Extreme points of Earth
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This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the geographical locations that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.
- 1 Earth
- 1.1 Latitude and longitude
- 1.2 Elevation
- 1.3 Remoteness
- 1.4 Centre
- 1.5 Longest lines between two points
- 2 By region
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
Latitude and longitude
- The northernmost point on Earth is the Geographic North Pole, in the Arctic Ocean.
- The southernmost point on Earth and the southernmost point on land is the geographic South Pole, which is on the continent of Antarctica.
- The southernmost point of water is a bay on the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf along the coast of Antarctica ( ) about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Berkner Island, the southernmost island in the world. The southernmost point of ocean is located on the Gould Coast ( ); the southernmost point of open ocean is also part of the Ross Sea, namely the Bay of Whales at 78°30'S, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf.
- The westernmost and easternmost points on Earth, based on the east-west standard for describing longitude, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica, or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes (Vanua Levu's eastern peninsula, the middle of Taveuni, and the western part of Rabi Island).
- The highest point on Earth's surface measured from sea level is the summit of Mount Everest on the border of Nepal and China. While measurements of its height vary slightly, the elevation of its peak is usually given as 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level. It was first reached by Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Sherpa of Nepal Tenzing Norgay in 1953.
- The point farthest from Earth's center is the summit of Chimborazo in Ecuador, at 6,384.4 km (3,967.1 mi) from Earth's center; the peak's elevation relative to sea level is 6,263.47 m (20,549 ft).[note 2] This is because Earth is an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere; it is wider at the Equator and narrower between the poles. Therefore, the summit of Chimborazo, which is near the Equator, is farther away from Earth's center than the summit of Mount Everest is; the latter is 2,168 m (7,112.9 ft) closer, at 6,382.3 km (3,965.8 mi) from Earth's center. Peru's Huascarán (at 6,768 m (22,205 ft)) contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains' heights being just 23 metres (75 ft).
- The fastest point on Earth or, in other words, the point furthest from the axis of Earth is the summit of Cayambe in Ecuador, at 1,675.89 km/h (1,041.35 mph) and 6,383.95 km (3,966.80 mi) from the axis. Like Chimborazo, which is the fourth fastest peak at 1,675.47 km/h (1,041.09 mph), it is close to the Equator and takes advantage of the oblate spheroid figure of Earth. More importantly, however, it being so near the Equator means that the majority of its distance from Earth's center goes into it being away from the axis. The importance of latitude becomes most apparent when one looks at the Challenger Deep (speed of 1,639.15 km/h (1,018.52 mph)) compared to Mount Everest (speed of 1,481.67 km/h (920.67 mph)).
Highest points attainable by transportation
- The highest point accessible...
- ...by land vehicle is an elevation of 6,688 m (21,942 ft) on Ojos del Salado in Chile, which was reached by the Chilean duo of Gonzalo Bravo G. and Eduardo Canales Moya on 21 April 2007 with a modified Suzuki Samurai, setting the high-altitude record for a four-wheeled vehicle.
- ...by road (dead end) is on a mining road to the summit of Aucanquilcha in Chile, which reaches an elevation of 6,176 m (20,262 ft). It was once usable by 20-tonne mining trucks. The road is no longer usable.
- ...by road (mountain pass) is disputed; there are a number of competing claims for this title due to the definition of "motorable pass" (i.e. a surfaced road or one simply passable by a vehicle):
- The highest asphalted road crosses Tibet's Semo La pass at 5,565 m (18,258 feet). It is used by trucks and buses regularly. The Ticlio pass, on the Central Road of Peru, is the highest surfaced road in the Americas, at an elevation of 4,818 m (15,807 feet).
- The highest unsurfaced road is claimed by several different roads. All are unsurfaced or gravel roads including the barely passable road to Umling La, 17 kilometres (11 mi) west of Demchok in Ladakh, India, which reaches 5,800 m (19,029 feet) ("19,300 feet" according to a Border Roads Organisation sign there that recognizes it as the "World's Highest Motorable Pass"), and Mana Pass, between India and Tibet, which is crossed by a gravel road reaching 5,610 m (18,406 feet). The heavily trafficked Khardung La in Ladakh lies at 5,359 m (17,582 feet). A possibly motorable gravel road crosses Marsimik La in Ladakh at 5,582 m (18,314 feet).
