Explorer 8

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Explorer 8
Explorer 8.jpg
Explorer 8
Mission type Earth science
Operator NASA
Harvard designation 1960 Xi 1
SATCAT no. 00060
Mission duration 54 days
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Launch mass 40.88 kilograms (90.1 lb)
Power 100.0 watts
Start of mission
Launch date November 3, 1960, 05:23:10 (1960-11-03UTC05:23:10Z) UTC
Rocket Juno II AM-19D
Launch site Cape Canaveral LC-26B
End of mission
Last contact December 27, 1960 (1960-12-28)
Decay date March 28, 2012
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Medium Earth
Semi-major axis 7,722.00 kilometers (4,798.23 mi)
Eccentricity 0.12108247
Perigee 416 kilometers (258 mi)
Apogee 2,286 kilometers (1,420 mi)
Inclination 49.9 degrees
Period 112.7 minutes
Epoch 5 December 1960[1]

Explorer 8 was an American research satellite launched on November 3, 1960.[2] It was intended to study the temporal and spatial distribution of the electron density, the electron temperature, the ion concentration, the ion mass, the micrometeorite distribution, and the micrometeorite mass in the ionosphere at altitudes between 400 and 1600 km and their variation from full sunlit conditions to full shadow, or nighttime, conditions.

The payload was in the form of two truncated cones with the bases attached to a cylindrical equator. The outer shell was aluminum and had a diameter of 76 cm and a height of 76 cm. The 108.00 MHz transmitter had 100 mW average power, and it functioned for the life of the battery pack (54 days). The data system included telemetry consisting of continuous operation with real-time transmission.

To avoid the possibility of effects on the experiments by asymmetrical charging on solar cell surfaces, solar cells were not used.

Experiment instrumentation included an RF impedance probe, an ion current monitor, a retarding potential probe, a two-element and a three-element electron temperature probe, an electron current monitor, a photomultiplier-type and a microphone-type micrometeorite detector, an electric field meter, a solar horizon sensor, and thermistor temperature probes. Simultaneous measurements of electron and ion concentration were used to resolve the question of neutrality of the medium.

Battery power failed on December 27, 1960. Considerable difficulty was encountered with decommutating the telemetered data to make machine processing possible. As a result of these difficulties, the data were mostly processed by hand. In spite of these difficulties, considerable new knowledge about the ionosphere was gained from operation of the satellite.[3] Explorer 8 decayed from orbit on 28 March 2012.

A replica is on display at the Smithsonian in Washington, DC.[4]

Explorer 8 in preparation


  1. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  2. ^ "Explorers: Searching the Universe Forty Years Later". NASA Fact Sheets. Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA. Retrieved 2008-02-03. 
  3. ^ "Explorer 8". NASA. Retrieved 2016-06-29. 
  4. ^ Explorer 8 satellite