Expansion of Major League Soccer
The expansion of Major League Soccer has occurred several times since the league began play in 1996. Major League Soccer was established as the top level of professional soccer in the United States in 1993 with 10 teams and began play in 1996. It has expanded several times since 1998 into new markets across the United States, and since 2006, into Canada.
MLS is currently at 20 teams, and the league plans to expand to 24 teams by 2020. The league plans to add its 21st and 22nd teams in 2017 – Atlanta United FC and Minnesota United FC. Additionally, MLS plans to add Los Angeles FC in 2018 and a Miami team, pending a finalized stadium plan. Expanding and establishing a bigger national footprint is seen as essential to securing television rights fees needed to reach MLS's stated goal of becoming one of the top leagues in the world by 2022.
Major League Soccer considers several criteria when determining where to award expansion franchises:
- owners that are committed to MLS and have the financial wherewithal to invest in a team,
- a stadium or approved plans for a stadium (preferably a soccer-specific stadium) that allows the team to control revenue streams such as parking and concessions,
- the size of the market of the metropolitan area, and
- an established local fan base.
|Progression of MLS Expansion|
- 1 Early history: 1993–2003
- 2 Growth phase: 2004–present
- 2.1 Los Angeles (2005) and Salt Lake City (2005)
- 2.2 Relocation: Houston (2006)
- 2.3 Toronto (2007)
- 2.4 San Jose (2008)
- 2.5 Seattle (2009)
- 2.6 Philadelphia (2010)
- 2.7 Vancouver (2011) and Portland (2011)
- 2.8 Montreal (2012)
- 2.9 Dissolution of Chivas USA (2014)
- 2.10 New York City (2015) and Orlando (2015)
- 3 Growth plans
- 4 Growth beyond 2020
- 5 Markets under consideration
- 6 Failed, stalled, or speculated expansion efforts
- 7 See also
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 References
Early history: 1993–2003
MLS expansion got off to a mixed start in its initial years. MLS began playing with 10 teams in 1996, grew to 12 teams in 1998, but put expansion plans on hold and then eliminated two teams following the 2001 season to return to 10 teams.
Major League Soccer was established in 1993, as part of an agreement with FIFA that the United States set up a professional first division to gain the right to host the 1994 FIFA World Cup. No successful professional outdoor soccer league existed since the North American Soccer League folded in 1985. Due to rapid over-expansion and poor franchise placement, the NASL collapse led future MLS leaders to be extremely cautious of establishing new franchises.
Initially twelve new teams were to be placed in carefully selected cities where a strong soccer market was thought to exist. This was scaled back to ten after potential backers could not be found. Eventually 22 communities submitted formal bids to host an inaugural MLS franchise.
The initial ten teams created were the Columbus Crew, D.C. United, the New England Revolution, the NY/NJ MetroStars, the Tampa Bay Mutiny, the Colorado Rapids, the Dallas Burn, the Kansas City Wiz, the Los Angeles Galaxy and the San Jose Clash. While New York and Los Angeles were awarded franchises, the next four largest American cities—Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and Detroit—were all without a team. Using American football stadiums, the new league kicked off in April 1996.
Expansion: Chicago (1998) and Miami (1998)
In 1998, the league expanded for the first time, rising from ten teams to twelve. The new teams were the Chicago Fire and Miami Fusion. Miami owner Ken Horowitz paid a $20 million expansion fee for the right to join MLS.
Contraction from Florida (2002)
Major League Soccer had reportedly lost an estimated $250 million during its first five years. The league's poor financial condition forced MLS to stop the bleeding. During the winter break between the 2000 and 2001 seasons, reports began circulating that MLS was considering trimming the league from 12 teams back to 10 teams. MLS announced in January 2002 that it had decided to contract the two Florida franchises, the Tampa Bay Mutiny and Miami Fusion. Both teams were withdrawn from the league and folded. The league had chosen to fold the Miami Fusion, in part because the Fusion's ownership reportedly lacked financial resources, had been trying to run the Fusion on a bare-minimum budget, and had asked the League to pay some of the club's expenses. Miami ownership had reportedly experienced $15 million in operating losses since Miami joined the league. The League chose to fold the Tampa Bay Mutiny, in part because the team was operated by the League instead of by an individual owner, meaning that the League had to absorb 100% of the team's operating losses. This contraction left the league with 10 teams, the same number as when MLS began.
Growth phase: 2004–present
By 2003, the league was at 10 teams — the same number of teams as when MLS began in 1996. In 2004, MLS began an expansion phase, growing from 10 teams up to 20 teams today.
Los Angeles (2005) and Salt Lake City (2005)
The performance of the US national team at the 2002 World Cup, where they reached the quarter-final, sparked a recovery in the league's fortunes, and attendances once again began to rise. MLS began looking to expand once more with a number of cities interested in hosting new teams. The demand for an expansion team grew.
In 2004, MLS awarded a second franchise to the Los Angeles area, Chivas USA. The team was owned partly by C.D. Guadalajara owner Jorge Vergara, and took the name and colors from the Mexican club with the aim of appealing to the Hispanic community in Southern California. Chivas and the Los Angeles Galaxy shared The Home Depot Center (now StubHub Center) and played in the league's first local derby game.
The league also announced Real Salt Lake in 2004. The franchise received permission to use the "Real" name from Real Madrid as part of a business agreement between the Salt Lake owner Dave Checketts and the Spanish club. Real Salt Lake initially played its home games at Rice–Eccles Stadium on the University of Utah campus before moving to Rio Tinto Stadium in the suburb of Sandy in October 2008.
Relocation: Houston (2006)
In 2005, the San Jose Earthquakes were put on hiatus because of a failure to secure a soccer-specific stadium. The players and the coach were moved to an expansion team in Houston, Texas, where they became the Houston Dynamo playing out of Robertson Stadium. The number of teams in the league did not change.
