This is a list of the extreme points of Europe: the geographical points that are higher or farther north, south, east or west than any other location in Europe. Some of these positions are open to debate, as the definition of Europe is diverse.
Southernmost point. The island of Gavdos, Greece (34° 48′ 02″ N) is the least ambiguous southernmost point of Europe. However, there are other contenders, depending on definition. The island of Cyprus has cultural links with Europe; its southernmost point is the British base at Akrotiri (34°35′N). The Portuguese islands of Madeira are borderline between Europe and Africa; their southernmost point is the Savage Islands (30°8′43″N). La Restinga on the island of El Hierro (27°45′N) in the Spanish Canary Islands is yet further south and could be considered politically, though not physiographically as part of Europe.
Easternmost point. The easternmost point is dependent upon the various definitions of Europe's eastern border. Utilizing the most common definition of Europe's eastern edge (the watershed divide of the Ural Mountains), the easternmost point of the Ural watershed (and thus mainland Europe) lies on an unnamed 545 metre peak at 68°18′37″N66°37′05″E / 68.31028°N 66.61806°E / 68.31028; 66.61806 as shown on various detailed maps such as the Soviet General Staff maps and as shown on Google Earth/Maps. This peak is 17 km northeast of an 875 metre peak named Gora Anoraga and 60 km southwest of Ostrov Lediyev (island) on Arctic waters south of the Kara Sea.
Highest point. The highest point is dependent upon the definition of Europe:
The Caucasus Mountainswatershed divide is the most common definition for the European/Asian border. This places the highest point at Mount Elbrus, Russia (5,642 metres; 18,506 feet), which is 11 km onto the European side of the Caucasus watershed divide.
If the Caucasus mountains are excluded, the highest point is Mont Blanc, on the border between France and Italy (4,810 metres; 15,781 feet).
Lowest point (natural, with open sky). Caspian Sea shore, Russia (−28 metres; −92 feet below sea level).
Lowest point (natural, under water). Calypso Deep, Greece (−5,267 metres; −17,280 feet below sea level).
Lowest point (natural, underground). Dependent upon the definition of Europe: either Krubera Cave, Georgia (−2196 metres; −7205 feet below surface) (also the deepest cave of the world) or Lamprechtsofen, Austria (−1,632 metres; −5,354 feet below surface).