Expedition of Usama bin Zayd
The Expedition of Usama bin Zayd  also known as the Army of Usama ibn Zaid to al-Balqa, took place in 11AH of the Islamic calendar, in May 632. Usama ibn Zayd was appointed as the commander of an expeditionary force which was to invade Palestine again
Muhammad invited Usama ibn Zayd (son of Zayd ibn Harithah) to a mosque and ordered him to act as the commander of an army that was to invade Palestine, and attack Takhum of al-Balqa (which was in Palestine). Usama ibn Zayd was the son of Zayd ibn Harithah, a slave that was very close to Muhammad whom he had freed. Zayd ibn Haritha was killed in the Battle of Mutah.
In addition to attacking Balqa, he was ordered to attack Darum. Some weeks later, Muhammad fell ill, and from his seat (the Minbar) in the mosque, he ordered that Usama ibn Zayd should lead the expeditionary force. Muhammad also rebuked those that claimed he did not merit such an honour, or that he was too young, while the best of Muhammad’s commanders were available.
Usama visited Muhammad before he went into battle. The next day he set out for his expedition and learnt Muhammad had died on 8 June 632. He was told by Abu Bakr to continue the expedition.
Invasion of Palestine
10 Rules of Abu Bakr
According to Tabari, before Usamah headed out, Abu Bakr advised Usamah with "10 things", which were like his rules of war. The tradition about the 10 "things" of Abu Bakr are also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith collection Al-Muwatta. The tradition mentioned many things, including leaving "monks" alone. Imam Shaffi did not consider the tradition, about the 10 rules of Abu Bakr as authentic, but the same book which claimed he did not consider it authentic, also mentioned in another occasion that Shaffi considered it authentic (or partly authentic), and used it to justify killing monks only if they fought Muslims. But the same book explains that even if it was authentic, it does not mean that monks can not be killed, and claims that Abu Bakr's intention (according to Shaffi) was to only temporarily leave the monasteries alone. Shaffi concluded that "monks" are not included in his list of "non combatants". Abu Yusuf mentioned a counter tradition about the instructions of Abu Bakr, which claimed that Abu Bakr ordered his commanders to lay waste to every village where he did not hear the call to prayer.
Usama headed out with 3000 men, of which 1000 were cavalry soldiers. Abu Bakr accompanied Usama part of the way. It is true that Abu Bakr was in Madina when Usama left for invasion for appointing a Caliph.  Usama had also sent a spy, from which he learned that the inhabitants were still unaware of the imminent approach of the army.
Islamic primary sources
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The incident is mentioned in the Sahih Bukhari hadith collection:
|“||The Prophet appointed Usama as the commander of the troops (to be sent to Syria). The Muslims spoke about Usama (unfavorably). The Prophet said, "I have been informed that you spoke about Usama. (Let it be known that) he is the most beloved of all people to me."Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:744||”|
Tabari said about the event:
|“||In the year 11/632, during the month of Muharram, the Messenger of God ordered the people to undertake an expedition to Syria. He put Usamah, the son of his freed slave Zayd b. al-Harithah, in command over them, ordering him to lead the cavalry into the territory of al-Balqa' and al-Darum in the land of Palestine. The people got ready and the first emigrants went forth all together with him. As the people were preparing for the expedition, the Prophet began to suffer from the sickness by which God took him to what honor and compassion He intended for him. [It took place] toward the end of Safar or at the beginning of Rabi` I.
[Tabari, Vol 9, Last Years of the Prophet, Pg 163-164].
It is also mentioned by Tabari that Abu Bakr gave Usamah 10 rules before he was sent forth and raided the inhabitants:
|“||Then (Abu Bakr) said, "Oh army, stop and I will order you [to do] ten [things]; learn them from me by heart. You shall not engage in treachery; you shall not act unfaithfully; you shall not engage in deception; you shall not indulge in mutilation; you shall kill neither a young child nor an old man nor a woman; you shall not fell palm trees or burn them, you shall not cut down [any] fruit-bearing tree; you shall not slaughter a sheep or a cow or a camel except for food. You will pass people who occupy themselves in monks' cells; leave them alone, and leave alone what they busy themselves with. You will come to a people who will bring you vessels in which are varieties of food; if you eat anything from [those dishes], mention the name of God over them. You will meet a people who have shaven the middle of their head and have left around it [a ring of hair] like turbans; tap them lightly with the sword. Go ahead, in God's name; may God make you perish through wounds and plague!"
According to al-Sari — Shu'ayb — Sayf ; and according to 'Ubayd-allah — his uncle — Sayf — Hisham b. Urwah- his father: Abu Bakr went out to al-Jurf and followed Usamah and sent him off. He asked Usamah for 'Umar [b. al-Khattab], which he agreed to. He told Usamah "Do what the Prophet of God ordered you to do: Begin with the Quda'ah country, then go to Abil. Do not fall short in anything that the Apostle of God commanded, but do not hurry because of what is not [yet] attained of his injunction.
So Usamah advanced quickly to Dhu al-Marwah and the valley and ended up doing what the Prophet had ordered him to do, dispersing horsemen among the Quda'ah tribes and raiding Abil. He took captives and booty, and his completion [of the mission] was within forty days, excepting [the time of] his return.
[Tabari, Vol 10, The conquest of Arabia, Pg 16-17]
- Gil, A history of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 31.
- Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 249. ISBN 978-9960897714.
- Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 303
- Gil, A history of Palestine, 634-1099, pp. 31-32.
- Tabari, Al (1993), The conquest of Arabia, State University of New York Press, p. 16, ISBN 978-0791410714
- Al-Muwatta; Book 21, Number 21.3.10.
- Aboul-Enein, H. Yousuf and Zuhur, Sherifa, Islamic Rulings on Warfare, p. 22, Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, Diane Publishing Co., Darby PA, ISBN 1-4289-1039-5
- M. J. Kister. Non-combatants in Muslim Legal Thought, translation of Studies in Early Islam: Lectures delivered in honour of Professor M. J. Kister on the occasion of his ninetieth birthday. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. p. 6.
Regarding monks, two contradictory opinions are attributed to ShÁfi‘Ð. On one occasion, he accepts the tradition attributed to AbÙ Bakr prohibiting the killing of monks. Their lives are forfeit only if they actively fight against Muslims; but if they assist the enemy in other ways, they are to be punished but not executed. Elsewhere in the same book, ShÁfi‘Ð states that all infidel men without exception must convert to Islam or be killed; all men of the protected religions (ahl al-kitÁb) must pay jizya or be killed. He emphasizes that this rule applies to monks as well and denies the authenticity of the tradition attributed to AbÙ Bakr, which he himself had accepted on another occasion. Alternatively, he explains that even if the tradition from AbÙ Bakr is authentic, this does not mean that monks may not be killed. AbÙ Bakr’s intention, according to ShÁfi‘Ð, was that monasteries be left aside temporarily in order to concentrate on more important military targets first. ShÁfi‘Ð thus concludes that monks are not included in the lists of “non-combatants,” and they most definitely may be fought and killed.External link in
- Joseph Schacht (1959). Origins of Muhammadan jurisprudence. Clarendon Press. p. 145. ISBN 9781597404747.
Abu Bakr instructed one of his commanders to lay waste every village where he did not hear the call to prayer.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Al-Farooq a book by Shubli No'mani
- Gil, A history of Palestine, 634-1099, p. 32.
- Tabari, Al (25 September 1990), The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma'il Qurban Husayn), State University of New York Press, pp. 163–164, ISBN 978-0887066917 online