Extradition law in Australia
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Extradition law in Australia is the formal process by which a fugitive found outside a jurisdiction is surrendered to the jurisdiction where an alleged offence has taken place for trial or punishment, under Australian law. This may include a process done within the country or one between Australia and another country.
The power to extradite between and among the states and territories of Australia is conferred by s 51(xxiv) of the Australian Constitution which says that the Commonwealth Parliament shall, subject to the Constitution, have the power to make laws for the peace, order, and good government of the Commonwealth with respect to (inter alia) the service and execution throughout the commonwealth of the civil and criminal process and the judgements of the courts of the states.
Extradition to and from Australia
The Extradition Act 1988 governs the extradition of fugitives found in Australia to other countries. The law ratifies a series of treaties to which Australia is a party with other countries, either in the right of the Commonwealth of Australia, by being bound by treaties which the UK executed on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, or multilateral treaties to which Australia is a signatory.
The absence of an extradition treaty does not, in theory, prevent an arrest and/or extradition either to or from that country e.g. through the London Scheme (for Commonwealth member states) or through regulation (Cambodia for example).
Extradition between Australia and New Zealand is governed by a separate and distinct regime, known as the 'backing of warrants' system.
Map of Countries
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Countries with which Australia has extradition arrangements
- Through bilateral extradition treaties:
Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Vietnam.
- Through inherited treaties (especially for former colonies etc):
Albania, Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Iraq, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Romania, San Marino, and Yugoslavia.
- Through backing of warrants:
- Through the London Scheme (current and former Commonwealth of Nations member states):
Akrotiri and Dhekelia (the Sovereign base areas on the Island of Cyprus), Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei Darussalam, Cayman Islands, Cyprus, Dominica, Falkland Islands, Gambia, Ghana, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Montserrat, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Sri Lanka, St Helena, Saint Helena, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Swaziland, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe
- Through regulations (not treaty based):
Slovenia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Cambodia, Canada, Cook Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Fiji, Iceland, Japan, Jordan, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lithuania, FYR Macedonia, Marshall Islands, Montenegro, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Serbia, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, United Kingdom, Vanuatu and Western Samoa.
Countries with which Australia has proposed extradition agreements
Country with which Australia is negotiating extradition treaties:
- Proposed extradition treaty between Australia and Pakistan. Australasian Legal Information Institute (16 March 2000). Retrieved on 3 Jan. 2012.