In November 2005, Major League Soccer announced that it had approved an expansion franchise in Toronto to be owned and operated by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, which also owns the Toronto Maple Leafs and Toronto Raptors. The Toronto City Council had previously approved $9.8 million in funding for a $62.8-million stadium, with the rest of the money coming from MLSE, the federal government, and the provincial government. The team name Toronto FC and logo were announced in May 2006. The club played their first season in MLS in 2007, finishing at the bottom of the table. The introduction of MLS into Canada took MLS into a separate country for the first time.
San Jose (2008)
Seattle was awarded a franchise in 2007, and following a write-in vote by supporters, the team chose the name Seattle Sounders FC, after the Seattle Sounders that played in the North American Soccer League in the 1970s and '80s. The city did not have a soccer-specific stadium or any plans to construct one, and instead, it shared Qwest Field (now known as CenturyLink Field) with the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League who, like the Sounders, are owned in part by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. The stadium was built as a combined football/soccer stadium with an MLS team in mind, including soccer-specific features.
On February 28, 2008, MLS announced that the sixteenth franchise would be awarded to Philadelphia. Philadelphia was appealing to MLS because Philadelphia was the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. without an MLS franchise, and it had a strong ownership group. There had been a strong campaign to bring a team to the city, with intense lobbying by supporters groups such as the Sons of Ben.
Philadelphia won the bid over a competing bid from St. Louis that was led by St. Louis investor Jeff Cooper. St. Louis had a stadium deal in Collinsville, Illinois, but lacked sufficient financing.
On May 11, 2009, it was announced that the team name would be Philadelphia Union. The new team announced their intention to construct an 18,500 seat stadium in Chester, Pennsylvania, which opened as PPL Park and is now known as Talen Energy Stadium.
Vancouver (2011) and Portland (2011)
One of three Canadian cities in the running for 2011 MLS expansion, Vancouver's bid was led by local businessman Greg Kerfoot, at that time owner of the Vancouver Whitecaps FC in USSF D2 Pro. NBA star Steve Nash was also involved as a minority stakeholder. The city's bid was boosted by the proposed construction of the Whitecaps Waterfront Stadium, with an initial capacity of 20,000 and the potential for further expansion. Don Garber called the bid presentation by Vancouver "one of the best I've ever seen." On March 18, 2009, MLS commissioner Don Garber announced that Vancouver had been awarded one of the two 2011 expansion spots. Vancouver continued to field the second-tier Whitecaps until the MLS team made its debut in 2011. The MLS Whitecaps began the 2011 season at Empire Field, sharing it with the BC Lions of the Canadian Football League, before both teams moved into the renovated BC Place in October 2011.
On July 31, 2008, Merritt Paulson announced that he would apply for an MLS franchise for Portland as an MLS continuation of the Portland Timbers. Paulson further outlined his plan by launching a website. The MLS Timbers would play in a renovated PGE Park, which was renamed to Jeld-Wen Field by the time the team made its MLS debut in 2011 and is now known as Providence Park, sharing with the Portland State University football team. On March 20, 2009, commissioner Don Garber confirmed in a news conference that Portland would receive the 18th franchise.
The city of Montreal had been in consideration by Major League Soccer for a club since the league's founding and planning stages in 1993. In the fall of 2008, the Joey Saputo group was on a short list for the next round of expansion. On May 7, 2010, Commissioner Don Garber announced that Saputo and the Impact group would join the league as its 19th club for the 2012 MLS season with Stade Saputo being renovated to increase the seating capacity to around 20,000.
Dissolution of Chivas USA (2014)
Chivas USA was dissolved following the end of the 2014 regular season, after the league bought the franchise and took over the operations from Jorge Vergara and Angélica Fuentes in February that year, leaving the league with 20 teams for the 2015 season. The club had suffered poor performance on the field, low attendance and a series of discrimination lawsuits against the ownership. Commissioner Garber cited the "brand that was targeted specifically to the Hispanic market" and the belief that "the club could coexist with the Galaxy and share the StubHub Center" as mistakes.
Later the same week, the league announced the formation of a new Los Angeles-area team that begins play in 2017 with the working name, "Los Angeles Football Club".
New York City (2015) and Orlando (2015)
In May 2010, league commissioner Don Garber announced the league's desire to place its 20th team in New York City On June 27, 2012, MLS announced plans to build a new soccer-specific stadium in Queens, New York, with a seating capacity of 25,000 and located near the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows.
On May 21, 2013, MLS announced New York City FC as the next expansion team. The team's expansion rights were purchased by the English Premier League club Manchester City and the New York Yankees baseball team for $100 million, and the team began play in 2015.
On October 25, 2010, Phil Rawlins and his investor group of Orlando City SC, announced their intentions of joining Major League Soccer within the next 3 to 5 years. Commissioner Garber and other MLS officials met with Orlando City team officials in February 2011 and again in November 2011 to discuss MLS expansion in Orlando. In March 2012, Garber met with Orlando city and county officials, and said, "It's not a matter of if, but when," when addressing Orlando's chances of joining MLS.
In April 2013, the City of Orlando purchased downtown land to be used towards the construction of a $110 million MLS soccer stadium. Orange County Mayor Teresa Jacobs and Orlando Mayor Buddy Dyer reached an agreement on a deal to provide financial support for a variety of Orlando projects including the new MLS soccer stadium on August 8, 2013. The Orange County Board of Commissioners voted 5-2 on October 22, 2013 to approve the use of $20 million in tourist development tax funds to build an $84 million multi-purpose soccer stadium in downtown Orlando.
On November 19, 2013, Orlando was officially announced as the league's 21st team (Chivas USA later shut down returning the number to 20) and began play in MLS in 2015.
