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An extra attacker in ice hockey is a forward or, less commonly, a defenceman who has been substituted in place of the goaltender. The purpose of this substitution is to gain an offensive advantage to score a goal. The removal of the goaltender for an extra attacker is colloquially called pulling the goalie, resulting in an empty net.
The extra attacker is typically utilized in two situations:
- Near the end of the game — typically the last 60 to 90 seconds — when a team is losing by one or two goals. In this case, the team risks a goal being scored on its empty net. In "do-or-die" situations, such as playoff elimination games, teams may pull the goalie for an extra attacker earlier in the game and/or when they are down by more goals.
- During a delayed penalty call. In this case, once the opposing team regains possession of the puck, play will be stopped for the penalty. This means there will be no chance for a shot to be taken by the penalized team, rendering the goaltender of little use. On rare occasions (and much to the humiliation of the team which has pulled its goalie), however, the puck can find its way into the empty net (without the penalized team ever gaining possession) as a result of an errant pass or other mishandling of the puck by the team with the man advantage. As is the case in hockey rules, the goal is awarded to the player on the penalized team who had last touched the puck, and the serving of the penalty begins after the faceoff at centre ice.
The term sixth attacker is also used when both teams are at even strength; teams may also pull the goalie when shorthanded by a player, in which case the extra attacker would be a fifth attacker. It is exceptionally rare for a penalized team to do so during five on three situations.
Also, in overtime, an extra attacker is added automatically when a team down one player because of penalty is penalised again for a second minor penalty; the team on the power play will play five on three for the rest of the two-man advantage, and until the next whistle. In leagues with a three on three overtime, each minor penalty results in an extra attacker for the team on the power play.
In leagues like the National Hockey League where regular season standings are based on a point system (i.e. two points are awarded for a win, one point for losing in overtime or a shootout, and zero points for a loss in regulation), a team may be forced to use an extra attacker even when the score is tied near the end of regulation of a game at or near the end of the regular season to avoid being eliminated from playoff contention. The NHL discourages teams from pulling their goaltender during an overtime period; if a team does so, and subsequently loses the game when their opponent scores an empty net goal, the losing team does not receive the one point in the standings they would otherwise have received for an overtime loss.
The extra attacker concept was first utilized in the NHL by Art Ross, coach and general manager of the Boston Bruins, who picked up the idea from experimental incidents in amateur and minor-league hockey. In a playoff game against the Montreal Canadiens on March 26, 1931, Ross had goaltender Tiny Thompson go to the bench for a sixth skater in the final minute of play; the Bruins failed to score and lost the game 1–0.
A 2018 model by Aaron Brown and Cliff Asness based on the 2015–16 NHL season suggested that, for a team down one point where losing 2–0 is no worse than losing 1–0, the ideal to time to pull the goalie is somewhere between 5 and 6 minutes from the end of the match. As this is much earlier than is usually considered appropriate, Malcolm Gladwell cited the study in an episode of his podcast Revisionist History as an instance in which "disagreeableness"─which here encompasses not being bound by social expectation─can be a beneficial quality.
- Rover (ice hockey)
- Empty net goal
- Goalkeeper (association_football)§Goalkeepers in playmaking and attack - rare situation in association football in which a goalkeeper becomes an attacking player
- Coffey, Wayne (2005). The Boys of Winter: The Untold Story of a Coach, a Dream, and the 1980 U.S. Olympic Hockey Team. New York: Crown Publishers.
- Diamond, Dan (Editor) (2002). Total Hockey: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Hockey League, Second Edition. New York: total Sports Publishing. p. 204. ISBN 1-894963-16-4.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Asness, Clifford S.; Brown, Aaron (1 March 2018). "Pulling the Goalie: Hockey and Investment Implications". Social Science Research Network. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Gladwell, Malcolm. "Season 3 Episode 7 – Malcolm Gladwell's 12 Rules for Life" (Podcast). Revisionist History. Retrieved 21 July 2018.