This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the points that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.
The southernmost open sea is also part of Ross Sea, namely Bay of Whales at 78°30'S, at the edge of Ross Ice Shelf.[note 1]
The westernmost and easternmost points of the world, based on the normal practice of using longitude, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica, or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes (Vanua Levu's eastern peninsula, the middle of Taveuni, and the western part of Rabi Island).
The point farthest from the Earth's center is the summit of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, at 6,384.4 km (3,967 miles) (the peak's elevation in relation to the sea level is 6,268 m (20,564 feet)). This is due to the Earth being an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere. An oblate spheroid is very much like a sphere except it is wider at the equator and narrower between the poles. This means that Chimborazo, which is near the equator, is farther away from the center of the Earth than the peak of Mount Everest. The summit of Mount Everest is 2.168 km (1.347 miles) closer at 6,382.3 km (3,965.8 miles) to the Earth's center. Peru's Huascarán contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains' heights being 23 m (75 feet)
The lowest point underground is more than 2,000 m (6,600 feet) under the Earth's surface. For example, the altitude difference in the Krubera Cave between the entrance and the deepest explored point (its depth) is 2,191 ± 20 m (7,188 ± 66 feet). In 2012, Ukrainian cave diver Gennadiy Samokhin had reached the lowest point, breaking the world record.
The point closest to the Earth's centre (~6,353 km (3,948 miles)) is the bottom of the Arctic Ocean (greatest depth 5,450 m (17,881 feet)) near the Geographic North Pole (the bottom of the Mariana Trench is near 6,370 km (3,958 miles) from the centre of the Earth).
Highest altitude aboard a land vehicle:Ojos del Salado, 6,688 metres (21,942 ft), on 21 April 2007, the Chilean duo of Gonzalo Bravo G. and Eduardo Canales Moya reached that altitude with a modified Suzuki Samurai, setting the high-altitude record for a four-wheeled vehicle.
Road (mountain pass):Mana Pass, India contains a well-graded military road built in the 2005-2010 period that reaches 5,610 m (18,406 feet) 250 m west of the low point of the pass at 5,545 m (18,192 feet). Marsimik La in India, 5,582 m (18,314 feet), Semo La in Tibet is another contender depending on the definition of "attainable by transportation".
Road (asphalted): The Ticlio pass, on the Central Road of Peru, at an elevation of 4,818 m (15,807 feet).
Road: Excluding roads in mines, the roads beside the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan are, at 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level, the deepest. The deepest undersea road tunnel is the Eiksund Tunnel, Norway, 287 m (942 feet) below sea level.
Commercial airport:Atyrau Airport (GUW), near Atyrau, Kazakhstan, 22 m (72 feet) below sea level.
Train: Excluding tracks inside South African gold mines, which can be several thousand metres below sea level, the world's lowest railway is located in Japan's Seikan Tunnel, at 240 m (787 feet) below sea level. By comparison, the Channel Tunnel between Folkestone, England, and Coquelles, France, reaches a depth of 75 m (246 feet). The lowest station is Yoshioka-kaitei, 150 m (492 feet) below sea level. Outside tunnels, the lowest railway is 71 m (233 feet) below sea level, on the line connecting Yuma, Arizona, and Palm Springs, California, in the United States.
Lake: There is an unnamed crater lake on Ojos del Salado (which itself is the world's highest volcano) at 6,390 m (20,965 feet), on the Argentina–Chile border (the lake is in Argentina). Another candidate is Lhagba Pool on the northeast slopes of Mount Everest, Tibet, China at an elevation of 6,368 m (20,892 feet).
Navigable Lake:Lake Titicaca, on the border of Peru and Bolivia in the Andes, 3,812 m (12,507 feet)
Glacier: The Khumbu Glacier on the southwest slopes of Mount Everest in Nepal is the world's highest glacier, beginning on the west side of Lhotse at an elevation of 7,600 to 8,000 m (24,900 to 26,200 feet).
Coincidentally, EPIA1 (or EPIA2) and the most remote of the Oceanic Poles of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than 200 km (120 miles) closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.
Other continents' poles of inaccessibility are as follows:
The most remote archipelago and the most remote inhabited island is Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean, 2,434 km (1,512 mi) from Saint Helena, 2,816 km (1,750 mi) from South Africa, and 3,360 km (2,090 miles) from South America. If Gough Island, which is 399 km (248 mi) away from the main island, is considered part of this archipelago, the nearest land from it should be Bouvet Island, 1,845 km (1,146 mi) away. The islands are part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. With a population of approximately 270, the main island of Tristan da Cunha is also the remotest inhabited island in the world. Tristan da Cunha has no airport, so all travel must be by boat, making it the most remote inhabited place by transport time. Boat travel to the nearest scheduled airport in South Africa takes around five days.