Major League Soccer plans to grow from 20 to 24 teams by 2020. MLS has confirmed that it will add expansion teams in Atlanta, Los Angeles, and Minnesota. MLS has stated it will add an expansion team in Miami if a stadium deal there is finalized.
The league announced it was awarding an expansion franchise in Atlanta to Atlanta Falcons owner and Home Depot co-founder Arthur Blank on April 16, 2014, with plans to begin play in 2017. The team will share Mercedes-Benz Stadium, which is scheduled to be completed in 2017, with the Falcons. Discussions between Blank and MLS had "accelerated" following approval of the stadium plans in late 2013.
Atlanta became the third city in the southeastern United States in five months to announce an expansion team, following Orlando City in late 2013 and Miami, whose tentative approval was announced earlier in 2014. The Atlanta metropolitan area was at the time the largest media market without an MLS franchise.
On March 25, 2015, the league announced that it had awarded the 23rd MLS team to Minneapolis (later changed to Saint Paul) to an investor group led by Bill McGuire, owner of the current NASL team Minnesota United FC. Club president Nick Rodgers said he expected much of the team, including the name, logo, coach and some players, to remain intact. The team had been expected to begin play in MLS in 2018. However, Minnesota did not meet its July 1, 2015 deadline to present stadium plans to MLS after the Minnesota state legislature did not take up the club's proposal by the end of its session in May 2015.
In October 2015, the team announced it had selected a stadium site in St. Paul, and that the team hoped to begin play in MLS in 2017. As of November 2015, the team expects the stadium to be completed during 2018.
Los Angeles (2018)
On October 30, 2014, the league announced the formation of a new Los Angeles-area team to replace Chivas USA that shut down operations following the 2014 season. The new team was announced with the working name, "Los Angeles Football Club", with an ownership group led by venture capitalist Henry Nguyen, film producer Peter Guber, and former National Basketball Association executive Tom Penn. The team plans to begin play in 2018 in a new, dedicated stadium.
On February 5, 2014, the league announced that it would award a franchise in Miami to an investment group led by former player David Beckham, his business partner Simon Fuller, and Miami-based businessman Marcelo Claure, assuming that stadium financing and location could be agreed upon. However, the ownership group's two stadium sites were rejected by city and county governments by July 2014. Commissioner Garber said he hoped to see Miami join the league with Atlanta in 2017, but repeated that the team would not play without political support for a downtown stadium.
The next development in the Beckham plan came on July 17, 2015, when Miami mayor Tomás Regalado announced a tentative deal with the ownership group, now known as Beckham United, for a new privately financed stadium in Little Havana next to Marlins Park, at the former site of the Orange Bowl.
Growth beyond 2020
Commissioner Garber stated in April 2015 "We will expand beyond 24 teams. It's not an if but a when." In April 2013, in response to a question about whether MLS might grow to 30 teams, Garber answered that "30 seems like too many."
On December 5, 2015 following a meeting of the Board of Governors, the league announced support for an expansion to 28 teams. Garber stated, "We will evaluate how to grow the league to 28 teams and establish a process and timeline for future expansion."
Markets under consideration
Garber confirmed in a July 5, 2013 interview on that Miami, Atlanta, Orlando, and Texas were all candidates for MLS expansion. Commissioner Garber, in his 2013 State of the League Address, identified four additional cities – Minneapolis, San Antonio, Austin, and St. Louis – as under consideration for the final expansion candidate to join MLS before 2020. In February 2014, Garber again confirmed Minneapolis and San Antonio as candidates, and also mentioned San Diego and Sacramento as expansion candidates. Garber discussed several expansion candidates in March 2014, saying that expansion into San Antonio or elsewhere in Texas was likely but not any time soon. In an August 2014 Q&A session, deputy commissioner Mark Abbott identified Sacramento and Las Vegas as new candidates for the 24th and final expansion team, in addition to the previously mentioned San Antonio, Austin and Minneapolis, and said Miami would be the 23rd team as long as a downtown stadium deal could be reached.
In November 2014, representatives from Las Vegas, Minneapolis, and Sacramento made presentations to MLS in advance of the December 2014 MLS Board of Governors meeting, and an update was provided regarding developments in San Antonio. In early December 2014, Garber stated that San Antonio was "not as far along" as the bids for the other three cities. In January 2015, Garber indicated that MLS would soon be visiting (and evaluating efforts toward expansion) in San Antonio and St. Louis. In February 2015, MLS informed the City of Las Vegas that MLS would not consider Las Vegas as an expansion market until after 2018. Since the December 2015 announcement to expand to 28 teams, Major League Soccer has reported intentions from USL clubs in Charlotte, Cincinnati, Louisville, and Oklahoma City to join MLS. In April 2016, Garber stated that he expects Sacramento to be part of the next round of expansion, that St. Louis is also a frontrunner with the NFL's Rams leaving town, and that Detroit, San Diego, San Antonio, Austin, and Cincinnati are also in the discussions.
In December 2011, a group led by former California Assembly Speaker Fabian Núñez began exploring the possibility of landing an MLS franchise for the Sacramento area, with the suburb of Elk Grove as a possible stadium site. On March 13, 2013, the Elk Grove city council voted unanimously to study potential sites for a soccer-specific stadium in the city that could host either an MLS or NASL team.
Sacramento was granted a USL Pro team that began play in the 2014 season. A group of investors, led by local business leader Warren Smith, expressed their hope to convert this Sacramento franchise to an MLS team. Warren previously helped bring the Sacramento River Cats, an MiLB franchise, to Sacramento. In November 2013, Warren Smith re-confirmed his goal of his Sacramento Republic FC USL Pro team landing in MLS in 2016.
