Expansionism

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In expansionism, governments and states expand their territory, power, wealth or influence through economic growth, soft power, or the military aggression of empire-building and colonialism.

Anarchism, reunification or pan-nationalism are sometimes used to justify and legitimize expansionism, but only when the explicit goal is to reconquer territories that have been lost, or to take over ancestral lands. In contrast with the ideologies of promised lands like Manifest Destiny, which are used to justify and legitimize expansionism with the perspective that the lands will eventually belong to the invader anyway, unlike claims of prior ownership.[1]

The full extent of the Empire by Alexander the Great as he strove to conquer the lands of Asia and the Mediterranean.


Theories of expansionism[edit]

Ibn Khaldun wrote that newly established dynasties, because they have social cohesion or Asabiyyah, are able to seek 'expansion to the limit' [2].

Soviet economist Nikolai Kondratiev theorized that capitalism advances in 50-year expansion/stagnation cycles, driven by technological innovation. The UK, Germany, the USA, Japan and now China have been at the forefront of successive waves.

Crane Brinton in The Anatomy of Revolution saw revolution as a driver of expansionism in, for example, Stalinist Russia, the US and the Napoleonic Empire.

Christopher Booker believes that Wishful thinking can generate a 'dream phase' of expansionism such as in the European Union, which is shortlived and unstable.

Past examples[edit]

The militarist and nationalistic reign of Czar Nicholas I (1825–1855) led to wars of conquest against Persia (1826–1828) and Turkey (1828–1829). Various rebel tribes in the Caucasus region were crushed. A Polish revolt in 1830 was ruthlessly crushed. Russian troops in 1848 crossed into Austria-Hungary to put down the Hungarian revolt. Russification policies were implemented to weaken minority ethnic groups. Nicholas also built the Kremlin Palace and a new cathedral in Saint Petersburg. But Pan-slavism ambition led to further war with Turkey (the Sick man of Europe) in 1853 provoked Britain and France into invading Crimea, and Nicholas died, supposedly of grief at his defeat. [3]

The German Second Reich (1871–1918) underwent an industrial revolution under Bismarck, who also reformed and expanded the army. Poles and Catholics were persecuted. Colonies were acquired in Africa and China. In 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck and resolved to build a world-class Navy, which led to an arms race with Britain and thence to World War One. [4]

From 1933 the Third Reich under Hitler laid claim to the Rhineland, the Sudetenland, unification (Anschluss) with Austria in 1938, and the whole of the Czech lands the following year. After war broke out, Hitler and Stalin divided Poland between Germany and the USSR. In a Drang nach Osten aimed at achieving Lebensraum for the German people, Germany invaded the USSR in 1941. [5]

Colonialism, a form of expansionism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country.[6] The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to the mid-20th century when several European powers had established colonies in the Americas, Africa and Asia.

Expansionist nationalism is an aggressive and radical form of nationalism that incorporates autonomous, patriotic sentiments with a belief in expansionism. The term was coined during the late nineteenth century as European powers indulged in the 'Scramble for Africa' in the name of national glory, but has been most associated with militarist governments during the 20th century including Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, the Japanese empire, and the Balkans countries of Albania (Greater Albania), Bulgaria (Greater Bulgaria), Croatia (Greater Croatia), Hungary (Greater Hungary), Romania (Greater Romania) and Serbia (Greater Serbia).

In American politics after the War of 1812; Manifest Destiny was the ideological movement during America's expansion West. The movement incorporated expansionist nationalism with Continentalism, with the Mexican War in 1846-1848 being attributed to it. Despite championing American settlers and traders as the people whom the Government's military would be aiding, the Bent, St. Vrain and Company stated to be the most influential Indian Trading company prior to the Mexican War, underwent a decline due to War and traffic from American settlers by Beyreis. The company also lost Partner Charles Bent on January 19, 1847, to a riot caused by the Mexican War. The tribes: Cheyennes, Comanches, Kiowas, and Pawnees died from Small pox in 1839-1840, measles and whooping cough in 1845, and cholera in 1849 brought by white settlers. The buffalo herds, sparse grasses, and rare waters were also depleted following the war as increased traffic by settlers moving to California during the Gold Rush. [7]

21st century[edit]

China[edit]

The People's Republic of China is expanding its operations and influence in the South China Sea, claiming possession of disputed offshore islands in the search for oil and gas.[8] A major instrument of influence is the Belt and Road Initiative.

Israel[edit]

Israel was made from the reacquired lands held by Palestine under the manifesto of original ownership in May 14, 1948, following the end of World War II and the Holocaust. Its government has tried to expand its territory and power through the occupation of the Golan Heights in 1967 and effectively ending in 2018.[9][10]

Iran[edit]

Iran, the largest Shi'ite state, has extended its influence in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen and Afghanistan.[11]

Russia[edit]

Russia's behavior threatens the integrity and existence of NATO member states and Russia's non-NATO neighbors.[12] The events associated with Russia are: the 2008 Russo-Georgian War and Russia's occupation of South Ossetia and Abkhazia; the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, which began in 2014 with the Annexation of Crimea and the War in Donbass; and the military intervention in Syria.

