLS club to the Las Vegas area. On February 10, 2012, Las Vegas National Sports Center and International Development Management announced that they had secured financing to build a multi-purpose stadium in Henderson where an MLS team could play. But on November 28, 2012, the developer called the deal off, stating the deal was not financially viable. Henderson's Bureau of Land Management later sued the developer for fraud, and the land deal became the subject of a federal investigation.
The Las Vegas Sun reported on May 14, 2014 that a potential ownership group held talks about an expansion team in Las Vegas. The investor group, consisting of Findlay Sports and Entertainment and real estate developers, Cordish Company, acquired a 61-acre site at Symphony Park in Downtown Las Vegas from the city and released a plan to build a 24,000-seat stadium there. MLS, Mayor Carolyn Goodman, and the Findlay group expressed preference for a downtown stadium. League deputy commissioner Mark Abbott visited the city in July 2014 to meet with Mayor Goodman and to tour the downtown area.
On December 17, 2014, the Las Vegas City Council approved public funding of $56.5 million for the proposed soccer stadium in Symphony Park, contingent on MLS granting an expansion franchise to Las Vegas.
Garber notified Las Vegas Mayor Carolyn Goodman on February 12, 2015 that MLS no longer considered Las Vegas as an expansion market until after 2018.
Failed, stalled, or speculated expansion efforts
This section includes cities with bids that have either failed or stalled, or are otherwise not explicitly included in the MLS expansion roadmap, the latest of which was announced in December 2013.
MLS announced in 2004 that Cleveland would be getting an expansion franchise for the 2005 season, as area businessman Bert Wolstein had signed a letter of intent to launch an MLS club. However, Wolstein ran into delays in trying to obtain public financing for a stadium, and died in 2004. In 2006 the Wolstein Sports and Entertainment Group proposed the construction of a soccer-specific stadium for an MLS club in the Cleveland suburb of Macedonia. However, Summit County voters rejected a tax to raise $104 million of the $165 million needed, environmental groups raised concerns about area wetlands, and the area was hit by the Great Recession of 2008.
In March 2014, Commissioner Garber said there had not been any developments regarding MLS expansion in Cleveland since talks were held "many years ago."
A Miami expansion team led by Barcelona and Marcelo Claure, a Bolivian businessman based in the city, announced an expansion bid in October 2008, with plans to begin play in 2011. But in March 2009, the league and Barcelona announced that Miami was no longer a candidate due to local market conditions. Additionally, MLS expressed concerns about Miami's lack of fan interest in an MLS franchise, the fact that USL team Miami FC was not doing well, and the plan to use FIU Stadium relegating the team to a secondary tenant in a college football stadium with an artificial surface. However, Garber said that Miami would be an expansion target in the future. Claure later joined David Beckham's group of investors for the Miami expansion bid that was accepted by the league in 2014.
New York Cosmos (2009–10)
In 2009, Paul Kemsley bought the rights to the name of the former NASL side New York Cosmos with the stated aim of an MLS expansion franchise. In May 2010, MLS announced the league's desire for a second franchise in New York, although MLS did not endorse the Cosmos. Disputes between Kemsley and Cosmos investors, as well as a lack of progress in stadium development, led to a sale to new owners in October 2011. Negotiations between the league and the Cosmos' new ownership group broke down, and the new Cosmos began playing in the second-tier North American Soccer League in 2013.
The league also met with other prospective ownership groups for a New York expansion team. For example, MLS held talks with New York Mets owner Fred Wilpon, but the Wilpons' interest reportedly faded following the family's losses in the Madoff investment scandal.
MLS awarded the second New York franchise to New York City FC in May 2013. Garber confirmed in April 2014 that there would not be a third New York team after the New York Red Bulls and New York City FC.
Rochester, New York had been mentioned as an expansion candidate due to the success of the Rochester Rhinos. The Rhinos won the US Open Cup in 1999 – the only non-MLS team to win the Cup since that competition was opened to MLS teams – and the Rhinos averaged over 10,000 fans from 1999-2005. In 2006, Don Garber stated: "At some point we want to find a way we can have an MLS team in Rochester." However, the Rhinos saw a downturn in attendance and finances, and the city is no longer under consideration by MLS.
Throughout late 2008 and early 2009, Ottawa was a longshot candidate for one of two slots for MLS expansion, but the push ended in March 2009 when MLS selected Vancouver and Portland instead. On June 20, 2011, Ottawa was awarded an NASL expansion franchise to begin play at TD Place Stadium in 2014.
A firm led by Andreas Apostolopoulos purchased the Silverdome on November 16, 2009, and planned to convert the stadium into a 30,000-seat capacity soccer-specific stadium; on June 8, 2011, Triple Sports & Entertainment applied to MLS for an expansion franchise to play at the Silverdome. On July 24, 2013, Triple Sports & Entertainment submitted a proposal to purchase a site in downtown Detroit and turn it into a residential and entertainment district anchored by a new MLS stadium, saying that the league was more interested in a team playing in downtown Detroit than one playing in Pontiac. However, local officials awarded the site to Cleveland Cavaliers owner Dan Gilbert's Rock Ventures LLC for an entertainment and retail complex.
In September 2014, MountainStar Sports Group, owners of the Triple-A baseball team El Paso Chihuahuas announced it was developing a stadium financing plan and searching for a site for an expansion team in El Paso, Texas. The group said it had previously met with MLS in June that year about an expansion team.
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