Extreme points of Earth
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This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the points that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.
- 1 The world
- 1.1 Latitude and longitude
- 1.2 Elevation
- 1.3 Remoteness
- 1.4 Farthest apart
- 1.5 Center
- 1.6 Along constant latitude (east-west distances)
- 1.7 Along constant longitude (north-south distances)
- 1.8 Along any great circle
- 2 Afro-Eurasia
- 3 The Americas
- 4 Antarctica
- 5 The Arctic
- 6 Oceania
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
Latitude and longitude
- The northernmost point of Earth is the geographic North Pole, in the Arctic Ocean.
- The northernmost point on land is the northern tip of Kaffeklubben Island, north of Greenland ( ), which lies slightly north of Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland ( ). Various shifting gravel bars lie farther north, the most famous being Oodaaq.
- The southernmost point of the world and the southernmost point on land is the geographic South Pole, which is on the continent of Antarctica.
- The southernmost point of water[further explanation needed] is a bay on the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf at the coast of Antarctica ( ) about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Berkner Island, the southernmost island of the world. The southernmost point of Ocean is Gould Coast (Coordinates: 84°30′S 150°0′W)
- The westernmost and easternmost points of the world, based on the normal practice of using longitude, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica, or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes (Vanua Levu's eastern peninsula, the middle of Taveuni, and the western part of Rabi Island).
- The westernmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is Attu Island, Alaska.
- The easternmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is Caroline Island, Kiribati.[note 1]
- The highest point measured from sea level is the summit of Mount Everest on the border of Nepal and China, and was first reached by Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Sherpa of Nepal Tenzing Norgay in 1953 (with speculation that it may have been reached in 1924). While measurements of its height vary slightly, the elevation of its peak is usually given as 8,848 m (29,029 feet) above sea level.
- The point farthest from the Earth's center is the summit of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, at 6,384 kilometres (3,966.8 mi) from the center of the earth (the peak's elevation in relation to the sea level is 6,268 m (20,564 feet)). This is due to the Earth being an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere. An oblate spheroid is very much like a sphere except it is wider at the equator and narrower between the poles. This means that Chimborazo, which is near the equator, is farther away from the center of the Earth than the peak of Mount Everest. The summit of Mount Everest is 2,168 metres (7,112.9 ft) closer at 6,382.3 km (3,965.8 miles) to the Earth's center. Peru's Huascarán contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains' heights being 23 m (75 feet)
Lowest point (artificial)
- The lowest point underground ever reached was 12,262 m (40,230 feet) deep (SG-3 at Kola superdeep borehole).
- The lowest human-sized point underground is 3,900 m (12,800 feet) below ground at the TauTona Mine, Carletonville, South Africa.
- The lowest (from sea level) artificially made point with open sky may be the Hambach surface mine, Germany, 293 m (961 feet) below sea level.
- The lowest (from surface) artificially made point with open sky may be the Bingham Canyon open-pit mine, Salt Lake City, United States, 1,200 m (3,900 feet) below surface level.
- The lowest point underwater was the 10,680 m (35,040 feet)-deep (as measured from the subsea wellhead) oil and gas well drilled on the Tiber Oil Field located in the Gulf of Mexico. The wellhead of this well was an additional 1,259 m (4,131 feet) underwater for a total distance of 11,939 m (39,170 feet) as measured from sea level.
Lowest point (natural)
- The lowest known point is Challenger Deep, at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 11,034 m (36,201 feet) below sea level. Only three humans have reached the bottom of the trench: Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh in 1960 aboard the bathyscaphe Trieste, and filmmaker James Cameron in 2012 aboard Deepsea Challenger.
- The lowest point underground is more than 2,000 m (6,600 feet) under the Earth's surface. For example, the altitude difference in the Krubera Cave between the entrance and the deepest explored point (its depth) is 2,191 ± 20 m (7,188 ± 66 feet). In 2012, Ukrainian cave diver Gennadiy Samokhin had reached the lowest point, breaking the world record.
- The lowest point on land not covered by liquid water is the valley under Byrd Glacier, which reaches 2,780 m (9,121 feet) below sea level. It is, however, covered by a thick layer of ice. See the extremes on Earth page. See list of places on land with elevations below sea level
- The lowest point on dry land is the shore of the Dead Sea, shared by Palestine, Israel, and Jordan, 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level. See List of places on land with elevations below sea level
- The closest point to the Earth's centre (~6,353 km (3,948 miles)) is the bottom of the Arctic Ocean (greatest depth 5,450 m (17,881 feet)) near the Geographic North Pole (the bottom of the Mariana Trench is near 6,370 km (3,958 miles) from the centre of the Earth).
