Extracurricular activity

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Extracurricular activities or Extra Academic Activity (EAA) are those that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school or university education, performed by students. Extracurricular activities exist for all students. And generally, volunteer activities aren't always extracurricular activities.

Such activities are generally voluntary (as opposed to mandatory), social, philanthropic, and often involve others of the same age. Students often organize and direct these activities under faculty sponsorship, although student-led initiatives, such as independent newspapers, are common.

Benefits of Participation[edit]

      A study conducted by surveying school-age students in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health revealed that 70% of adolescents are involved in some form of extracurricular activities.[1]
      Other studies have shown being involved in extracurricular activities reduces the likelihood of dropping out of school, likelihood of committing a criminal offense, and leads to higher educational retainment and success and achievements in school work,[2] not to mention that the greatest advantage of participating in at least one of these activities is the decrease in anti-social behaviors and students growing up to be more successful in communication and relationships.[3]
      Involvement in after school clubs and extracurricular activities is beneficial in a variety of ways for the K-12 population. For example, school clubs can offer a place to form relationships and foster learning, and this was demonstrated with multiple groups. Research including students with disabilities involved in extracurricular activities show that they were more likely to have friends than those who were not involved.[4] Similar findings with racial and ethnic minorities and immigrant adolescents showed that minority, first, and second generation adolescents were less likely than their counterparts to have friends and be engaged in relationships, however, extracurricular activities facilitated socialization.[5] Thus, being involved in activities outside of school increases student’s chances of creating friendships. Furthermore, extracurricular activities increase positive self-development, regardless of where the activities take place (at school or away from school) [6] Likewise, female adolescents involved in school based extracurricular activities had higher self-esteem than those not involved.[7] The overall findings demonstrate that involvement in activities, whether it be sports, clubs, or school-based programs, have a positive impact on the participant’s life.

Importance of diversity[edit]

Diversity in clubs and extracurricular activities plays an important role in adolescent lives and futures. Exposure to diverse groups can help promote adolescents to become socially intelligent and responsible adults. However, being immersed in diverse populations is not enough, as it is only beneficial if members engage with each other.[8] More meaningful interactions with diverse peers allows people to acquire traits such as more socially responsible leadership skills.[9] Furthermore, participating in ethnic clubs allowed minority groups to feel more connected to their culture and allowed others to gain knowledge and understanding of other cultures.[10][11] This has two key benefits: first, oppressed minority groups have a safe place to feel a sense of belonging to their cultural roots and background, and second, people of differing ethnic backgrounds have an opportunity to learn more about other cultures, thus becoming more culturally competent. Correlational studies showed positive relationships with involvement in ethnic/cultural clubs and intellectual and psychosocial development, multicultural competence, interpersonal skills, and leadership.[12][13] Additionally, in school settings, interracial friendships positively impacted the individuals involved and the school culture as a whole.[14] This demonstrates the importance of implementing multiculturalism into school environments, both academically and in extracurricular activities. It is important to continue research on incorporating multiculturalism and ethnic/cultural clubs into schools. Creating a multicultural competent environment for diverse student populations allows them to engage with others, openly discuss possible biases and stereotypes, and form meaningful intergroup relationships. If this is implemented at a young age, it is more likely to carry into adulthood, thus molding a more socially and culturally competent adult.[15]

