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An export restriction may be imposed:
- To prevent a shortage of goods in the domestic market because it is more profitable to export
- To manage the effect on the domestic market of the importing country, which may otherwise impose antidumping duties on the imported goods
- As part of foreign policy, for example as a component of trade sanctions
- To limit or restrict arms or dual-use items that may be used in proliferation, terrorism, or nuclear, chemical, or biological warfare.
- To limit or restrict trade to embargoed nations.
In the United States, the Export Administration Regulations are issued by the Bureau of Industry and Security (in the Department of Commerce) for all items except munitions. The Department of State has the responsibility of overseeing export of defense and military-related articles as per the International Traffic in Arms Regulations or ITAR.
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