- ...by train is Tanggula Pass, located on the Qinghai–Tibet (Qingzang) Railway in the Tanggula Mountains of Qinghai/Tibet, China, at 5,072 m (16,640 feet). The Tanggula railway station is the world's highest railway station at 5,068 m (16,627 feet). Before the Qingzang Railway was built, the highest railway ran between Lima and Huancayo in Peru, reaching 4,829 m (15,843 feet) at Ticlio.
- ...by oceangoing vessel is a segment of the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal between the Hilpoltstein and Bachhausen locks in Bavaria, Germany. The locks artificially raise the surface level of the water in the canal to 406 m (1,332 feet) above mean sea level, higher than any other lock system in the world, making it the highest point currently accessible by oceangoing commercial watercraft.
- The highest commercial airport is Daocheng Yading Airport, Sichuan, China, at 4,411 m (14,472 feet). The proposed Nagqu Dagring Airport in Tibet, China, if built, will be 25 m (82 feet) higher at 4,436 m (14,554 feet).
- The highest helipad is Sonam, Siachen Glacier, India, at a height of 6,400 m (20,997 feet) above sea level.
- The highest permanent human settlement is La Rinconada, Peru, 5,100 m (16,732 feet), in the Peruvian Andes.
- The farthest road from the Earth's center is the Road to Carrel Hut in the Ecuadorian Andes, at an elevation of 4,850 m (15,912 feet) above sea level and a distance of 6,382.9 km (3,966 miles) from the center of the Earth.
Highest geographical features
- The highest volcano is Ojos del Salado on the Argentina–Chile border. It has the highest summit, 6,893 m (22,615 feet), of any volcano on Earth.
- The highest natural lake is an unnamed crater lake on Ojos del Salado at 6,390 m (20,965 feet), on the Argentina side. Another candidate was Lhagba Pool on the northeast slopes of Mount Everest, Tibet, China, at an elevation of 6,368 m (20,892 feet), which has since dried up.
- The highest navigable lake is Lake Titicaca, on the border of Bolivia and Peru in the Andes, at 3,812 m (12,507 feet).
- The highest glacier is the Khumbu Glacier on the southwest slopes of Mount Everest in Nepal, beginning on the west side of Lhotse at an elevation of 7,600 to 8,000 m (24,900 to 26,200 feet).
- The highest river is disputed; one candidate from many possibilities is the Ating Ho, which flows into the Aong Tso (Hagung Tso), a large lake in Tibet, China, and has an elevation of about 6,100 m (20,013 feet) at its source at . A very large and high river is the Yarlung Tsangpo or upper Brahmaputra River in Tibet, China, whose main stem, the Maquan River, has its source at about 6,020 m (19,751 feet) above sea level at . Above these elevations, there are no constantly flowing rivers since the temperature is almost always below freezing.
- The highest island is one of a number of islands in the Orba Co lake in Tibet, China, at an elevation of 5,209 m (17,090 feet).
Lowest artificial points
- The lowest point underground ever reached was 12,262 m (40,230 feet) deep (SG-3 at Kola superdeep borehole).
- The lowest human-sized point underground is 3,900 m (12,800 feet) below ground at the TauTona Mine, Carletonville, South Africa.
- The lowest (from sea level) artificially made point with open sky may be the Hambach surface mine, Germany, which reaches a depth of 293 m (961 feet) below sea level.
- The lowest (from surface) artificially made point with open sky may be the Bingham Canyon open-pit mine, Salt Lake City, United States, at a depth of 1,200 m (3,900 feet) below surface level.
- The lowest point underwater is the 10,685 m (35,056 feet)-deep (as measured from the subsea wellhead) oil and gas well drilled on the Tiber Oil Field in the Gulf of Mexico. The wellhead of this well was an additional 1,259 m (4,131 feet) underwater for a total distance of 11,944 m (39,186 feet) as measured from sea level.
Lowest natural points
- The lowest known point is Challenger Deep, at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 11,034 m (36,201 feet) below sea level. Only three humans have reached the bottom of the trench: Jacques Piccard and U.S. Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh in 1960 aboard the bathyscaphe Trieste, and filmmaker James Cameron in 2012 aboard Deepsea Challenger.
- The lowest point underground is more than 2,000 m (6,600 feet) under the Earth's surface. For example, the altitude difference between the entrance and the deepest explored point (the maximum depth) of the Krubera Cave in Georgia is 2,191 ± 20 m (7,188 ± 66 feet). In 2012, Ukrainian cave diver Gennadiy Samokhin reached the lowest point, breaking the world record.