The most remote city
The most remote city with a population in excess of one million, from another city of at least that population: Auckland, New Zealand. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is Sydney, Australia, 2,168.9 kilometres (1,347.7 mi) away. Coming in second at 2,139 kilometres (1,329 mi) (air travel distance) is Perth, Australia. Its nearest city of at least 1million population is Adelaide, Australia.
The most remote city with a population in excess of one million, from another city with population above 100,000 is Perth, Australia, located 2,138 kilometres (1,328 mi) away from Adelaide, Australia. Auckland, New Zealand is a notable contender for this title with a distance of 2,155 kilometres (1,339 mi) to Sydney – however, it is 114 km (71 miles) away from Hamilton, population153,000.
The most remote city with a population in excess of 500,000, from another city of at least that population is Honolulu, United States. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is San Francisco, 3,841 km (2,387 miles) away.
The most remote capital city in the world (longest distance from one capital of a sovereign country to the one closest to it) is a tie between Wellington, New Zealand, and Canberra, Australia, which are 2,326 km (1,445 mi) apart from each other. Canberra could drop from this tie in the future as it is only 2,217 km (1,378 mi) from Noumea, the capital of New Caledonia, a special territory of France which is scheduled to vote on independence between 2014 and 2018.
Since the Earth is a spheroid, its center (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the point 0°, 0°, located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 miles) south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian, at the coordinates of zero degrees by zero, is the "center" of the standard geographic model, as viewed on a map—but this selection of longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent. The center of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for everyone in the world, could be considered a centre of the world, and is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting.
Along constant latitude (east-west distances)
7,590 km (4,720 miles) at 99°1'30E: Russian Federation (76°13'6N), Mongolia, China, Burma, Thailand (7°53'24N).
7,417 km (4,609 miles) at 20°12E: Libya (32°19N), Chad, Central Africa, Congo DR, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa (34°41'30S). (Longest in Africa).
7,098 km (4,410 miles) at 70°2W: Venezuela (11°30'30N), Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Argentina (52°33'30S). (Longest in South America).
5,813 km (3,612 miles) at 97°52'30W: Canada (68°21N), United States, Mexico (16°1N). (Longest in North America).
The longest land meridian. Still to be determined. It has to be located in the vicinity of 22°E, which is the longest land integer meridian that crosses 13,035 km (8,100 miles) of land and takes more than 65% of the meridian's length. Note: the meridian that crosses Giza Great Pyramid (31°08'3.69"E) is 855 km (531 miles) shorter.
The seven longest land integer meridians, in order:
13,035 km (8,100 miles) at 22°E: Europe 3,370 km (2,090 miles), Africa 7,458 km (4,634 miles), Antarctica 2,207 km (1,371 miles)
12,953 km (8,049 miles) at 23°E: Europe 3,325 km (2,066 miles), Africa 7,415 km (4,607 miles), Antarctica 2,214 km (1,376 miles)
12,943 km (8,042 miles) at 27°E: Europe 3,254 km (2,022 miles), Asia 246 km (153 miles), Africa 7,223 km (4,488 miles), Antarctica 2,221 km (1,380 miles)
12,875 km (8,000 miles) at 25°E: Europe 3,344 km (2,078 miles), Africa 7,327 km (4,553 miles), Antarctica 2,204 km (1,370 miles)
12,858 km (7,990 miles) at 26°E: Europe 3,404 km (2,115 miles), Africa 7,258 km (4,510 miles), Antarctica 2,196 km (1,365 miles)
12,794 km (7,950 miles) at 24°E: Europe 3,263 km (2,028 miles), Africa 7,346 km (4,565 miles), Antarctica 2,185 km (1,358 miles)
12,778 km (7,940 miles) at 28°E: Europe 3,039 km (1,888 miles), Asia 388 km (241 miles), Africa 7,117 km (4,422 miles)
The longest continuous distance at sea:
15,986 km (9,933 miles) at 34°45'45W: Eastern Greenland (66°23'45N), Atlantic Ocean, Antarctica (Filchner Ice Shelf) (77°37S).
15,883 km (9,869 miles) at 172°8'30W: Russian Federation (Siberia) (64°45N), Pacific Ocean, Antarctica (Ross Ice Shelf) (78°20S). (Longest in the Pacific Ocean).
Longest continuous distance at sea: There are several possible ways to travel along a great circle for more than the antipodic length of 19,840 km (12,330 miles). Some good examples of such routes would be:
^ abA 1995 realignment of the International Date Line () moved all of Kiribati to the Asian side of the Date Line, causing Caroline Island to be the easternmost. However, if the previous Date Line were followed, the easternmost point would be Tafahi Niuatoputapu, in the Tonga Islands chain.