Eyam

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Eyam
Eyam Church - geograph.org.uk - 21749.jpg
Eyam parish church
Eyam is located in Derbyshire
Eyam
Eyam
Location within Derbyshire
Population926 (2001[1])
OS grid referenceSK220764
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townHOPE VALLEY
Postcode districtS32
Dialling code01433
PoliceDerbyshire
FireDerbyshire
AmbulanceEast Midlands
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Derbyshire
53°17′02″N 1°40′16″W / 53.284°N 1.671°W / 53.284; -1.671Coordinates: 53°17′02″N 1°40′16″W / 53.284°N 1.671°W / 53.284; -1.671

Eyam ( /ˈm/)[2] is an English village and civil parish in the Derbyshire Dales that lies within the Peak District National Park. There is evidence of early occupation by Ancient Britons on the surrounding moors and lead was mined in the area by the Romans.[3] A settlement was founded on the present site by Anglo-Saxons, when mining was continued and other industries later developed. However, Eyam’s main claim to fame is the story of how the village chose to go into isolation so as to prevent infection spreading after bubonic plague was discovered there in 1665.[4]

In the later 20th century the village's sources of livelihood largely disappeared. The local economy now relies on the tourist trade, with Eyam being promoted as "the plague village". Although its legend has been kept alive by a growing number of literary works since the early 19th century, the true facts have rarely been questioned until recently.

History[edit]

Lead mining seems to have had a continuous history in the Eyam district since at least the Roman era and there is evidence of habitation from earlier. