Extremes on Earth
This article describes extreme locations on Earth. Entries listed in bold are Earth-wide extremes.
Extreme global temperatures
Extreme elevations and air temperatures per continent
|Continent||Elevation (height above/below sea level)A||Air Temperature (recorded)B|
|Africa||5,893 m (19,334 feet)
|−155 m (−509 feet)
Lake Assal, Djibouti
|55 °C (131 °F)
Kebili, French Tunisia
7 July 1931C
|−23.9 °C (−11.0 °F)|
Ifrane, French Morocco
11 February 1935
|Antarctica||4,892 m (16,050 feet)
|−50 m (−164 feet)
Deep Lake, Vestfold Hills
(compare the deepest ice section below)
|20.75 °C (69.35 °F)
Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station
9 February 2020
|−89.2 °C (−128.6 °F)|
21 July 1983
|Asia||8,848 m (29,029 feet)
Mount Everest, China-Nepal Border 
|−424 m (−1,391 feet)
Dead Sea, Israel-Jordan-Palestine
|54 °C (129 °F)
Tirat Zvi, Israel (then in the British Mandate of Palestine)
21 June 1942
|−67.7 °C (−89.9 °F) Measured|
Oymyakon, Siberia, Soviet Union
6 February 1933
|54 °C (129 °F)
Ahvaz Airport, Iran
29 June 2017
|−71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) Extrapolated|
Oymyakon, Siberia, Soviet Union
26 January 1926
|Europe||5,642 m (18,510 feet)
Mount Elbrus, Russian Federation
|−28 m (−92 feet)
Caspian Sea shore, Russian Federation
|48.0 °C (118.4 °F)
(and Elefsina, Greece)
10 July 1977 E
|−58.1 °C (−72.6 °F)|
Ust-Shchuger, Soviet Union
31 December 1978
|North America||6,190.5 m (20,310 feet)
Denali (Mount McKinley), Alaska, United States
|−85 m (−279 feet)
Badwater Basin, California, United States
|56.7 °C (134 °F)
Greenland Ranch (Furnace Creek), California, United States
10 July 1913C
|−66.1 °C (−87.0 °F)|
North Ice, Greenland
9 January 1954F
|Oceania||4,884 m (16,024 feet)
Puncak Jaya (Carstensz Pyramid), Indonesia
(compare Mount Wilhelm, Mount Cook and Mount Kosciuszko)
|−15 m (−49 feet)
Lake Eyre, South Australia, Australia
|50.7 °C (123.3 °F)
Oodnadatta, South Australia, Australia
2 January 1960G
|−25.6 °C (−14.1 °F)|
Ranfurly, Otago, New Zealand
17 July 1903
|South America||6,962 m (22,841 feet)
Aconcagua, Mendoza, Argentina
|−105 m (−344 feet)
Laguna del Carbón, Argentina
|48.9 °C (120.0 °F)
Rivadavia, Salta Province, Argentina
11 December 1905
|−32.8 °C (−27.0 °F)|
Sarmiento, Chubut Province, Argentina
1 June 1907
Coldest and hottest inhabited places on Earth
|Hottest inhabited place||Dallol, Ethiopia (Amharic: ዳሎል), whose annual mean temperature was recorded from 1960 to 1966 as 34.4 °C (93.9 °F). The average daily maximum temperature during the same period was 41.1 °C (106.0 °F).|
|Coldest inhabited place||Oymyakon (Russian: Оймяко́н), a rural locality (selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, the Russian Federation, has the coldest monthly mean, with −46.4 °C (−51.5 °F) the average temperature in January, the coldest month. Eureka, Nunavut, Canada has the lowest annual mean temperature at −19.7 °C (−3.5 °F).|
|The South Pole and some other places in Antarctica are colder and are populated year-round, but almost everyone stays less than a year and could be considered visitors, not inhabitants.|
Extreme ground temperatures
Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C. A ground temperature of 84 °C (183.2 °F) has been recorded in Port Sudan, Sudan. A ground temperature of 93.9 °C (201 °F) was recorded in Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, United States on 15 July 1972; this may be the highest natural ground surface temperature ever recorded. The theoretical maximum possible ground surface temperature has been estimated to be between 90 and 100 °C for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity.
Satellite measurements of ground temperature taken between 2003 and 2009, taken with the MODIS infrared spectroradiometer on the Aqua satellite, found a maximum temperature of 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), which was recorded in 2005 in the Lut Desert, Iran. The Lut Desert was also found to have the highest maximum temperature in 5 of the 7 years measured (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2009). These measurements reflect averages over a large region and so are lower than the maximum point surface temperature.
Greatest vertical drop
|Greatest purely vertical drop|
Mount Thor, Auyuittuq National Park, Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada (summit elevation 1,675 m (5,495 ft))
|Greatest nearly vertical drop|
Trango Towers, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan (summit elevation 6,286 m (20,623 ft))
|Deepest mine below ground level||4,000 m (13,123 ft)|
Mponeng Gold Mine, Gauteng Province, South Africa
|Deepest mine below sea level||2,733 m (8,967 ft) below sea level|
Kidd Mine, Ontario, Canada
|Deepest open-pit mine below ground level||1,200 m (3,937 ft)|
Bingham Canyon Mine, Utah, United States
|Deepest open-pit mine below sea level||293 m (961 ft) below sea level|
Tagebau Hambach, Germany
|Deepest cave (measured from the entrance)||2,204 m (7,231 ft)|
Veryovkina, Arabika Massif, Abkhazia, Georgia 
|Deepest pitch (single vertical drop)||1,026 m (3,366 ft)|
Tian Xing Cave, China
|Deepest borehole||12,261 m (40,226 ft)|
Kola Superdeep Borehole, Russia
Greatest oceanic depths
|Atlantic Ocean||8,376 m (27,480 ft)|
Milwaukee Deep (also known as Brownson Deep), Puerto Rico Trench
|Arctic Ocean||5,550 m (18,209 ft)|
Molloy Deep, Fram Strait
|Indian Ocean||7,192 m (23,596 ft)|
|Mediterranean Sea||5,267 m (17,280 ft)|
Calypso Deep, Hellenic Trench
|Pacific Ocean||10,928 m (35,853 ft)|
Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench
|Southern Ocean||7,433.6 m (24,388 ft)|
South Sandwich Trench (southernmost portion, at )
Ice sheets on land, but having the base below sea level. Places under ice are not considered to be on land.
|Bentley Subglacial Trench||−2,555 m (−8,383 ft)||Antarctica|
|Trough beneath Jakobshavn Isbræ||−1,512 m (−4,961 ft)||Greenland, Denmark|
Northern and southernmost points of land on Earth
|Northernmost point on land||Kaffeklubben Island, east of Greenland ( )|
Various shifting gravel bars lie further north, the most famous being Oodaaq
|Southernmost point on land||The geographic South Pole|
|Southernmost continental point of land outside Antarctica||Cape Froward (Spanish: Cabo Froward) ( ), Magallanes Region, Chile|
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- Aconcagua, Argentina at peakbagger.com
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- Coldest spot on Earth identified by satellite, Jonathan Amos, BBC News, 9 December 2013.
- The Coldest Place on Earth: -90°C and below from Landsat 8 and other satellite thermal sensors, Ted Scambos, Allen Pope, Garrett Campbell, and Terry Haran, American Geophysical Union fall meeting, 9 December 2013.
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