- The lowest point on land not covered by liquid water is the valley under the Byrd Glacier in Antarctica, which reaches 2,780 m (9,121 feet) below sea level. It is, however, covered by a thick layer of ice.
- The lowest point on dry land is the shore of the Dead Sea, shared by Jordan, Palestine, and Israel, 432.65 m (1,419 feet) below sea level. As the Dead Sea waters are receding, the water surface level drops more than 1 m per year.
- The point on the surface closest to the Earth's center (interpreted as a natural surface of the land or sea that is accessible by a person) is the surface of the Arctic Ocean at the Geographic North Pole (6,356.77 km or 3,950 miles).
- The closest point on the ground (interpreted as a land surface or sea floor) is the bottom of the Litke Deep, the deepest point of the Arctic Ocean, which is 6,351.61 km (3,947 miles) from the center of the Earth. By comparison, the bottom of the deepest oceanic trench in the world, the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, is 14.7 km (9 miles) farther from the center of the Earth.
Lowest points attainable by transportation
- The lowest point accessible...
- ...by road, excluding roads in mines, is any of the roads alongside the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan, which are the lowest on Earth at 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level.
- ...by train, excluding the tracks inside some South African gold mines, which can be several thousand meters below sea level, is located in the Seikan Tunnel of Japan railroad, at 240 m (787 feet) below sea level. By way of comparison, the undersea Channel Tunnel between England and France reaches a depth of 75 m (246 feet) below sea level.
The lowest railroad station was the Japanese Yoshioka-Kaitei Station, at 150 m (492 feet) below sea level, but it was closed in 2014. The lowest railroad not inside a tunnel is 71 m (233 feet) below sea level, in the Mojave Desert between Yuma, Arizona, and Palm Springs, California, in the United States of America.
- The lowest airfield is the Bar Yehuda Airfield (MTZ), near Masada, Israel, at 378 m (1,240 feet) below sea level.
- The lowest commercial airport is Atyrau Airport (GUW), near Atyrau, Kazakhstan, at 22 m (72 feet) below sea level, in the basin of the Caspian Sea.
Poles of inaccessibility
Each continent has its own continental pole of inaccessibility, defined as the place on the continent that is farthest from any ocean. Similarly, each ocean has its own oceanic pole of inaccessibility, defined as the place in the ocean that is farthest from any land.
- The most distant point from an ocean is the Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility (or "EPIA") China's Xinjiang region near the border with Kazakhstan. Calculations have shown that this point, located in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, is 2,645 km (1,644 miles) from the nearest coastline. The nearest settlement to the EPIA is Suluk at , about 11 km (6.8 miles) to the east. A 2007 study suggests that the historical calculation of the EPIA failed to recognize the point where the Gulf of Ob joins the Arctic Ocean, and proposes instead that varying definitions of coastline could result in other locations for the EPIA:
- EPIA1, somewhere between and , is about 2,510 ± 10 kilometres (1,559.6 ± 6.2 mi) from the nearest ocean.
- EPIA2, somewhere between  and , is about 2,514 ± 7 kilometres (1,562.1 ± 4.3 mi) from the nearest ocean.
- If adopted, this would place the final EPIA roughly 130 km (81 miles) closer to the ocean than the point that is currently agreed upon. Coincidentally, EPIA1, or EPIA2, and the most remote of the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than 200 km (120 miles) closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.
- The continental poles of inaccessibility for the other continents are as follows:
- Africa: , close to the tripoint of the Central African Republic, South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Australia: either , or , near Papunya, Northern Territory
- North America: , between Kyle, South Dakota and Allen, South Dakota.
- South America: , near Arenápolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil
- The most distant point from land is the Pacific pole of inaccessibility (also called "Point Nemo"), which lies in the South Pacific Ocean at , approximately 2,688 km (1,670 mi) from the nearest land (equidistant from Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands to the north, Motu Nui off Rapa Nui to the northeast, and Maher Island off Siple Island near Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, to the south).
Other places considered the most remote
- The most remote island is Bouvet Island, a small, uninhabited island in the South Atlantic Ocean that is a dependency of Norway. It lies at coordinates . The nearest land is the uninhabited Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, over 1,600 km (994 mi) to the south. The nearest inhabited lands are Tristan da Cunha, 2,260 km (1,404 mi) away, and the coast of South Africa, 2,580 km (1,603 mi) away.
- The title for most remote inhabited island or archipelago (the farthest away from any other permanently inhabited place) depends on how the question is interpreted. If the south Atlantic island Tristan da Cunha (population about 300) and its dependency Gough Island (with a small staffed research post), which are 399 km (248 mi) from each other, are considered part of the same archipelago, or if Gough Island is not counted because it has no permanent residents, then Tristan da Cunha is the world's most remote inhabited island/archipelago: the main island, also called Tristan da Cunha, is 2,434 km (1,512 mi) from the island Saint Helena, 2,816 km (1,750 mi) from South Africa, and 3,360 km (2,090 miles) from South America. It is 1,845 km (1,146 mi) away from uninhabited Bouvet Island. However, if Gough and Tristan da Cunha are considered separately, they disqualify each other, and the most remote inhabited island is Easter Island in the South Pacific Ocean, which lies 2,075 kilometres (1,289 mi) from Pitcairn Island (about 50 residents in 2013), 2,606 km (1,619 mi) from Rikitea on the island of Mangareva (the nearest town with a population over 500), and 3,512 kilometres (2,182 mi) from the coast of Chile (the nearest continental point). The Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean are another contender, lying 1,340 kilometres (830 mi) from the small Alfred Faure scientific station in Île de la Possession, but otherwise more than 3,300 kilometres (2,100 mi) from the coast of Madagascar (the nearest permanently inhabited place), 450 km (280 mi) northwest of uninhabited Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and 1,440 km (890 mi) from the non-permanent scientific station located in Île Amsterdam.
- The most remote city...
- ...with a population in excess of one million from the nearest city with a population in excess of one million is Auckland, New Zealand. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is Sydney, Australia, 2,168.9 kilometres (1,347.7 mi) away.
- ...with a population in excess of one million from the nearest city with a population above 100,000 is Perth, Australia, located 2,138 kilometres (1,328 mi) away from Adelaide, Australia.
- ...with a population in excess of 100,000 from the nearest city of at least that population is Honolulu, Hawaii, United States. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is San Francisco, 3,850 km (2,390 miles) away.
- ...that is a national capital from the nearest national capital is a tie between Wellington, New Zealand, and Canberra, Australia, which are 2,326 km (1,445 mi) apart from each other.
- The most remote airport in the world from another airport is Mataveri International Airport (IPC) on Easter Island, which has a single runway for military and public use. It is located 2,603 km (1,617 mi) from Totegegie Airport (GMR; very few flights) in the Gambier Islands, French Polynesia and 3,759 km (2,336 mi) from Santiago, Chile (SCL; a fairly large airport). In comparison, the airport at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station (NZSP) is not very remote at all, being located only 1,355 kilometres (842 mi) from Williams Field (NZWD) near Ross Island.
The pairs of cities (with a population over 100,000) with the greatest distance between them are:
- Rosario, Argentina to Xinghua, China: 19,996 km (12,425 mi)
- Lu'an, China to Río Cuarto, Argentina: 19,994 km (12,424 mi)
- Cuenca, Ecuador to Subang Jaya, Malaysia: 19,989 km (12,421 mi)
- Rancagua, Chile to Xi'an, China: 19,972 km (12,410 mi)
- Salamanca, Spain to Lower Hutt, New Zealand: 19,961 km (12,403 mi)
- Marbella, Spain to Auckland, New Zealand: 19,960 km (12,403 mi)
- Since the Earth is a spheroid, its centre (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the center of the standard geographic model as viewed on a traditional world map is the point 0°, 0° (the coordinates of zero degrees latitude by zero degrees longitude), which is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 miles) south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and the Prime Meridian. However, the selection for the Prime Meridian as the 0° longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent and therefore arbitrary.
- The center of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for every individual human being in the world, could also be considered a "center of the world". This point is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting due to changes in the distribution of the human population across the planet.
Longest lines between two points
Along constant latitude
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- The longest continuous east-west distance on land is 10,726 km (6,665 miles) along the latitude 48°24'53"N, from the west coast of France (Central Europe, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China, to a point on the east coast of Russia ( ). ) through
- The longest continuous east-west distance at sea is 22,471 km (13,963 miles) along the latitude 55°59'S, south of Cape Horn, South America. The longest in the northern hemisphere is 4,435 km (2,756 miles) along the latitude 83°40'N, north of Kaffeklubben Island, Greenland.