Examples[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Feldman, Amy. "The Role of School-Based Extracurricular Activities in Adolescent Development: A Comprehensive Review and Future Directions" (PDF). SagePub. Retrieved April 27, 2016. 
  2. ^ Eccles, Jacquelynne; Barber, Bonnie; Stone, Margaret; Hunt, James. "Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Development". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  3. ^ Mahoney, Joseph. "School Extracurricular Activity Participation as a Moderator in the Development of Antisocial Patterns" (PDF). Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 27 April 2016. 
  4. ^ Pence, A. R., & Dymond, S. K. (2015). Extracurricular School Clubs: A Time for Fun and Learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(5), 281-288. doi:10.1177/0040059915580029
  5. ^ Cherng, H. S., Turney, K., & Kao, G. (2014). Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents. Teachers College Record, 116(3), 1-28.
  6. ^ Guèvremont, A., Findlay, L., & Kohen, D. (2014). Organized Extracurricular Activities: Are In-School and Out-of-School Activities Associated With Different Outcomes for Canadian Youth?. Journal Of School Health, 84(5), 317-325. doi:10.1111/josh.12154.
  7. ^ Kort-Butler, L., & Hagewen, K. J. (2011). School-based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: A growth-curve analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(5), 568-81.
  8. ^ Park, J. p., & Chang, S. H. (2015). Understanding Students' Precollege Experiences With Racial Diversity: The High School as Microsystem. Journal Of College Student Development, 56(4), 349-362.
  9. ^ Parker, E. I., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013). Effects of diversity experiences on socially responsible leadership over four years of college. Journal Of Diversity In Higher Education, 6(4), 219-230. doi:10.1037/a0035130
  10. ^ Inkelas, K. K. (2004). Does Participation in Ethnic Cocurricular Activities Facilitate a Sense of Ethnic Awareness and Understanding? A Study of Asian Pacific American Undergraduates. Journal Of College Student Development, 45(3), 285-302. doi:10.1353/csd.2004.0037
  11. ^ Luo, J., & Jamieson-Drake, D. (2013). Examining the Educational Benefits of Interacting with International Students. Journal Of International Students, 3(2), 85-101.
  12. ^ Inkelas, K. K. (2004). Does Participation in Ethnic Cocurricular Activities Facilitate a Sense of Ethnic Awareness and Understanding? A Study of Asian Pacific American Undergraduates. Journal Of College Student Development, 45(3), 285-302. doi:10.1353/csd.2004.0037
  13. ^ Luo, J., & Jamieson-Drake, D. (2013). Examining the Educational Benefits of Interacting with International Students. Journal Of International Students, 3(2), 85-101.
  14. ^ Pica-Smith, C. and Poynton, T. (2014). Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships among youth to reduce prejudice and racism in schools: the role of the school counselor. Professional School Counseling: 2014-2015, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 82-89. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5330/prsc.18.1.u80765360j5825l0
  15. ^ Pica-Smith, C. and Poynton, T. (2014). Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships among youth to reduce prejudice and racism in schools: the role of the school counselor. Professional School Counseling: 2014-2015, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 82-89. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5330/prsc.18.1.u80765360j5825l0

1. Cherng, H. S., Turney, K., & Kao, G. (2014). Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents. Teachers College Record, 116(3), 1-28. 2. Guèvremont, A., Findlay, L., & Kohen, D. (2014). Organized Extracurricular Activities: Are In-School and Out-of-School Activities Associated With Different Outcomes for Canadian Youth?. Journal Of School Health, 84(5), 317-325. doi:10.1111/josh.12154 3. Inkelas, K. K. (2004). Does Participation in Ethnic Cocurricular Activities Facilitate a Sense of Ethnic Awareness and Understanding? A Study of Asian Pacific American Undergraduates. Journal Of College Student Development, 45(3), 285-302. doi:10.1353/csd.2004.0037 4. Kort-Butler, L., & Hagewen, K. J. (2011). School-based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: A growth-curve analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(5), 568-81. 5. Luo, J., & Jamieson-Drake, D. (2013). Examining the Educational Benefits of Interacting with International Students. Journal Of International Students, 3(2), 85-101. 6. Park, J. p., & Chang, S. H. (2015). Understanding Students' Precollege Experiences With Racial Diversity: The High School as Microsystem. Journal Of College Student Development, 56(4), 349-362. 7. Parker, E. I., & Pascarella, E. T. (2013). Effects of diversity experiences on socially responsible leadership over four years of college. Journal Of Diversity In Higher Education, 6(4), 219-230. doi:10.1037/a0035130 8. Pence, A. R., & Dymond, S. K. (2015). Extracurricular School Clubs: A Time for Fun and Learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 47(5), 281-288. doi:10.1177/0040059915580029 9. Pica-Smith, C. and Poynton, T. (2014). Supporting interethnic and interracial friendships among youth to reduce prejudice and racism in schools: the role of the school counselor. Professional School Counseling: 2014-2015, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 82–89. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5330/prsc.18.1.u80765360j5825l0

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