United States[edit]

The United States is seen to be using its power to expand its influence. Criticism is meted out for large-scale events (wars); for expressing support in favor of opposition groups, and for aiding the rebel groups' aspirations to remove governments. A war in Afghanistan was begun in response to the 9/11 attacks; despite opposition by traditional allies such as France, a war in Iraq was declared based on the inaccurate information of Iraq hosting weapons of mass destruction. No weapons of mass destruction were ever found, however a controversial oil law was passed through American influence, largely privatizing the valuable commodity of oil to foreign companies. [13][14][15]

The influence of the United States extends to: embargoing countries such as Cuba;[16] building military bases around the world, especially in the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf;[17] supporting opposition groups in Libya and Syria during the Arab Spring and the Syrian Civil War;[18][19] implementing sanctions against the leaderships of countries Venezuela, Russia, and Iran;[20][21][22][23] deploying its navy in the South China Sea, widely seen as a way to counter Chinese claims in the South China Sea.[24]

In recent times, the United States is also seen to be asserting its dominance economically. Faced by a rapidly-internationalising Renminbi and a growing eurozone, the United States is using the global dominance of the US dollar in worldwide trade to indiscriminately sanction NATO allies such as Turkey, as well as rival countries such as Russia, Venezuela and Iran;[25][26][27][28] using protectionist measures against traditional allies and fellow WTO-members Canada, Mexico, and the European Union;[29] and initiating a major trade war with economic rival China.[30]

Ideologies[edit]

In the nineteenth century, theories of racial unity such as Pan-Germanism, Pan-Slavism, Pan-Turkism and the related Turanism, evolved. In each case, the dominant nation (respectively, Prussia, Russia[31] and the Ottoman Empire, especially under Enver Pasha,) used these theories to legitimise their expansionist policies.

In popular culture[edit]

George Orwell's satirical novel Animal Farm is a fictional depiction, based on Stalin's USSR, of a new elite seizing power, establishing new rules and hierarchies, then expanding economically while compromising their ideals; while Robert Erskine Childers in The Riddle of the Sands portrayed the threatening nature of the German Second Reich. Elspeth Huxley's novel Red Strangers shows the effects on local culture of colonial expansion into sub-Saharan Africa.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Manifest Destiny | History, Examples, & Significance". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-05-07.
  2. ^ The Muqadimmah, 1377, pages 137-256
  3. ^ Orlando Figes, Crimea, Penguin, 2011, chapter one
  4. ^ Allan Mallinson, '1914; Fight the Good Fight', Bantam Press, 2013, chapter two
  5. ^ Sebastian Haffner, The Meaning of Hitler, Phoenix, 2000, chapters 2,3 and 4
  6. ^ Colonialism, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language (1989 ed.) p. 291.; Colonialisme, Nouveau Petit Robert de la langue française (1993 ed.), p. 456.
  7. ^ Beyreis, David (Summer 2018). "The Chaos of Conquest: The Bents and the Problem of American Expansion". Kansas History. 41, Issue 2: 72–89 – via History Reference Center.
  8. ^ Simon Tisdall, 'Vietnam's fury at China's expansionism can be traced to a troubled history', The Guardian, 15/5/2004
  9. ^ Masalha, Nur (2000). Imperial Israel and the Palestinians: politics of expansion. Sterling, VA: Pluto Press.
  10. ^ https://theintercept.com/2018/01/23/israel-syria-safe-buffer-zone-golan-heights/
  11. ^ Tim Arango, 'Iran Dominates in Iraq after US 'handed the country over, The New York Times, 15/7/2017
  12. ^ Walker, Peter (2015-02-20). "Russian expansionism may pose existential threat, says NATO general". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  13. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/trump-afghanistan-announce-war-us-army-escalation-pakistan-a7905821.html
  14. ^ https://www.defensenews.com/congress/2018/02/23/trump-administration-troops-can-stay-in-iraq-syria-indefinitely/
  15. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/13/opinion/13juhasz.html
  16. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-cuba-economy-un/us-trade-embargo-has-cost-cuba-130-billion-un-says-idUSKBN1IA00T
  17. ^ https://www.americansecurityproject.org/national-security-strategy/u-s-bases-in-the-middle-east/
  18. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-usa-order/exclusive-obama-authorizes-secret-help-for-libya-rebels-idUSTRE72T6H220110330
  19. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-turkey/turkey-to-u-s-end-support-for-syrian-kurd-ypg-or-risk-confrontation-idUSKBN1FE297
  20. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/01/world/europe/us-sanctions-turkey-pastor.html
  21. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-russia-sanctions/us-senators-introduce-russia-sanctions-bill-from-hell-idUSKBN1KN22Q
  22. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/21/us/politics/trump-maduro-venezuela-sanctions.html
  23. ^ https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/10/global-powers-condemn-us-sanctions-against-iran-and-encourage-business.html
  24. ^ https://www.scmp.com/news/china/military/article/2166910/us-navy-plans-major-show-strength-south-china-sea-warning
  25. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2018/08/01/world/europe/us-sanctions-turkey-pastor.html
  26. ^ https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-russia-sanctions/us-senators-introduce-russia-sanctions-bill-from-hell-idUSKBN1KN22Q
  27. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/21/us/politics/trump-maduro-venezuela-sanctions.html
  28. ^ https://www.cnbc.com/2018/08/10/global-powers-condemn-us-sanctions-against-iran-and-encourage-business.html
  29. ^ https://www.businessinsider.com/trump-trade-tariffs-in-us-canada-china-eu-mexico-world-2018-7
  30. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45294162
  31. ^ Orlando Figes, Crimea, Penguin, 2011, p.89

External links[edit]