Highest attainable by transportation
- Highest altitude aboard a land vehicle: Ojos del Salado, 6,688 metres (21,942 ft), on 21 April 2007, the Chilean duo of Gonzalo Bravo G. and Eduardo Canales Moya reached that altitude with a modified Suzuki Samurai, setting the high-altitude record for a four-wheeled vehicle.
- Road (dead end): Aucanquilcha, Chile, 6,176 m (20,262 feet), mining road to summit of volcano, once usable by 20-tonne mining trucks. The road is no longer usable.
- Road (mountain pass): Mana Pass, between India and Tibet with elevation of 5,545 m (18,192 feet), although a higher point on the road before the actual pass lies at 5,610 m (18,406 feet). Marsimik La in India, 5,582 m (18,314 feet) and Semo La 5,565 m (18,258 ft) in Tibet are also contenders depending on the definition of "a motorable mountain pass".
- Road (asphalted): The Ticlio pass, on the Central Road of Peru, at an elevation of 4,818 m (15,807 feet).
- Train: Tanggula Pass, in the Tanggula Mountains, Qinghai/Tibet, China, 5,072 m (16,640 feet), located on the Qinghai–Tibet (Qingzang) Railway. Tanggula also has the world's highest railway station at 5,068 m (16,627 feet). Before the Qingzang Railway was built, the highest railway ran between Lima and Huancayo in Peru, reaching 4,829 m (15,843 feet) at Ticlio.
- Oceangoing vessel: The Rhine–Main–Danube Canal between the Hilpoltstein and Bachhausen locks in Bavaria, Germany is the highest point currently reached by watercraft from the sea at 406 m (1,332 feet).
- Commercial airport: Daocheng Yading Airport, Sichuan, China, 4,411 m (14,472 feet). The proposed Nagqu Dagring Airport in Tibet, China,4,436 m (14,554 feet), if built, will be higher.
- Helipad: Sonam, Siachen Glacier, India, at a height of 6,400 m (20,997 feet) above sea level.
- Permanent settlement: La Rinconada, Peru, 5,100 m (16,732 feet), in the Peruvian Andes. It is located near a gold mine.
- Farthest road from the center of Earth Road to Carrel Hut, Ecuador, 4,850 m (15,912 feet), in the Ecuadorian Andes. 6,382.9 km (3,966 miles) from the center of Earth.
Lowest attainable by transportation
- Road: Excluding roads in mines, the roads beside the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan are, at 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level, the deepest. The deepest undersea road tunnel is the Eiksund Tunnel, Norway, 287 m (942 feet) below sea level.
- Airfield: Bar Yehuda Airfield (MTZ), near Masada, Israel, 378 m (1,240 feet) below sea level.
- Commercial airport: Atyrau Airport (GUW), near Atyrau, Kazakhstan, 22 m (72 feet) below sea level.
- Train: Excluding tracks inside South African gold mines, which can be several thousand metres below sea level, the world's lowest railway is located in Japan's Seikan Tunnel, at 240 m (787 feet) below sea level. By comparison, the Channel Tunnel between Folkestone, England, and Coquelles, France, reaches a depth of 75 m (246 feet). The lowest station is Yoshioka-kaitei, 150 m (492 feet) below sea level. Outside tunnels, the lowest railway is 71 m (233 feet) below sea level, on the line connecting Yuma, Arizona, and Palm Springs, California, in the United States.
Highest geographical features
- Lake: There is an unnamed crater lake on Ojos del Salado (which itself is the world's highest volcano) at 6,390 m (20,965 feet), on the Argentina–Chile border (the lake is in Argentina). Another candidate is Lhagba Pool on the northeast slopes of Mount Everest, Tibet, China at an elevation of 6,368 m (20,892 feet).
- Navigable Lake: Lake Titicaca, on the border of Bolivia and Peru in the Andes, 3,812 m (12,507 feet)
- Glacier: The Khumbu Glacier on the southwest slopes of Mount Everest in Nepal is the world's highest glacier, beginning on the west side of Lhotse at an elevation of 7,600 to 8,000 m (24,900 to 26,200 feet).