In August 2014, owners of the Sacramento Kings NBA basketball team led by businessman Vivek Ranadivé expressed an interest in buying Republic FC with the ultimate goal of elevating the team to MLS. They met with league officials during the week of the 2014 MLS All-Star Game, and deputy commissioner Mark Abbott said league executives would visit the city and tour possible stadium locations. Kings owner Ranadive announced in January 2015 that he had joined the Sacramento Republic ownership group, in a move seen as bolstering Sacramento's chances of landing an MLS berth. Also in January 2015, the owners of the NFL's San Francisco 49ers agreed to invest in the Sacramento Republic.
Sacramento's bid is also strengthened by its fan support. As of January 2015, the club had nearly 10,000 ticket deposits as part of its "Built for MLS" campaign. Sacramento is the 20th largest television market in the United States.
In March 2015, Sacramento Mayor Kevin Johnson announced a joint initiative of the city and the club dubbed "Operation Turnkey", which would have stadium construction ready to begin should one of the other expansion candidates without a firm stadium plan yet – Minneapolis, Miami, or Los Angeles – fail to come up with one or the league decided to expand beyond 24 teams.
In April 2016, Commissioner Don Garber announced that MLS would expand to 28 teams and said "I hope, and fully expect, Sacramento to be one (of the 28)".
St. Louis announced in late 2014 that it was planning a new stadium to host both American football and soccer. Garber stated in January 2015 that: “St. Louis has got a lot of activity going on with a stadium that they’re trying to get done for the NFL Rams". There's a big soccer community out there and we'd love to see a soccer stadium downtown like they're thinking about a football stadium.
In May 2015, Garber visited St. Louis to talk about a possible new multi-purpose stadium that would be capable of holding soccer games. Garber stated that "We really hope to be able to work with them," although he cautioned that any possible expansion to St. Louis would occur after 2020.
On January 27, 2016, St. Louis lawmaker, Keith English proposed a bill that would put a tax of not more than one-tenth of one percent on the ballot in St. Louis and St. Louis County, it also calls for the RSA to oversee the soccer stadium. That money could only be earmarked if a team signs a 30-year lease with the authority. The proposed tax would only go into effect if MLS awards a team to St. Louis by December 20, 2020. There is also a proposal to build a soccer-specific stadium south of Union Station. On February 17, 2016, the MLS2STL group was formed to bring a MLS team to the St. Louis area in addition the group will work with the staff and select members from the St. Louis Sports Commission to market assessments for a potential team owner(s), including exploring stadium sites, funding options and overall viability of St. Louis as a possible home of a MLS expansion team. The relocation of the NFL's Rams to Los Angeles from St. Louis has helped fueled the talks of an MLS expansion team.
Previously, Jeff Cooper had twice attempted in 2008 and 2009 to bring an MLS expansion team to St. Louis, only to have both bids turned down in favor of other cities. Despite approved stadium plans to build the $600 million Collinsville Soccer Complex, MLS was not impressed with the bid's financial backing and suggested Cooper expand his group of investors. Cooper instead launched a second division men's club and a Women's Professional Soccer franchise. AC St. Louis played only one season in Division 2 averaging 2,750 fans during the 2010 season before folding,[self-published source?] and the Saint Louis Athletica folded midway through its second season in 2010.
In late 2011, San Antonio announced its bid to be MLS's 20th team. The city's North American Soccer League franchise, the San Antonio Scorpions, launched in 2012 and led the league in attendance in 2012 and 2013 seasons. The Scorpions played at Toyota Field, a soccer-specific stadium with a capacity of 8,000, and an expansion capability to 18,000.
A previous San Antonio expansion bid ended in 2005, when negotiations between the league and then-mayor Ed Garza ended. Incoming mayor Phil Hardberger criticized the proposed deal, while Garber claimed that the criticisms were politically motivated and hurt efforts to sell season tickets and recruit local investors.
In Commissioner Garber's December 2013 State of the League address, San Antonio was one of five cities listed on a presentation map of potential expansion locations.
In January 2014, Garber met with Mayor Julian Castro and Scorpions owner Gordon Hartman concerning San Antonio's bid to receive an expansion franchise. In March 2014, Garber said that expansion in the immediate future was "premature" for both San Antonio and Texas, though it was "something that is likely to happen".
In December 2014, Garber stated that the league was continuing to evaluate and receive updates on developments in San Antonio. Potential developments include the emergence of an outside investment group and the expansion plan of the current North American Soccer League stadium. In early December 2014, Garber revealed that San Antonio was "not as far along" as the three other cities under consideration at the time. But the league continues to monitor progress and efforts toward expansion in San Antonio.
On November 4, 2015, the city of San Antonio and Bexar County announced plans to purchase Toyota Field for $18 million with the intentions of acquiring a MLS franchise. Additionally, Spurs Sports & Entertainment, owners of the NBA's San Antonio Spurs, would hold a 20-year lease to operate the stadium; if SS&E fails to secure a MLS franchise for the stadium within 10 years, the group would owe the city and county a $5 million penalty. On December 22, 2015, the USL announced that Spurs Sports & Entertainment would operate the league's 31st team, San Antonio FC. The establishment of the club, along with the concurrent purchase of Toyota Field by the city of San Antonio and Bexar County, is part of a plan by local officials to obtain an expansion franchise in Major League Soccer. As a result, the San Antonio Scorpions franchise of the North American Soccer League was shut down.
NBA owners and Michigan natives Dan Gilbert and Tom Gores have unveiled a $1 billion plan to bring MLS to Detroit. MLS Commissioner Don Garber has stated that MLS’ interest in Detroit hinges on the 15-acre jail site, which can connect the Greektown Entertainment District, Eastern Market and the three other sports facilities — Comerica Park, Ford Field, and Little Caesars Arena, the new hockey arena currently being constructed. Commissioner Don Garber has said that Detroit is on the list of preferred cities that could get an expansion team in 2020.
