Expedition of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf
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|Expedition of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf|
|Commanders and leaders|
|‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf||Al Asbagh|
The expedition of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf, also known as the Second Expedition of Dumatul Jandal took place in December, 627AD, 8th(Sha'ban) month of 6AH of the Islamic calendar. ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf was sent on a Mission to win over the Banu Kalb tribe and get them to adopt Islam and side with the Muslims, this operation was carried out successfully.
Muhammad appointed ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Awf to head to Dumatul Jandal to win over the people. It is reported by the Muslim Scholar Ibn Hisham, that he told ‘Abd al-Rahman:
Fight everyone in the way of God and kill those who disbelieve in God. Do not be deceitful with spoils, do not be treacherous, nor mutilate,do not kill children. This is God’s ordinance and practice of his prophet among you.
[Ibn Hisham, Sirat Rasul Allah , p. 672]
‘Abd al-Rahman set out with 700 men on an expedition to Dumat al-Jandal, that is on the route to Khaybar, Fadak. The place was a great trading center; the inhabitants were mainly Christians and were ruled by a Christian king. Following the Islamic rule, on reaching Dumatul Jandal, ‘Abd al-Rahman summoned the people of the tribe to embrace Islam within three days grace.
During the 3 day period, Al-Asbagh, a Christian chief of Banu Kalb complied and many of his followers also followed suit. Other tribes also paid tribute (Jizya) to ‘Abd al-Rahman. On agreement to pay Jizya tax regularly, they were allowed to keep their Christianity.
Muhammad received the news through a Messenger, and then instructed ‘Abd al-Rahman to marry Tamadhir, the daughter of the Christian chief, Al-Asbagh. So ‘Abd al-Rahman married Tumadhir bint Asbagh, the daughter of the Christian king and brought this lady with him to Medina.
- Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 395 (online)
- Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, Smith, Elder & Co, pp. 11–12
- Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-19-577307-1.
Abd ar-Rahman led a force to the district, made some sort of agreement with the leader of Kalb there, al-Asya* (or al-Asbagh) b. f Amr, and sealed it by marry-ing his daughter Tumadir. 1 One account says that al-Asya c became a Muslim, but another speaks of 'Abd ar-Rahman collecting jizyah or poll-tax, which would imply that he remained a Christian ; the latter seems more likely.External link in
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- Abū Khalīl, Shawqī (2003). Atlas of the Quran. Dar-us-Salam. p. 242. ISBN 978-9960-897-54-7.
- Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22.Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
- Mufti M. Mukarram Ahmed (205). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Anmol Publications. p. 229. ISBN 81-261-2339-7.
- Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume (translator), The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), Oxford University Press, p. 672, ISBN 978-0-19-636033-1