Along constant longitude
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- The longest continuous north-south distance on land is 7,590 km (4,720 miles) along the meridian 99°1'30"E, from the northern tip of Siberia in the Russian Federation (Myanmar, to a point on the south coast of Thailand ( ).
), through Mongolia, China, and
- The longest in Africa is 7,417 km (4,609 miles) along the meridian 20°12'E, from the north coast of Libya ( ), through Chad, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Namibia, and Botswana, to the south coast of South Africa ( ).
- The longest in South America is 7,098 km (4,410 miles) along the meridian 70°2'W, from the north coast of Venezuela ( ), through Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Chile, to the southern tip of Argentina ( ).
- The longest in North America is 5,813 km (3,612 miles) along the meridian 97°52'30"W, from northern Canada ( ), through the United States, to southern Mexico ( ).
- The longest continuous north-south distance at sea is 15,986 km (9,933 miles) along the meridian 34°45'45"W, from the coast of Eastern Greenland (Atlantic Ocean to the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, on the coast of Antarctica ( ). The longest in the Pacific Ocean is 15,883 km (9,869 miles) along the meridian 172°8'30"W, from the coast of Siberia ( ) to the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica ( ). ) across the
- The meridian that crosses the greatest total distance on land (disregarding intervening bodies of water) is still to be determined. It is likely located in the vicinity of 22°E, which is the longest integer meridian that fits that criterion, crossing a total of 13,035 km (8,100 miles) of land through Europe (3,370 km (2,090 miles)), Africa (7,458 km (4,634 miles)), and Antarctica (2,207 km (1,371 miles)). More than 65% of the meridian's length is located on land. The meridian that crosses Giza Great Pyramid (31°08'3.69"E) is 855 km (531 miles) shorter.
- The next six longest integer meridians by total distance over land are, in order:
- 23°E: 12,953 km (8,049 miles) through Europe (3,325 km (2,066 miles)), Africa (7,415 km (4,607 miles)), and Antarctica (2,214 km (1,376 miles))
- 27°E: 12,943 km (8,042 miles) through Europe (3,254 km (2,022 miles)), Asia (246 km (153 miles)), Africa (7,223 km (4,488 miles)), and Antarctica (2,221 km (1,380 miles))
- 25°E: 12,875 km (8,000 miles) through Europe (3,344 km (2,078 miles)), Africa (7,327 km (4,553 miles)), and Antarctica (2,204 km (1,370 miles))
- 26°E: 12,858 km (7,990 miles) through Europe (3,404 km (2,115 miles)), Africa (7,258 km (4,510 miles)), and Antarctica (2,196 km (1,365 miles))
- 24°E: 12,794 km (7,950 miles) through Europe (3,263 km (2,028 miles)), Africa (7,346 km (4,565 miles)), and Antarctica (2,185 km (1,358 miles))
- 28°E: 12,778 km (7,940 miles) through Europe (3,039 km (1,888 miles)), Asia (388 km (241 miles)), and Africa (7,117 km (4,422 miles))
- The next six longest integer meridians by total distance over land are, in order:
Along any geodesic
These are the longest straight lines that can be drawn between any two points on the surface of the Earth and remain exclusively over land or water; the points need not lie on the same latitude or longitude.
- The longest continuous straight-line distance in any direction on land is 13,573 km (8,434 miles), along a line that begins on the West African coast near Greenville, Liberia ( ), goes across the Suez Canal, and ends at the top of a peninsula approximately 100 km (62 miles) northeast of Wenzhou, China .
- The longest continuous straight-line land distance solely within continental Africa is 8,402 km (5,221 miles), along a line that begins just east of Tangier, Morocco and ends 100 km (62 miles) east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. This line passes through Morocco, Algeria, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa.
- The longest continuous straight-line land distance solely within continental Asia is 10,152 km (6,308 miles), along a line that begins on the Indian coast near Kanyakumari and ends at the Bering Sea coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in Russia. This line passes through India, Nepal, China, Mongolia and Russia.
- The longest continuous straight-line land distance solely within continental Europe (defining the Ural Mountains as the border between Europe and Asia) is 5,325 km (3,309 miles), along a line that begins at Cape St. Vincent, Portugal and ends at the Urals, near the town of Perm, Russia. This line passes through Portugal, Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia.