Previously, a firm had purchased the Silverdome in the Detroit suburb of Pontiac with plans to convert the stadium into a 30,000-seat capacity soccer-specific stadium, and applied to MLS without success on June 8, 2011 for an expansion franchise. Triple Sports & Entertainment submitted a proposal on July 24, 2013, to purchase a site in downtown Detroit to build a new MLS stadium, but local officials awarded the site to another bidder for an entertainment and retail complex.
Commissioner Garber mentioned San Diego as an expansion candidate in February 2014. Garber reiterated in April 2016 that San Diego is one of the expansion candidates. The owners interested in bringing MLS to San Diego include MLB San Diego Padres owner Peter Seidler. An MLS team in San Diego would be located close to two MLS teams in Los Angeles, as well as the Liga MX side Xolos of Tijuana.
Failed, stalled, or speculated expansion efforts
This section includes cities with bids that have either failed or stalled, or are otherwise not explicitly included in the MLS expansion roadmap, the latest of which was announced in December 2013.
MLS announced in 2004 that Cleveland would be getting an expansion franchise for the 2005 season, as area businessman Bert Wolstein had signed a letter of intent to launch an MLS club. However, Wolstein ran into delays in trying to obtain public financing for a stadium, and died in 2004. In 2006 the Wolstein Sports and Entertainment Group proposed the construction of a soccer-specific stadium for an MLS club in the Cleveland suburb of Macedonia. However, Summit County voters rejected a tax to raise $104 million of the $165 million needed, environmental groups raised concerns about area wetlands, and the area was hit by the Great Recession of 2008.
In March 2014, Commissioner Garber said there had not been any developments regarding MLS expansion in Cleveland since talks were held "many years ago."
A Miami expansion team led by Barcelona and Marcelo Claure, a Bolivian businessman based in the city, announced an expansion bid in October 2008, with plans to begin play in 2011. But in March 2009, the league and Barcelona announced that Miami was no longer a candidate due to local market conditions. Additionally, MLS expressed concerns about Miami's lack of fan interest in an MLS franchise, the fact that USL team Miami FC was not doing well, and the plan to use FIU Stadium relegating the team to a secondary tenant in a college football stadium with an artificial surface. However, Garber said that Miami would be an expansion target in the future. Claure later joined David Beckham's group of investors for the Miami expansion bid that was accepted by the league in 2014.
Las Vegas (2014–15)
The Las Vegas Sun reported on May 14, 2014 that a potential ownership group held talks about an expansion team in Las Vegas. The investor group, consisting of Findlay Sports and Entertainment and real estate developers, Cordish Company, acquired a 61-acre site at Symphony Park in Downtown Las Vegas from the city and released a plan to build a 24,000-seat stadium there. MLS, Mayor Carolyn Goodman, and the Findlay group expressed preference for a downtown stadium. League deputy commissioner Mark Abbott visited the city in July 2014 to meet with Mayor Goodman and to tour the downtown area.
On December 17, 2014, the Las Vegas City Council approved public funding of $56.5 million for the proposed soccer stadium in Symphony Park, contingent on MLS granting an expansion franchise to Las Vegas.
Garber notified Las Vegas Mayor Carolyn Goodman on February 12, 2015 that MLS no longer considered Las Vegas as an expansion market until after 2018.
Rochester, New York had been mentioned as an expansion candidate due to the success of the Rochester Rhinos. The Rhinos won the US Open Cup in 1999 – the only non-MLS team to win the Cup since that competition was opened to MLS teams – and the Rhinos averaged over 10,000 fans from 1999-2005. In 2006, Don Garber stated: "At some point we want to find a way we can have an MLS team in Rochester." However, the Rhinos saw a downturn in attendance and finances, and the city is no longer under consideration by MLS.
Throughout late 2008 and early 2009, Ottawa was a longshot candidate for one of two slots for MLS expansion, but the push ended in March 2009 when MLS selected Vancouver and Portland instead. On June 20, 2011, Ottawa was awarded an NASL expansion franchise to begin play at TD Place Stadium in 2014.
MLS announced in May 2010 the league's desire for a second franchise in New York. The New York Cosmos expressed interest in an MLS expansion franchise, but negotiations between MLS and the Cosmos broke down, and the new Cosmos began playing in the North American Soccer League in 2013. The league also met with other prospective ownership groups for a New York expansion team. For example, MLS held talks with New York Mets owner Fred Wilpon. MLS awarded the second New York franchise to New York City FC in May 2013. Garber confirmed in April 2014 that there would not be a third New York team after the New York Red Bulls and New York City FC.
In September 2014, MountainStar Sports Group, owners of the Triple-A baseball team El Paso Chihuahuas announced it was developing a stadium financing plan and searching for a site for an expansion team in El Paso, Texas. The group said it had previously met with MLS in June that year about an expansion team.
- Goldblatt, David. The Ball is Round: A Global History of Football. Penguin Books (2007).
- Tossell, David. Playing for Uncle Sam: The Brits' Story of the North American Soccer League. Mainstream Publishing (2003).
- Wangerin, David. Soccer in a Football World: The Story of America's Forgotten Game. WSC Books (2006).
- Galarcep, Ives (August 1, 2013). "Garber: MLS to expand to 24 teams by 2020". Soccer By Ives.
- Straus, Brian (April 16, 2014). "With Atlanta on board, MLS shows there's no one-size-fits-all expansion criteria". Sports Illustrated. Planet Fútbol.
- Ziegler, Mark (August 3, 2010). "Piecing the puzzle of MLS expansion picture here". San Diego Union-Tribune.
- Hakala, Josh (June 7, 2011). "With eyes on Detroit, Silverdome owners submit Major League Soccer expansion bid". MLive.com.