- River: One candidate from among many possibilities is the Ating Ho (Ho meaning river), which flows into the Aong Tso (Hagung Tso), a large lake in Tibet, China, and is about 6,100 m (20,013 feet) at its source at . A very large high river is the Yarlung Tsangpo or upper Brahmaputra River in Tibet, China, whose main stem, the Maquan River has its source at about 6,020 m (19,751 feet) above sea level at . Above these elevations there are no rivers since the temperature is almost always below freezing.
- Island: There are a number of islands in the Orba Co lake, which is located at an elevation of 5,209 m (17,090 feet) in Tibet, China.
Each continent has its own continental pole of inaccessibility, defined as the place on the continent that is farthest from any ocean. Of these continental points, the most distant from an ocean is the Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility (or "EPIA") , in China's Xinjiang region near the Kazakhstan border. Calculations have commonly suggested that this point, located in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, is 2,645 km (1,644 miles) from the nearest coastline. The nearest settlement to the EPIA is Suluk at about 11 km (6.8 miles) to the east.
A recent study suggests that the historical calculation of the EPIA has failed to recognize the point where the Gulf of Ob joins the Arctic Ocean, and proposes instead that varying definitions of coastline could result in other Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility results: EPIA1 somewhere between and , about 2,510 ± 10 kilometres (1,559.6 ± 6.2 mi) from the nearest ocean, or EPIA2 somewhere between and , about 2,514 ± 7 kilometres (1,562.1 ± 4.3 mi) from the nearest ocean. If adopted, this would place the final EPIA roughly 130 km (81 miles) closer to ocean than currently agreed upon.
Coincidentally, EPIA1 (or EPIA2) and the most remote of the Oceanic Poles of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than 200 km (120 miles) closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.
- Other continents' poles of inaccessibility are as follows:
- Africa: , close to the tripoint of Central African Republic, South Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo, also close to Obo, Central African Republic
- Australia: either , or ., near Papunya, Northern Territory;
- North America: , between Kyle and Allen, South Dakota, United States;
- South America: , near Arenápolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil;
- The Pacific pole of inaccessibility (also called Point Nemo), the point in the ocean farthest from any land, lies in the South Pacific Ocean at , which is approximately 2,688 km (1,670 mi) from the nearest land (equidistant from Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands to the north, Maher Island off Siple Island near Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, to the south and Motu Nui off Rapa Nui in the north east).
- The most remote island is Bouvet Island, an uninhabited and small Norwegian island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It lies at coordinates . The nearest land is the uninhabited Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, over 1,600 km (994 mi) away to the south. The nearest inhabited lands are Tristan da Cunha, 2,260 km (1,404 mi) away and South Africa, 2,580 km (1,603 mi) away.
- The title for inhabited island or archipelago farthest away from any other permanently inhabited place depends on how the question is interpreted. If the south Atlantic islands Tristan da Cunha (population about 300) and its dependency Gough Island (with a small staffed research post), are considered part of the same archipelago – they are 399 km (248 mi) from each other – or if Gough Island is not counted because it has no permanent residents, that is the most distant island/archipelago: Tristan da Cunha is 2,434 km (1,512 mi) from the island Saint Helena, 2,816 km (1,750 mi) from South Africa, and 3,360 km (2,090 miles) from South America, and 1,845 km (1,146 mi) away from uninhabited Bouvet Island. If Gough and Tristan da Cunha are considered separately, they disqualify each other, and the most remote is Easter Island, which lies 2,075 kilometres (1,289 mi) from Pitcairn Island (about 50 residents in 2013), 2,606 km (1,619 mi) from Rikitea on the island of Mangareva, the nearest town with a population over 500, and 3,512 kilometres (2,182 mi) from central Chile, the nearest continental point. The Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean, are another contender, lying 1,340 kilometres (830 mi) from the small Alfred Faure scientific station in Île de la Possession, but otherwise more than 3,300 kilometres (2,100 mi) from the coast of Madagascar, the nearest permanently inhabited place, 450 km (280 mi) northwest of uninhabited Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and 1,440 km (890 mi) from the non-permanent scientific station located in Île Amsterdam.
- The most remote city
- The most remote city with a population in excess of one million, from another city in excess of one million: Auckland, New Zealand. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is Sydney, Australia, 2,168.9 kilometres (1,347.7 mi) away. Coming in second at 2,139 kilometres (1,329 mi) (air travel distance) is Perth, Australia. Its nearest city of at least 1 million population is Adelaide, Australia.
- The most remote city with a population in excess of one million, from another city with population above 100,000 is Perth, Australia, located 2,138 kilometres (1,328 mi) away from Adelaide, Australia.
