Express Entry

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Express Entry is a system used by the Canadian government to manage Canadian permanent residence applications for filling labour gaps through certain economic immigration programs.[1] Launched on 1 January 2015, this immigration system is used to select and communicate with skilled and qualified applicants, it also manages a pool of immigration ready skilled workers.[2][3] Express Entry is designed to facilitate express immigration of skilled workers to Canada "who are most likely to succeed economically."[4] The system is identified to be efficient in processing times, with 80% of applications processed in 6 months or less compared to an existing one.[5]

Those who are eligible for one of the programs managed by Express Entry submit their application and the Canadian government issues invitation letters to successful candidates per a score system.[6] Acceptance of the invitation and positive assessment of the Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada on the application will grant the applicant, and their accompanying family members, Canadian permanent resident status.[7]

Economic value versus "first-come first-served"[edit]

Express Entry replaced the original "first-come first-served" immigration selection system. Express Entry was expected to be more responsive to regional labour shortages.[8] It systemically favours qualified immigrants by prioritising such individuals and avoids the arbitrary selections of the previous system which, in some cases, were based on a first-come, first-served basis.[9][10]

Express Entry uses a points-based system, called the Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS), to automatically rank interested candidates and select the most competitive for immigration.[11] The core factors considered are age, level of education, language proficiency in English and/or French, and Canadian work experience.[12] An ideal candidate would be between the age of 20-29, possessing a high level of education, and advanced proficiency in either English or French.[13]

Concerns have also been expressed about the Express Entry system. Morton Beiser and Harald Bauder (2014) of Ryerson University wrote "Canada’s once pathbreaking immigration policies are being transformed into a system that mainly serves employers, treating immigrants not as future citizens or members of Canadian communities and families but merely as convenient or cheap labour." Others[who?] fear that Express Entry gives too much power to politicians and bureaucrats. Advocates of Express Entry claim that Express Entry can reduce the number of migrants who fail to get work by better fitting immigrants to existing jobs vacancies.[14]

The system[edit]

The Canadian government establishes its own annual quota for new immigrants. Under its 2020-2022 Immigration Levels Plan, Canada is targeting the arrival of 91,800 immigrants through Express Entry in 2020.[15] It has set a target of an additional 91,150 arrivals in 2021, and 91,150 in 2022.[15]

Approximately every two weeks, the Canadian government conducts an Express Entry draw, inviting the most competitive Express Entry candidates to apply for Canadian permanent resident status.[16] In these draws, the federal government establishes a cut-off score, using the Comprehensive Ranking System. All candidates with scores higher than the cut-off will receive an official Invitation to Apply (ITA) for permanent residency.[17][18] On rare occasions, the government may limit the draws to specific Express Entry immigration programs.

In 2019, the Canadian government issued 85,300 ITAs.[19] Some 45% of these ITAs were issued to Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP) candidates, 36% went to Canadian Experience Class (CEC) candidates, 18% went to Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) candidates, and 1% went to Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP) candidates.[19]

In 2020, 107,350 further ITAs were issued to Express Entry candidates.[20]

All applications are processed under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) and go through the following stages:

  1. Completeness Check - At the completeness check, the processing office determines only whether the required documents are included.[21] This stage is also called R10 which refers to section 10 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations.[22]
  2. Review of eligibility - Review of whether the applicant meets the eligibility requirement. This stage is also referred to A11.2 which refers to Section 11.2 of IRPA.[23] In this stage an immigration officer will study the documents submitted with the application to determine if they corroborate the assertions the candidate made to be issued an Invitation to Apply.[24]
  3. Review of medical results - This stage is processed in accordance with section 29 (R29) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations.[25]
  4. Review of additional documents - The applicant will be contacted if additional documents are required
  5. Interview - The applicant will be contacted if an interview is required.
  6. Biometrics (or Criminality Check)[26] - Specifically fingerprints, is used to establish the identity of applicants at the time of an application and as a program integrity tool.[27]
  7. Background check (or Security Check)[28] - A procedure to verify the criminal and/or security background of visa applicants to ensure they’re admissible to Canada.[29]
  8. Final decision

References[edit]

  1. ^ Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (2014-11-12). "Express Entry System - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  2. ^ "Express entry immigration plan has plenty of unknowns for employers | CBC News".
  3. ^ Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (2014-11-13). "Express Entry: What prospective candidates need to know - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  4. ^ Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (2014-11-13). "Express Entry: What prospective candidates need to know - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  5. ^ Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (2014-11-12). "Express Entry System - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  6. ^ Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (January 2015). "Submit an Express Entry profile: Respond to an invitation - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  7. ^ Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship (2014-11-12). "Express Entry System - Canada.ca". www.canada.ca. Retrieved 2018-10-10.
  8. ^ Lotf Ali, Jan Ali (October 2014). "Welcome to Canada? A Critical Review and Assessment of Canada's Fast-Changing Immigration Policies" (PDF). Ryerson Centre for Immigration & Settlement: 18.
  9. ^ Ibbitson, John (December 2014). "Bootstrap Immigrants: Assessing the Conservative Transformation of Canada's Immigration Policy". Centre for International Governance Innovation: 6.
  10. ^ Wattles, Jackie (18 March 2016). "Want to move to Canada? Here's what you need to know". CNN Money. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  11. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2014-12-01). "How we rank your Express Entry profile". aem. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  12. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2014-12-01). "Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) Criteria – Express Entry". aem. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  13. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2014-12-01). "Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) Criteria – Express Entry". aem. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  14. ^ Ibbitson, John (December 2014). "Bootstrap Immigrants: Assessing the Conservative Transformation of Canada's Immigration Policy". Centre for International Governance Innovation: 6.
  15. ^ a b Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2020-03-12). "Notice – Supplementary Information 2020-2022 Immigration Levels Plan". aem. Retrieved 2020-07-17.
  16. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2014-12-01). "Express Entry rounds of invitations". aem. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  17. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2014-12-01). "How Express Entry works". aem. Retrieved 2019-04-08.
  18. ^ "Immigrate to Canada with Express Entry". Immiboards.com. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  19. ^ a b "Express Entry Year-End Report 2019" (PDF). Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  20. ^ "2020: a record-breaking year for Express Entry". CIC News. 2020-12-30. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  21. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2015-01-01). "Applications for permanent residence programs subject to the Express Entry completeness check". aem. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  22. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (2020-04-30). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  23. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2015-02-04). "Express Entry: Assessing an electronic application on section A11.2". aem. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  24. ^ "How to complete your e-APR: the process from ITA to CoPR". Canada for Newbies. 18 August 2020.
  25. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (2020-04-30). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  26. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (2019-06-21). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Immigration and Refugee Protection Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  27. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2016-03-23). "Biometrics collection and screening and identity management". aem. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  28. ^ Government of Canada, Canada Border Services Agency (2007-01-26). "Security screening". www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2020-06-04.
  29. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (2020-02-10). "Glossary". aem. Retrieved 2020-06-04.

External links[edit]