External border of the European Union

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Map of the European Union (as of March 2020)
Map of the EU, including all special territories. The Outermost Regions in blue are considered part of the EU's external borders.

The border of the European Union consists of the land and sea borders that member states of the EU share with foreign states adjacent to the union.

Border status and cooperation[edit]

In 2004 the European Union developed the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) for the promotion of cooperation between the EU and its neighbours to the east and south of the European territory of the EU (i.e., excluding its outermost regions outside of Europe),[1] which, in part, includes the Cross-Border Cooperation programme aimed at the promotion of economic development in border areas and ensuring border security.[2]

External border control[edit]

The Border and Coast Guard Agency, more commonly known as Frontex, was established in 2004. Its main task is external border control of the Schengen Area. Most of its activities are coordinated with the coast and border guards of member states.

List of bilateral land borders[edit]

Current borders[edit]

Border Member state Third country Location
#Austria–Liechtenstein border (S) Austria Liechtenstein Schengen + Enclave
#Austria–Switzerland border (S) Austria Switzerland Schengen + Enclave
#Bulgaria–North Macedonia border Bulgaria North Macedonia   Ex-Yugoslavia
#Bulgaria–Serbia border Bulgaria Serbia Ex-Yugoslavia
#Bulgaria–Turkey border Bulgaria Turkey Eurasia
#Croatia–Bosnia and Herzegovina border Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina Ex-Yugoslavia
#Croatia–Montenegro border Croatia Montenegro Ex-Yugoslavia
#Croatia–Serbia border Croatia Serbia Ex-Yugoslavia
#CyprusAkrotiri and Dhekelia (Akrotiri and Dhekelia have not been part of the EU) Cyprus Akrotiri and Dhekelia island
#Estonia–Russia border Estonia Russia Eurasia
#Finland–Norway border (S) Finland Norway Schengen
#Finland–Russia border Finland Russia Eurasia
#France–Andorra border France Andorra Enclave
#France–Brazil border France Brazil overseas territory
#France–Monaco border (O) France Monaco Open border to microstates, minimal border control
#France–Netherlands border (Saint-Martin and Sint Maarten); see Franco-Dutch treaty on Saint Martin border controls France Netherlands insular
#France–Suriname border France Suriname overseas territory
#France–Switzerland border (S) France Switzerland Schengen + Enclave
#Germany–Switzerland border (S) Germany Switzerland Schengen + Enclave
#Greece–Albania border Greece Albania Eurasia
#Greece–North Macedonia border Greece North-Macedonia Ex-Yugoslavia
#Greece–Turkey border Greece Turkey Eurasia
#Hungary–Serbia border Hungary Serbia Ex-Yugoslavia
#Hungary–Ukraine border Hungary Ukraine Eurasia
#Italy–San Marino border (O) Italy San-Marino Open border to microstates, minimal border control
#Italy–Switzerland border (S) Italy Switzerland Schengen + Enclave
#Italy–Vatican City border (O) Italy Vatican Enclave + Open border to microstates, minimal border control
#Latvia–Belarus border Latvia Belarus Eurasia
#Latvia–Russia border Latvia Russia Eurasia
#Lithuania–Belarus border Lithuania Belarus Eurasia
#Lithuania–Russia border Lithuania Russia Eurasia
#Poland–Belarus border Poland Belarus Eurasia
#Poland–Russia border Poland Russia Eurasia
#Poland–Ukraine border Poland Ukraine Eurasia
#Republic of Ireland-United Kingdom border Republic of Ireland United Kingdom insular / Brexit
#Romania–Moldova border Romania Moldova Eurasia
#Romania–Serbia border Romania Serbia Ex-Yugoslavia
#Romania–Ukraine border Romania Ukraine Eurasia
#Slovakia–Ukraine border Slovakia Ukraine Eurasia
#Spain–Andorra border Spain Andorra Enclave
#Spain–Gibraltar border Spain Gibraltar Brexit
#Spain–Morocco border Spain Morocco Africa
#Sweden–Norway border (S) Sweden Norway Schengen
  • (S) = Internal Schengen border, no border control, although there may be customs control due to the external EU border status
  • (O) = Open border to microstates, minimal border control

De facto borders[edit]

  1. Cyprus–Northern Cyprus border (Green Line)

Former borders[edit]

Border From Until
West Germany–Denmark border 1958 1973
France–Spain border 1958 1986
West German–East German border 1958 1990
(West) Germany–Austria border 1958 1995
Italy–Austria border 1958 1995
Germany–Poland border 1990 2004
Germany–Czech Republic
(previously [West] Germany–Czechoslovakia) border
Austria–Czech Republic border 1995 2004
Austria–Slovakia border 1995 2004
Austria–Hungary border 1995 2004
Austria–Slovenia border 1995 2004
Italy–Slovenia (previously Italy–Yugoslavia) border 1958 2004
Hungary–Romania border 2004 2007
Greece–Bulgaria border 1981 2007
Hungary–Croatia border 2004 2013
Slovenia–Croatia border 2004 2013

See also[edit]


  1. ^ What is the European Neighbourhood Policy?
  2. ^ "The new European Neighbourhood Instrument: providing increased support to the EU's partners". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-03-14.

External links[edit]