- The most remote city with a population in excess of 500,000, from another city of at least that population is Honolulu, United States. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is San Francisco, 3,841 km (2,387 miles) away.
- The most remote capital city in the world (longest distance from one capital of a sovereign country to the one closest to it) is a tie between Wellington, New Zealand, and Canberra, Australia, which are 2,326 km (1,445 mi) apart from each other. Canberra could drop from this tie in the future as it is only 2,217 km (1,378 mi) from Nouméa, the capital of New Caledonia, a special territory of France which is scheduled to vote on independence between 2016 and 2018.
- The most remote airport in the world from another airport is Mataveri International Airport (IPC) on Easter Island, which has a single runway for military and public use. It is located 2,603 km (1,617 mi) from Totegegie Airport (GMR; very few flights) in the Gambier Islands, French Polynesia and 3,759 km (2,336 mi) from Santiago, Chile (SCL; a fairly large airport). In comparison, the airport at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station (NZSP) is not very remote at all, being located only 1,355 kilometres (842 mi) from Williams Field (NZWD) near Ross Island.
The world's farthest-apart city pairs (with a population of over 100,000) are:
- 19,996 km (12,425 mi) Rosario, Argentina to Xinghua, China
- 19,994 km (12,424 mi) Lu'an, China to Río Cuarto, Argentina
- 19,989 km (12,421 mi) Cuenca, Ecuador to Subang Jaya, Malaysia
Since the Earth is a spheroid, its centre (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the point 0°, 0°, located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 miles) south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian, at the coordinates of zero degrees by zero, is the "centre" of the standard geographic model, as viewed on a map—but this selection of longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent. The centre of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for everyone in the world, could be considered a centre of the world, and is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting.
Along constant latitude (east-west distances)
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- Longest continuous distance on land:
- Longest continuous distance at sea (between continents):
- Longest continuous latitude on land (incl. permanent ice shelf):
- Longest continuous latitude at sea:
Along constant longitude (north-south distances)
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- The longest continuous distance on land:
- 7,590 km (4,720 miles) at 99°1'30E: Russian Federation (76°13'6N), Mongolia, China, Burma, Thailand (7°53'24N).
- 7,417 km (4,609 miles) at 20°12E: Libya (32°19N), Chad, Central Africa, Congo DR, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa (34°41'30S). (Longest in Africa).
- 7,098 km (4,410 miles) at 70°2W: Venezuela (11°30'30N), Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Argentina (52°33'30S). (Longest in South America).
- 5,813 km (3,612 miles) at 97°52'30W: Canada (68°21N), United States, Mexico (16°1N). (Longest in North America).
- The longest land meridian. Still to be determined. It has to be located in the vicinity of 22°E, which is the longest land integer meridian that crosses 13,035 km (8,100 miles) of land and takes more than 65% of the meridian's length. Note: the meridian that crosses Giza Great Pyramid (31°08'3.69"E) is 855 km (531 miles) shorter.
- The seven longest land integer meridians, in order:
- 13,035 km (8,100 miles) at 22°E: Europe 3,370 km (2,090 miles), Africa 7,458 km (4,634 miles), Antarctica 2,207 km (1,371 miles)
- 12,953 km (8,049 miles) at 23°E: Europe 3,325 km (2,066 miles), Africa 7,415 km (4,607 miles), Antarctica 2,214 km (1,376 miles)
- 12,943 km (8,042 miles) at 27°E: Europe 3,254 km (2,022 miles), Asia 246 km (153 miles), Africa 7,223 km (4,488 miles), Antarctica 2,221 km (1,380 miles)
- 12,875 km (8,000 miles) at 25°E: Europe 3,344 km (2,078 miles), Africa 7,327 km (4,553 miles), Antarctica 2,204 km (1,370 miles)
- 12,858 km (7,990 miles) at 26°E: Europe 3,404 km (2,115 miles), Africa 7,258 km (4,510 miles), Antarctica 2,196 km (1,365 miles)
- 12,794 km (7,950 miles) at 24°E: Europe 3,263 km (2,028 miles), Africa 7,346 km (4,565 miles), Antarctica 2,185 km (1,358 miles)
- 12,778 km (7,940 miles) at 28°E: Europe 3,039 km (1,888 miles), Asia 388 km (241 miles), Africa 7,117 km (4,422 miles)
- The longest continuous distance at sea:
- 15,986 km (9,933 miles) at 34°45'45W: Eastern Greenland (66°23'45N), Atlantic Ocean, Antarctica (Filchner Ice Shelf) (77°37S).