- "History of Association Football (Soccer) From Early Beginnings To Present". Thepeoplehistory.com. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Wangerin p.272
- Landman, Brian (May 19, 1994). "Tampa in, Orlando out of MLS running Series: SOCCER". St. Petersburg Times.
- Wagman, Robert (December 27, 2001). "MLS fans in several cities wait nervously for contraction decision". SoccerTimes.
- Holmes, Stanley (November 22, 2004). "Soccer: Time To Kick It Up A Notch". Businessweek. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
- Eligon, John (November 11, 2005). "For M.L.S., the Sport's Future Is in the Eye of the Beholder". The New York Times.
- Bradley, Jeff (December 28, 2000). "MLS considering weight-loss program". ESPN Soccernet.
- "Fusion and Mutiny fold". BBC News. January 9, 2002. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Sports: MLS folds Mutiny". Sptimes.com. January 9, 2002. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "Germany and Soccer – Fussball in Deutschland". German.about.com. June 22, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Goff, Steven (April 1, 2005). "MLS's New club Has a Mexican Upbringing". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Zeigler, Mark (April 24, 2005). "Galaxy takes first derby between crosstown rivals". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- "The Real Story: Madrid to Salt Lake City". The New York Times. Goal. July 21, 2007. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Black, Michael (October 10, 2008). "Real Salt Lake fans get a kick out of Rio Tinto Stadium". Deseret News. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- "San Jose Earthquakes to return to Major League Soccer in 2008" (Press release). Major League Soccer. July 18, 2007.
- "MLS approves Toronto expansion franchise". CBC. November 12, 2005.
- "The beautiful game in Toronto". CBC. May 11, 2006. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- "Seattle Sounders FC Selected as Team Name" – via soundersfc.com.
- "New Seattle MLS team will be called Seattle Sounders FC". ESPN Sports. April 7, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Bell, Gregg (November 9, 2007). "Seattle to get expansion MLS franchise for 2009". USA Today. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Search – Global Edition – The New York Times". International Herald Tribune. March 29, 2009. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "Sports - MLS team in Seattle no sure bet - Seattle Times Newspaper". nwsource.com.
- "MLS awards Philadelphia 2010 expansion team" (Press release). Major League Soccer. February 28, 2008.
- Gammage, Jeff (February 13, 2008). "Soccer deal is within reach, say sources". Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Bell, Jack (November 17, 2007). "Meet M.L.S. in St. Louis". The New York Times. Goal.
- "The Sons Also Rise | Cover Story | News and Opinion". Philadelphia Weekly. April 28, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "Vancouver MLS bid hits NYC". Toronto Sun. Vancouver. The Canadian Press. October 8, 2008.
- Ian Walker (October 25, 2008). "MLS expansion fee won't scare away Whitecaps". Vancouver Sun.
- Brown, Scott; Randy Phillips (May 11, 2006). "Whitecaps, Impact announce plans for new league". Canwest News Service. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- "MLS awards Vancouver team for 2011" (Press release). Major League Soccer. March 18, 2009.
- "Portland, Paulson to submit application for MLS expansion franchise". The Oregonian. July 31, 2008.
- "mlstoportland.com". mlstoportland.com. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "MLS awards 18th franchise to Portland" (Press release). Major League Soccer. March 20, 2009.
- "Long wait over as Impact joins MLS". The Montreal Gazette. May 7, 2010. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
- Carlisle, Jeff (October 27, 2014). "MLS shuts down Chivas USA; new club, ownership to return in 2017". ESPN FC. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Tolmich, Ryan (October 28, 2014). "With Chivas USA a memory, MLS commish looks ahead to new LA team". Soccer By Ives. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- "MLS officials to announce details of new franchise replacing Chivas USA". The Los Angeles Times. October 30, 2014. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- "MLS to play in Montreal in 2012". ESPN Sports. May 7, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Oshan, Jeremiah. "Plans To Bring MLS Expansion Team To New York City Proper Take Step Forward". SBNation.com. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "Manchester City and Yankees to Own M.L.S. Franchise in New York". New York Times. May 21, 2013. Retrieved May 21, 2013
- Simon Borg (October 25, 2010). "Investors targeting MLS club for Orlando". MLSsoccer.com. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "Orlando City Meets with Major League Soccer to Discuss Expansion Plans – OurSports Central – Independent and Minor League Sports News". OurSports Central. February 28, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Andrew Wiebe (November 10, 2011). "Garber: League still focused on expansion team in NYC". MLSsoccer.com. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "Orlando City put MLS ambitions on show for Commissioner". MLSsoccer.com. March 1, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "Dyer opens up about land purchase for new MLS stadium". WFTV. April 17, 2013.
- Kennedy, Paul (August 9, 2013). "Mayors line up behind Orlando stadium deal 08/09/2013". SoccerAmerica. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "Orlando City determined to join MLS despite legislation impasse in Florida House". mlssoccer.com. May 6, 2013.
- Schlueb, Mark; David Damron (October 22, 2013). "'We are going MLS!' Pro soccer stadium is coming to Orlando". Orlando Sentinel.
- Straus, Brian (September 13, 2013). "MLS expansion team likely heading Atlanta's way". Sports Illustrated. Planet Fútbol.
- "MAJOR LEAGUE SOCCER AWARDS EXPANSION TEAM TO ORLANDO". orlandocitysoccer.com. Orlando City Soccer Club. Retrieved November 20, 2013.
- Creditor, Avi (April 16, 2014). "MLS awards 2017 expansion franchise to Atlanta, owner Arthur Blank". SI.com. Planet Fútbol. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- Newberry, Paul (April 16, 2014). "Atlanta Lands MLS Expansion Team for 2017". AP Sports. Retrieved April 16, 2014.
- "Falcons owner Blank puts in bid for MLS franchise". USA Today. October 14, 2008. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
- Manasso, John (January 16, 2009). "Blank withdraws MLS soccer team bid". Atlanta Business Chronicle.
