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|Stylistic origins||Heavy metal|
|Cultural origins||Late 1970s to late 1980s, United States and Europe|
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic, verbal and visual transgression". The term usually refers to a more abrasive, harsher, underground, non-commercialized style or sound associated with the speed metal, thrash metal, death metal, black metal and doom metal genres. With the exception of doom metal, all of these genres are characterized by fast tempos, attesting to their roots in hardcore punk, which has also fused with extreme metal in the forms of crossover thrash, crust punk, grindcore, sludge metal and metalcore. Though many extreme sub-styles are not very well known to mainstream music fans, extreme metal has influenced an array of musical performers inside and outside of heavy metal.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Extreme metal genres
- 3 References
"Extreme" can be meant to describe any of the following musical elements: instrumentation (whether it is intended to be faster, more aggressive, abrasive or "heavier" than other metal styles), lyrics (dealing with darker, more sensational topics and themes), vocals (which often use guttural, harsh or abrasive singing), or appearance and stage demeanor (using corpse paint, Satanic or occult imagery). The "extreme" label is most commonly applied to bands whose music is extreme; for example, few would consider Kiss or Alice Cooper to be extreme metal, though they could be considered to employ extreme elements in their appearance and stage demeanor for their time.
"Extreme metal's sonic excess is characterized by high levels of distortion (also in the vocals – grunting or screaming), less focus on guitar solos and melody, emphasis on technical control, and fast tempos (at times, more than 200 beats per minute). Its thematic transgression can be found in more overt and/or serious references to Satanism and the darker aspects of human existence that are considered out of bounds or distasteful, such as death, suicide and war."[attribution needed] "Visual transgression [can include] ... medieval weaponry [and] bloody/horrific artwork."[attribution needed]
According to ethnographer Keith Kahn-Harris, the defining characteristics of extreme metal can all be regarded as clearly transgressive: the "extreme" traits noted above are all intended to violate or transgress given cultural, artistic, social or aesthetic boundaries.
Given the vagueness of existing definitions and considering the limitations such definitions have, there are many artists for whom the usage of the term "extreme metal" is a subject of debate. However, Kahn-Harris also notes that many musicians and fans see such debates over style and genre as useless and unnecessary, or at least as given undue attention.
Extreme metal genres
Subgenres of primary genres
- Subgenres of black metal
- Subgenres of death metal
- Subgenres of doom metal
Fusions between primary genres
Fusions with other metal styles
Fusions with hardcore punk and punk rock styles
- Crossover thrash
- Crust punk
- Sludge metal
Fusion with rock styles
Fusions with various other musical styles
Although the following derivatives have extreme influences, they are usually not considered extreme themselves:
- Gothic metal, influenced by death-doom and doom metal
- Groove metal, influenced by thrash metal and death metal
- Neoclassical metal and power metal, both influenced by speed metal
- Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in Journal of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 101
- K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Berg Publishers, 2007), ISBN 1-84520-399-2, p. 31.
- Julian Schaap and Pauwke Berkers. "Grunting Alone? Online Gender Inequality in Extreme Metal Music" in Journal of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Vol.4, no.1 (2014) p. 103
- Kahn-Harris, Keith, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge, Oxford: Berg, 2007, ISBN 1-84520-399-2.
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: War Black Metal: Die Extremsten der Extremen. Was bleibt, ist Schutt und Asche. In: Rock Hard, no. 279, p. 71-73.
- Hayes, Craig. "Pallbearer - Sorrow And Extinction Review". About.com. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Newshound, Terrorizer. "ITALIAN BLACKENED DOOMSTERS FORGOTTEN TOMB PLAN RELEASE review". Terrorizer Online. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Ordo Obsidium - Orbis Tertius Review review". About.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Mason, Stewart. "Glass Casket". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- Brown, Jonathon (2007-09-06). "Everything you ever wanted to know about pop (but were too old to ask)". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland. p. 24. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- Williams, Rhys (29 December 2011). "2011 in Review: The Year in Black 'n' Roll". Invisible Oranges. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Vreid: 'The Reap' Video Released". Blabbermouth.net. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Whelan, Kez (17 September 2013). "Incubate Preview: Khold". Terrorizer. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Kelly, Kim (14 August 2014). "Hell Awaits: Disemballerina, Khold, Heavydeath and more". Pitchfork. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Howells, Tom. "Blackgaze: meet the bands taking black metal out of the shadows". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
- Cosmo Lee. "Stylus magazine review". www.stylusmagazine.com. Archived from the original on 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
“Death ’n’ roll” arose with Entombed’s 1993 album Wolverine Blues ... Wolverine Blues was like ’70s hard rock tuned down and run through massive distortion and death growls.External link in