- 15,883 km (9,869 miles) at 172°8'30W: Russian Federation (Siberia) (64°45N), Pacific Ocean, Antarctica (Ross Ice Shelf) (78°20S). (Longest in the Pacific Ocean).
Along any great circle
- Longest continuous distance in a straight line in any direction on land: 13,573 km (8,434 miles). This line begins on the coastline near Greenville, Liberia ( ), goes across the Suez Canal and ends at the top of a peninsula approximately 100 km (62 miles) northeast of Wenzhou, China . (Map from gcmap)
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Africa: 8,402 km (5,221 miles). This line begins just east of Tangier, Morocco and ends 100 km (62 miles) east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. It passes through the countries of Morocco, Algeria, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa.
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Asia: 10,152 km (6,308 miles). This line begins on the Indian coastline near Kanyakumari, ending at the Bering Sea coast of the Chukchi Peninsula, Russia. It passes through the countries of India, Nepal, China, Mongolia and Russia.
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Australia: 4,053 km (2,518 miles). This line begins at the southern end of Cape Range National Park, WA and ends at the town of Byron Bay, NSW. Being the sole country on the continent, Australia is all that it passes through.
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Europe: 5,325 km (3,309 miles) (considering the Urals as the border between Europe and Asia): This line begins at Cape St. Vincent, Portugal and ends at the Urals, near the town of Perm, Russia. It passes through Portugal, Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia.
- Longest continuous distance at sea: There are several possible ways to travel along a great circle for more than the antipodic length of 19,840 km (12,330 miles). Some good examples of such routes would be:
- From the south coast of Balochistan province somewhere near Port of Karachi, Pakistan ( ) across the Arabian Sea, south-west through Indian Ocean, near Comoros, passing Namaete Canyon, near the South Africa coastline, across the South Atlantic Ocean, then west across Cape Horn, then north-west across the Pacific Ocean, near Easter Island, passing the antipodal point, near Amlia island, through the South Bering Sea and ending somewhere on the east-north coast of Kamchatka, near Ossora ( ). This route is 32,040 km (19,910 miles) long. (Map from gcmap)
- From the south coast of Hormozgan province, Iran ( ) across the Gulf of Oman, south-east across the Arabian sea, passing south of Australia and New Zealand, near the Antarctic coastline, then north-east across the South Pacific Ocean, passing the antipodal point and ending on the Mexican south-west coast somewhere near Ciudad Lázaro Cárdenas ( ). This route is 25,267 km (15,700 miles) long. (Map from gcmap)
- From Invercargill ( ), New Zealand, across Cape Horn, then off the coast of Brazil close to Recife, passing north of Cape Verde, passing the antipodal point and ending somewhere on the south-west coast of Ireland ( ). This route is 20,701 km (12,863 miles) long (Map from gcmap)
- Extreme points of Algeria
- Extreme points of Angola
- Extreme points of Benin
- Extreme points of Botswana
- Extreme points of Burkina Faso
- Extreme points of Burundi
- Extreme points of Cameroon
- Extreme points of Cape Verde
- Extreme points of Central African Republic
- Extreme points of Chad
- Extreme points of Comoros
- Extreme points of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Extreme points of the Republic of Congo
- Extreme points of Côte d'Ivoire
- Extreme points of Djibouti
- Extreme points of Egypt
- Extreme points of Equatorial Guinea
- Extreme points of Eritrea
- Extreme points of Ethiopia
- Extreme points of Gabon
- Extreme points of the Gambia
- Extreme points of Ghana
- Extreme points of Guinea
- Extreme points of Guinea-Bissau
- Extreme points of Kenya
- Extreme points of Lesotho
- Extreme points of Liberia
- Extreme points of Libya
- Extreme points of Madagascar
- Extreme points of Malawi
- Extreme points of Mali
- Extreme points of Mauritania
- Extreme points of Mauritius
- Extreme points of Morocco
- Extreme points of Mozambique
- Extreme points of Namibia
- Extreme points of Niger
- Extreme points of Nigeria
- Extreme points of Rwanda
- Extreme points of São Tomé and Príncipe
- Extreme points of Senegal
- Extreme points of Seychelles
- Extreme points of Sierra Leone
- Extreme points of Somalia
- Extreme points of South Africa
- Extreme points of Sudan
- Extreme points of Swaziland
- Extreme points of Tanzania
- Extreme points of Togo
- Extreme points of Tunisia
- Extreme points of Uganda