- The longest continuous straight-line land distance solely within continental Australia is 4,053 km (2,518 miles), along a line that begins at the southern end of Cape Range National Park in Western Australia and ends at the town of Byron Bay in New South Wales.
- There are several possible candidates for the longest continuous straight-line distance in any direction at sea, as there are many possible ways to travel along a great circle for more than the antipodic length of 19,840 km (12,330 miles). Some good examples of such routes would be:
- From the south coast of Balochistan province somewhere near Port of Karachi, Pakistan ( ) across the Arabian Sea, southwest through the Indian Ocean, near Comoros, passing Namaete Canyon, near the South African coast, across the South Atlantic Ocean, then west across Cape Horn, then northwest across the Pacific Ocean, near Easter Island, passing the antipodal point near Amlia island, through the South Bering Sea and ending somewhere on the northeast coast of Kamchatka, near Ossora ( ). This route is 32,040 km (19,910 miles) long. This route was confirmed to be the longest (at about 32090 km) given map data at a 1.8 km level of resolution.
- From the south coast of Hormozgan province, Iran ( ) across the Gulf of Oman, southeast across the Arabian Sea, passing south of Australia and New Zealand, near the Antarctic coast, then northeast across the South Pacific Ocean, passing the antipodal point and ending on the southwest coast of Mexico somewhere near Ciudad Lázaro Cárdenas ( ). This route is 25,267 km (15,700 miles) long.
- From Invercargill, New Zealand ( ) across Cape Horn, then off the coast of Brazil close to Recife, passing north of Cape Verde, passing the antipodal point and ending somewhere on the southwest coast of Ireland ( ). This route is 20,701 km (12,863 miles) long.
Along any truly straight line
As distinct from all the abovementioned geodesic lines, which may appear straight but are actually arcs of great circles projected on the spheroidal surface of the earth and, accordingly, are not truly straight but rather curving lines, authentically straight lines can be projected through the interior of the earth between most any two points on the surface of the earth (some extreme topographical situations being the rare exceptions). And if the aforementioned (under “fastest point on earth”) maximum radial line projected from the summit of Cayambe in Ecuador to the axial center of the earth is extended to the diametrically opposite point on the surface of the earth (aka the so-called antipodes of the said Cayambe summit, which are located actually on the island of Sumatra as it happens) then the resulting diametrical line would be the longest truly straight line that could be produced anywhere on earth. As the variable circumference of the earth approaches 25,000 miles, such a maximum “diametrical” or “antipodal” line would be on the order of 8,000 miles long.
- Extreme points of Afro-Eurasia
- Extreme points of Africa
- Extreme points of Algeria
- Extreme points of Angola
- Extreme points of Benin
- Extreme points of Botswana
- Extreme points of Burkina Faso
- Extreme points of Burundi
- Extreme points of Cameroon
- Extreme points of Cape Verde
- Extreme points of Central African Republic
- Extreme points of Chad
- Extreme points of Comoros
- Extreme points of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Extreme points of the Republic of Congo
- Extreme points of Côte d'Ivoire
- Extreme points of Djibouti
- Extreme points of Egypt
- Extreme points of Equatorial Guinea
- Extreme points of Eritrea
- Extreme points of Ethiopia
- Extreme points of Gabon
- Extreme points of the Gambia
- Extreme points of Ghana
- Extreme points of Guinea
- Extreme points of Guinea-Bissau
- Extreme points of Kenya
- Extreme points of Lesotho
- Extreme points of Liberia
- Extreme points of Libya
- Extreme points of Madagascar
- Extreme points of Malawi
- Extreme points of Mali
- Extreme points of Mauritania
- Extreme points of Mauritius
- Extreme points of Morocco
- Extreme points of Mozambique
- Extreme points of Namibia
- Extreme points of Niger
- Extreme points of Nigeria
- Extreme points of Rwanda
- Extreme points of São Tomé and Príncipe
- Extreme points of Senegal
- Extreme points of Seychelles