- Nelson, Tim (March 25, 2015). "Major League Soccer team coming to Minneapolis". Minnesota Public Radio News. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
- Blount, Rachel (March 25, 2015). "United president expects team name, logo, coach to stay the same". Minneapolis Star Tribune. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
- Stejkal, Sam (March 25, 2015). "MLS Commissioner Don Garber: Minneapolis represents everything that is spurring growth of MLS". MLSsoccer.com. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
- "MLS's stadium deadline passes, but Minnesota still in play for expansion", SI.com, July 2, 2015.
- "With team and stadium, St. Paul savors soccer triumph - StarTribune.com". Star Tribune. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "Minnesota United hire Populous as architect for new St. Paul stadium", MLSsoccer.com, November 24, 2015.
- Brian Quarstad (May 12, 2012). "MLS Commissioner Don Garber Says Minnesota "Goes on List" with New Vikings Stadium". Inside MN Soccer. Retrieved May 12, 2012.
- Mazzei, Patricia (February 5, 2014). "Soccer star David Beckham to bring MLS team to Miami". Miami Herald.
- "David Beckham's Miami MLS plans on hold until stadium secured". Planet Futbol. SI.com. July 29, 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- Evans, Simon (October 23, 2014). "Political will key to Beckham's MLS Miami plan: Garber". WTAQ.
- "Beckham United & Miami mayor agree on new MLS stadium plan" (Press release). Major League Soccer. July 17, 2015. Retrieved July 17, 2015.
- Kaufman, Michelle (February 2, 2014). "Beckham-Miami deal one step closer; local visit plans revealed". Miami Herald.
- "MLS commissioner promises expansion beyond 24 teams", Sporting News, April 24, 2015.
- Prince-Wright, Joe (April 24, 2013). "MLS expansion update from Commissioner Garber". NBCSports. ProSoccerTalk.
- Jeff Carlisle (December 5, 2015). "Major League Soccer eyes further expansion to 28 teams in future". ESPNFC.
- "Summertime Is Soccer Time in America". Bloomberg TV. July 5, 2013.
- Borg, Simon (December 3, 2013). "MLS commissioner Don Garber discusses expansion, scheduling in latest State of the League address". MLSsoccer.com.
- MLS Commissioner Don Garber gives update on league's expansion plans, February 20, 2014, MLSsoccer.com
- Ranking the candidates for MLS’s next two expansion teams, March 6, 2014, Pro Soccer Talk
- Bird, Liviu (August 5, 2014). "MLS All-Star Notes: Mark Abbott on expansion, Blatter; Training contrast". Planet Futbol. SI.com. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- "MLS ANNOUNCES THURSDAY EXPANSION MEETINGS WITH LAS VEGAS, MINNEAPOLIS, SACRAMENTO", Soccer By Ives, November 19, 2014.
- "MLS Expansion: League to Announce Next Teams in Early 2015", Fansided, December 7, 2014.
- "Soccer-Clock ticking on Beckham's struggle for Miami stadium-MLS", Reuters, December 3, 3014.
- "MLS expansion: St. Louis, San Antonio join race with Minneapolis, Sacramento, Las Vegas", ProSoccerTalk, January 16, 2015.
- "MLS expansion: Las Vegas eliminated, leaving Sacramento, Minneapolis in race for 24th team", Pro Soccer Talk, February 12, 2015.
- "Eyeing MLS, Charlotte Independence, local officials discuss potential stadium partnership", MLS Soccer, January 28, 2016.
- "FC Cincinnati president talks MLS ambitions, turns to Orlando City SC as model for success", MLS Soccer, February 16, 2016.
- "Louisville City seek to build soccer-specific stadium with eye toward possible MLS bid", MLS Soccer, January 7, 2016.
- "Oklahoma City USL owners share long-term vision for MLS expansion bid", MLS Soccer, April 9, 2016.
- "Commissioner Garber: Next round of MLS expansion likely happening in 2020", MLS Soccer, April 14, 2016.
- Kasler, Dale (December 14, 2011). "Group exploring Major League Soccer franchise for Elk Grove". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "City Will Look for Land Where Pro Soccer Stadium Could be Built". 2013.
- "Sacramento to Join USL PRO in 2014". USLsoccer.com. December 3, 2012.
- "Sacramento Getting Professional Soccer Team in 2014". CBS Sacramento. December 3, 2012.
- Lillis, Ryan (November 28, 2013). "Sacramento soccer franchise has ambitious goal". Sacramento Bee.
- Lillis, Ryan (August 5, 2014). "Major League Soccer to tour possible stadium sites in Sacramento". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- "SACRAMENTO KINGS JOIN REPUBLIC AS INVESTOR IN MLS PUSH", SBI Soccer, January 28, 2015.
- "49ers’ owners to invest in Sacramento Republic FC", Sacramento Bee, January 29, 2015.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates & Comparisons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 Market Ranks" (PDF). Nielsen. 2012.
- "Sacramento Media Markets". Sacramento Media Market. 2010.
- Straus, Brian (March 15, 2015). "MLS Expansion: Sacramento eyes team despite Miami, Minnesota". Planet Futbol. SI.com. Retrieved March 22, 2015.
- "Saint Louis is set to huddle on stadium". New York Times. November 5, 2014. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
- "Don Garber Says MLS Could Be Heading To St. Louis". MLS Multiplex. January 16, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
- "MLS Commissioner Don Garber meets with St. Louis officials to discuss future expansion", MLSsoccer.com, Dan Itel, May 19, 2015.
- "St. Louis group formed to attract MLS expansion franchise". The State Journal-Register. February 17, 2016.
- "MLS Commissioner Don Garber talks St. Louis expansion with Sports Illustrated". MLSsoccer.com. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Quarstad, Brian (January 17, 2011). "AC St. Louis Closes its Doors for Good". IMS Soccer News.