- Extreme points of Western Sahara
- Extreme points of Zambia
- Extreme points of Zimbabwe
- Extreme points of Eurasia
- Extreme points of Asia
- Extreme points of Bhutan
- Extreme points of China
- Extreme points of India
- Extreme points of Indonesia
- Extreme points of Iran
- Extreme points of Japan
- Extreme points of Jordan
- Extreme points of Mongolia
- Extreme points of Pakistan
- Extreme points of the Philippines
- Extreme points of Russia
- Extreme points of Taiwan
- Extreme points of Europe
- Extreme points of the European Union
- Extreme points of Andorra
- Extreme points of Austria
- Extreme points of Belgium
- Extreme points of Bulgaria
- Extreme points of Croatia
- Extreme points of the Czech Republic
- Extreme points of Denmark
- Extreme points of Estonia
- Extreme points of Finland
- Extreme points of France
- Extreme points of Germany
- Extreme points of Greece
- Extreme points of Hungary
- Extreme points of Iceland
- Extreme points of Ireland
- Extreme points of Italy
- Extreme points of Latvia
- Extreme points of Liechtenstein
- Extreme points of Lithuania
- Extreme points of Luxembourg
- Extreme points of Malta
- Extreme points of Moldova
- Extreme points of Monaco
- Extreme points of Montenegro
- Extreme points of the Netherlands
- Extreme points of Norway
- Extreme points of Poland
- Extreme points of Portugal
- Extreme points of Romania
- Extreme points of Russia
- Extreme points of San Marino
- Extreme points of Serbia
- Extreme points of Slovakia
- Extreme points of Slovenia
- Extreme points of Spain
- Extreme points of Sweden
- Extreme points of Switzerland
- Extreme points of Ukraine
- Extreme points of the United Kingdom
- Extreme points of Vatican City
- Extreme points of Asia
- Extreme points of the Americas
- Extreme points of North America
- Extreme points of Canada
- Extreme points of Greenland
- Extreme points of Mexico
- Extreme points of the United States
- Extreme points of Central America
- Extreme points of the Caribbean
- Extreme points of South America
- Extreme points of North America
- Extreme points of Oceania
- Extreme points of Australia
- Extreme points of Fiji
- Extreme points of Guam
- Extreme points of Indonesia
- Extreme points of Kiribati
- Extreme points of the Marshall Islands
- Extreme points of the Federated States of Micronesia
- Extreme points of Nauru
- Extreme points of New Zealand
- Extreme points of Niue
- Extreme points of the Northern Mariana Islands
- Extreme points of Palau
- Extreme points of Papua New Guinea
- Extreme points of Tuvalu
- Extremes on Earth
- Extreme points of the Commonwealth of Nations
- List of countries by northernmost point
- List of countries by southernmost point
- List of elevation extremes by country
- List of elevation extremes by region
- List of highest towns by country
- Lists of extreme points
- List of northernmost items city, capital, island, etc.
- List of southernmost items city, capital, island, etc.
- Several cultures have marked points as Land's End or the End of the World
- A 1995 realignment of the International Date Line moved all of Kiribati to the Asian side of the Date Line, causing Caroline Island to be the easternmost. However, if the previous Date Line were followed, the easternmost point would be Tafahi Niuatoputapu, in the Tonga Islands chain.
- Gould Coast US Geographic Survey.
- Bay od Whales at britanica.com.
- "Highest Mountain in the World". geology.com.
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- "Transocean's Ultra-Deepwater Semisubmersible Rig Deepwater Horizon Drills World's Deepest Oil and Gas Well". Transocean. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- "Challenger Deep - the Mariana Trench". Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Klimchouck, Alexander. "The deepest cave in the world (Krubera Cave) became 6 m deeper". speleogenesis.info. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "News Story - Bedmap2 gives scientists a more detailed view of Antarctica's landmass". News Story - Bedmap2 gives scientists a more detailed view of Antarctica’s landmass. NERC BASS. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- McIntyre, Loren (April 1987). "The High Andes". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. 171 (4): 422–460. (includes description and photos of Aucanquilcha summit road and mine)
- Bennett, Suzy (October 2003). "Destination Guides – World's highest railway, Peru – Wanderlust Travel Magazine". Wanderlust Magazine. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- Ben Blanchard (16 September 2013). "China opens world's highest civilian airport". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
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