- Extreme points of Sierra Leone
- Extreme points of Somalia
- Extreme points of South Africa
- Extreme points of Sudan
- Extreme points of South Sudan
- Extreme points of Swaziland
- Extreme points of Tanzania
- Extreme points of Togo
- Extreme points of Tunisia
- Extreme points of Uganda
- Extreme points of Western Sahara
- Extreme points of Zambia
- Extreme points of Zimbabwe
- Extreme points of Eurasia
- Extreme points of Asia
- Extreme points of Afghanistan
- Extreme points of Armenia
- Extreme points of Azerbaijan
- Extreme points of Bangladesh
- Extreme points of Bhutan
- Extreme points of Cambodia
- Extreme points of China
- Extreme points of Georgia
- Extreme points of India
- Extreme points of Indonesia
- Extreme points of Iran
- Extreme points of Israel
- Extreme points of Japan
- Extreme points of Jordan
- Extreme points of Kazakhstan
- Extreme points of Kyrgyzstan
- Extreme points of Laos
- Extreme points of the Maldives
- Extreme points of Mongolia
- Extreme points of Myanmar
- Extreme points of Nepal
- Extreme points of North Korea
- Extreme points of Pakistan
- Extreme points of the Philippines
- Extreme points of Russia
- Extreme points of Singapore
- Extreme points of South Korea
- Extreme points of Sri Lanka
- Extreme points of Taiwan
- Extreme points of Tajikistan
- Extreme points of Thailand
- Extreme points of Turkey
- Extreme points of Turkmenistan
- Extreme points of Uzbekistan
- Extreme points of Vietnam
- Extreme points of Europe
- Extreme points of the European Union
- Extreme points of Albania
- Extreme points of Andorra
- Extreme points of Austria
- Extreme points of Belarus
- Extreme points of Belgium
- Extreme points of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Extreme points of Bulgaria
- Extreme points of Croatia
- Extreme points of the Czech Republic
- Extreme points of Denmark
- Extreme points of Estonia
- Extreme points of Finland
- Extreme points of France
- Extreme points of Germany
- Extreme points of Greece
- Extreme points of Hungary
- Extreme points of Iceland
- Extreme points of Ireland
- Extreme points of Italy
- Extreme points of Kosovo
- Extreme points of Latvia
- Extreme points of Liechtenstein
- Extreme points of Lithuania
- Extreme points of Luxembourg
- Extreme points of Macedonia
- Extreme points of Malta
- Extreme points of Moldova
- Extreme points of Monaco
- Extreme points of Montenegro
- Extreme points of the Netherlands
- Extreme points of Norway
- Extreme points of Poland
- Extreme points of Portugal
- Extreme points of Romania
- Extreme points of Russia
- Extreme points of San Marino
- Extreme points of Serbia
- Extreme points of Slovakia
- Extreme points of Slovenia
- Extreme points of Spain
- Extreme points of Sweden
- Extreme points of Switzerland
- Extreme points of Ukraine
- Extreme points of the United Kingdom
- Extreme points of Vatican City
- Extreme points of Asia
- Extreme points of Africa
- Extreme points of the Americas
- Extreme points of North America
- Extreme points of Canada
- Extreme points of Greenland
- Extreme points of Mexico
- Extreme points of the United States
- Extreme points of Central America
- Extreme points of the Caribbean
- Extreme points of South America
- Extreme points of Argentina
- Extreme points of Bolivia
- Extreme points of Brazil
- Extreme points of Chile
- Extreme points of Colombia
- Extreme points of Ecuador
- Extreme points of French Guiana
- Extreme points of Guyana
- Extreme points of Paraguay
- Extreme points of Peru
- Extreme points of Suriname
- Extreme points of Uruguay
- Extreme points of Venezuela
- Extreme points of North America
- Extreme points of Oceania
- Extreme points of Australia
- Extreme points of Fiji
- Extreme points of Guam
- Extreme points of Indonesia
- Extreme points of Kiribati
- Extreme points of the Marshall Islands
- Extreme points of Micronesia
- Extreme points of Nauru
- Extreme points of New Zealand
- Extreme points of Niue
- Extreme points of the Northern Mariana Islands
- Extreme points of Palau
- Extreme points of Papua New Guinea
- Extreme points of Tuvalu
- Extremes on Earth
- List of Solar System extremes
- List of countries by northernmost point
- List of countries by southernmost point
- List of northernmost items (city, capital, island, etc.)
- List of southernmost items (city, capital, island, etc.)