- "San Antonio joins fight for MLS expansion team". Sporting News. December 14, 2011. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "NASL Attendance Up 1.1%; San Antonio Scorpions Lead League in Debut Season". Sports Business Daily. September 28, 2012.
- "San Antonio Scorpions Toyota Field". San Antonio Scorpions. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- "Major League Soccer ends talks with San Antonio". Associated Press. June 9, 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- Oshan, Jeremiah (December 3, 2013). "MLS names five candidiate cities for expansion". SBNation.com. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "San Antonio makes MLS case as mayor, Scorpions owner meet with Commissioner Don Garber". MLSsoccer.com. January 30, 2014. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- Creditor, Avi (March 4, 2014). "Location by location, MLS commissioner Don Garber's response to expansion questions". Planet Fútbol. SI.com.
- "MLS officials provide update on city’s development for expansion", San Antonio Express-News, December 7, 2014.
- "Investors detail plan to buy Scorpions, with MLS goal", San Antonio Express-News, November 4, 2014.
- "San Antonio Scorpions release stadium expansion plan with 'additional opportunities' like MLS entry in mind", MLSsoccer.com, September 2, 2014.
- "Scorpions Owner: San Antonio 'Made the Cut' for Big League Consideration", WOAI, December 10, 2014.
- Bailey, W. Scott. "Spurs, city and county strike a deal for Toyota Field; MLS team part of the long-term plan". San Antonio Business Journal. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Sipple, George (April 30, 2016). "Soccer mogul Roger Faulkner backs Detroit MLS plan". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- George, Sipple (April 28, 2016). "Detroit's Major League Soccer expansion bid hinges on failed jail site". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Sipple, George (April 28, 2016). "The nuts and bolts of bringing Major League Soccer to Detroit". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Scott, Melanie (November 16, 2009). "Canadian firm submits winning bid of $583,000 for Silverdome". Detroit Free Press.
- "Silverdome Owners Submit Application To MLS in Hopes of Landing Franchise – SportsBusiness Daily | SportsBusiness Journal". SportsBusiness Daily. June 8, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- "Silverdome owners pitch plan for MLS stadium, mall, condos on jail site | Crain's Detroit Business". Crains Detroit. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
- "Wayne Co. committee recommends Gilbert bid for jail site". Crains Detroit. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- MLS Commissioner Don Garber gives update on league's expansion plans, February 20, 2014, MLSsoccer.com
- "Commissioner Garber: Next round of MLS expansion likely happening in 2020", MLS Soccer, April 14, 2016.
- "San Diego Padres owner among those interested in MLS franchise", ESPN FC, June 24, 2016.
- "Talking Points: Which cities will Major League Soccer expand to next?", ESPN FC, April 28, 2016.
- Wagman, Robert (May 16, 2004). "Several cities vie for expansion teams as complications delay decision". Soccer Times.
- "Bert Wolstein, a soccer pioneer, dies at 77". Soccer Times. May 17, 2004.
- Johnston, Laura (July 21, 2007). "Macedonia planning for soccer". The Plain Dealer.
- "Star Calendar print shop; a soccer stadium in Macedonia: Whatever happened to …?". The Plain Dealer. September 20, 2010.
- "Barcelona to bid for Miami MLS franchise". ESPNsoccernet. October 15, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- "Miami Barcelona MLS Campaign Is Dead". Goal.com. March 3, 2009.
- Rusnak, Jeff (March 4, 2009). "Miami bid is yanked". Sun-Sentinel.
- Rusnak, Jeff (March 8, 2009). "MLS, Miami have miles to go before new club could thrive". Sun-Sentinel.
- "Report: Las Vegas in talks with MLS to bring expansion club to city, build soccer-specific stadium". MLSsoccer.com. May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- "Las Vegas launches MLS expansion bid". SBNation.com. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
- Snel, Alan (May 24, 2014). "City of Las Vegas turns suitor's attention toward Major League Soccer". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
- Firchau, Nick (July 22, 2014). "Thinking long-term, MLS in "preliminary discussions" over expansion franchise in Las Vegas". MLSsoccer.com. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- Shine, Conor (December 17, 2014). "City Council approves funding for Las Vegas soccer stadium". Las Vegas Sun.
- "Las Vegas no longer in consideration for MLS expansion until after 2018". MLSsoccer.com. February 12, 2015.
- The Lost Soccer City of Rochester, Soccer Newsday, June 19, 2012.
- "High School Sports - Democrat and Chronicle - democratandchronicle.com". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved December 11, 2014.
- "SEVEN MLS EXPANSION CANDIDATES REVEALED", Soccer By Ives, October 15, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2014.
- Soccer By Ives, VANCOUVER TO BE INTRODUCED AS 17TH MLS TEAM, March 18, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- Bell, Jack (August 1, 2010). "Cosmos Begin Anew, With Eye Toward M.L.S". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- Bell, Jack (August 2, 2013). "Reborn Cosmos Return to the Field". The New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- O'Brien, Seamus (July 12, 2012). "New York Cosmos Returns to NASL". nycosmos.com. New York City: New York Cosmos. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- Straus, Brian (October 26, 2011). "Rival emerges in Cosmos' bid to land MLS expansion team". Sporting News. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- "MLS focused on making NY club its 20th team". mlssoccer.com. November 16, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
- Bercovici, Jeff (May 21, 2013). "With New York City FC, Does MLS Have Room for the Cosmos?". Forbes. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- "Twitter / AndrewDasNYT: Garber says @NYCosmos aren't". Twitter.com. Retrieved April 28, 2014.
- Martinez, Leonard (September 3, 2014). "MountainStar Sports Group president talks next steps in pursuit of Major League Soccer team". KVIA. Retrieved December 19, 2014.