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Extropy redirects here. For extropy in biology and in information theory, see negentropy.

Extropianism, also referred to as the philosophy of Extropy, is an "evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition".[1] Extropians believe that advances in science and technology will some day let people live indefinitely. An extropian may wish to contribute to this goal, e.g. by doing research and development or by volunteering to test new technology.

Extropianism describes a pragmatic consilience of transhumanist thought guided by a proactionary approach to human evolution and progress.[citation needed]

Originated by a set of principles developed by Dr. Max More, The Principles of Extropy,[2] extropian thinking places strong emphasis on rational thinking and on practical optimism. According to More, these principles "do not specify particular beliefs, technologies, or policies". Extropians share an optimistic view of the future, expecting considerable advances in computational power, life extension, nanotechnology and the like. Many[quantify] extropians foresee the eventual realization of indefinite lifespans, and the recovery, thanks to future advances in biomedical technology or mind uploading, of those whose bodies/brains have been preserved by means of cryonics.[citation needed]


The term 'extropy', as an antonym to 'entropy' was used in a 1967 academic volume discussing cryogenics[3] and in a 1978 academic volume of cybernetics.[4] Diane Duane was the first to use the term "extropy" to signify a potential transhuman destiny for humanity.[5] 'Extropy' as coined by Tom Bell (T.O. Morrow) and defined by Max More in 1988, is "the extent of a living or organizational system's intelligence, functional order, vitality, energy, life, experience, and capacity and drive for improvement and growth." Extropy is not a rigorously defined technical term in philosophy or science; in a metaphorical sense, it simply expresses the opposite of entropy.[citation needed]

The Extropy Institute[edit]

In 1987, Max More moved to Los Angeles from Oxford University in England, where he had helped to establish (along with Michael Price, Garret Smyth and Luigi Warren) the first European cryonics organization, known as Mizar Limited (later Alcor UK), to work on his Ph.D. in philosophy at the University of Southern California.

In 1988, Extropy: The Journal of Transhumanist Thought was first published. (For the first few issues, it was "Extropy: Vaccine for Future Shock.) This brought together thinkers with interests in artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, genetic engineering, life extension, mind uploading, idea futures, robotics, space exploration, memetics, and the politics and economics of transhumanism. Alternative media organizations soon began reviewing the magazine, and it attracted interest from like-minded thinkers. Later, More and Bell co-founded the Extropy Institute, a non-profit 501(c)(3) educational organization. "ExI" was formed as a transhumanist networking and information center to use current scientific understanding along with critical and creative thinking to define a small set of principles or values that could help make sense of new capabilities opening up to humanity.

The Extropy Institute's email list was launched in 1991 (and, as of April 2015, continues to exist as "Extropy-Chat"), and in 1992 the institute began producing the first conferences on transhumanism. Affiliate members throughout the world began organizing their own transhumanist groups. Extro Conferences, meetings, parties, on-line debates, and documentaries continue to spread transhumanism to the public.

In 2006, the board of directors of the Extropy Institute made a decision to close the organisation, stating that its mission was "essentially completed."[6]


Extropism is a modern derivative of the transhumanist philosophy of Extropianism. It follows in the same tradition, hence the similarity of name, but has been revised to better suit the paradigms of the 21st century. As introduced in The Extropist Manifesto,[7] it promotes an optimistic futuristic philosophy that can be summed up in the following five phrases, which spell out the word "EXTROPISM":

  • Endless eXtension
  • Transcending Restriction
  • Overcoming Property
  • Intelligence
  • Smart Machines

Extropists desire to prolong their life span to a near-immortal state and exist in a world where artificial intelligence and robotics have made work irrelevant.[citation needed] As in utilitarianism, the purpose of one's life should be to increase the overall happiness of all creatures on Earth through cooperation.[citation needed]

The Extropist Manifesto, written by Breki Tomasson and Hank Pellissier of The Extropist Examiner in January 2010 (site since discontinued), details the ways in which Extropism has evolved away from, while building upon the original tenets of Extropianism. For example, it moves away from the original Extropian Principles[8] by placing a significant focus on the need to abolish and/or restrict the current use of surveillance, copyright and patent laws.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Max More (2003). "Principles of Extropy (Version 3.11) : An evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition". Extropy Institute. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15 
  2. ^ Max More (2003). "Principles of Extropy (Version 3.11) : An evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition". Extropy Institute. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15 
  3. ^ Cryogenics, IPC Science and Technology Press, vol. 7, pg. 225 (1967)
  4. ^ Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Cybernetics & Systems: "Current Topics in Cybernetics and Systems", pg. 258 (1978)
  5. ^ Duane, Diane. "The Wounded Sky" (1983)
  6. ^ Extropy Institute (2006). "Next Steps". Retrieved 2006-05-05. 
  7. ^ The Extropist Manifesto. The Extropist Examiner (blog).
  8. ^ Max More (1998). "The Extropian Principles (Version 3.0) : A Transhumanist Declaration". Extropy Institute. 

External links[edit]