- List of elevation extremes by country
- List of elevation extremes by region
- List of highest towns by country
- Extreme points of the Commonwealth of Nations
- Lists of extreme points
- A 1995 realignment of the International Date Line moved all of Kiribati to the Asian side of the Date Line, causing Caroline Island to be the easternmost. However, if the previous Date Line were followed, the easternmost point would be Tafahi Niuatoputapu, in the Tonga Islands chain.
- The elevation given here was established by a GPS survey in February 2016. The survey was carried out by a team from the French Research Institute for Development, working in cooperation with the Ecuadorian Military Geographic Institute.
- Gould Coast US Geographic Survey.
- "Bay of Whales - former bay, Antarctica". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Highest Mountain in the World". geology.com.
- "Chimborazo, el volcán de Ecuador más alto que el Everest (si se mide desde el centro de la Tierra)". BBC Mundo. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
- Klenke, Paul. "Distance to the Center of the Earth". Summit Post. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
- McIntyre, Loren (April 1987). "The High Andes". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. 171 (4): 422–460. (includes description and photos of Aucanquilcha summit road and mine)
- Assumpció Térmens (2006-03-20). "ICC – Semo Khardung" (PDF). viewfinderpanoramas.org. Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
- "Battle for the Highest Motorable Road". Motoroids. Retrieved 2017-10-17.
- Bennett, Suzy (October 2003). "Destination Guides – World's highest railway, Peru – Wanderlust Travel Magazine". Wanderlust Magazine. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- Ben Blanchard (16 September 2013). "China opens world's highest civilian airport". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- "Siachen: The world's highest cold war". CNN. 20 May 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Carrel refuge". summitpost.org.
- "Andes Website – Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the world's highest volcano". Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "The Highest Lake in the World". Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- "ASTER measurement of supraglacial lakes in the Mount Everest region of the Himalaya: The main Khumbu Glacier is about 17 km long with elevations ranging from 4900m at the terminus to 7600m at the source....The 7600m to 8000m elevations are also depicted on numerous detailed topographic maps". Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- "The Mystery of World's highest river and largest Canyon". Archived from the original on 21 September 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- "Island Superlatives". Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- "TauTona, Anglo Gold – Mining Technology". SPG Media Group PLC. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
- "Transocean's Ultra-Deepwater Semisubmersible Rig Deepwater Horizon Drills World's Deepest Oil and Gas Well". Transocean. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
- "Challenger Deep – the Mariana Trench". Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- Klimchouck, Alexander. "The deepest cave in the world (Krubera Cave) became 6 m deeper". speleogenesis.info. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- "News Story – Bedmap2 gives scientists a more detailed view of Antarctica's landmass". News Story – Bedmap2 gives scientists a more detailed view of Antarctica’s landmass. NERC BASS. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Connolly, Kevin (17 June 2016). "Dead Sea drying: A new low-point for Earth". BBC. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
- Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel; Lombardo, Umberto (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth" (PDF). Scottish Geographical Journal. Informa UK. 123 (3): 227–233. doi:10.1080/14702540801897809. ISSN 1470-2541. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2014.
- Centre of Australia, States and Territories Archived 22 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Geoscience Australia
- "Where is Point Nemo?". NOAA. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Draft Logic – Google Maps Distance Calculator, accessed 4 September 2011
- "Flight Distance from Perth, Australia to Adelaide, Australia". travelmath.com.
- "The Most Isolated Cities of the World". cityextremes.com.
- "Great Circle Mapper". gcmap.com.
- "Discover The Furthest City On Earth From Wherever You Live". furthestcity.com.
- "What's the Farthest City and Country from Rosario, Argentina?". furthestcity.com.
- "What's the Farthest City and Country from Liu'an, Anhui, China?". furthestcity.com.
- "What's the Farthest City and Country from Cuenca, Ecuador?". furthestcity.com.
- "What's the Farthest City and Country from Rancagua, Chile?". furthestcity.com.
- "What's the Farthest City and Country from Salamanca, Spain?". furthestcity.com.
- "What's the Farthest City and Country from Marbella, Spain?". furthestcity.com.
- (Map from gcmap)
- (Map from gcmap)
- Chabukswar, Rohan; Mukherjee, Kushal (2018-04-09). "Longest Straight Line Paths on Water or Land on the Earth". arXiv:1804.07389. Bibcode:2018arXiv180407389C.
- David Shultz (2018-04-30). "This ocean path will take you on the longest straight-line journey on Earth". Science Magazine.
- (Map from gcmap)
- (Map from gcmap)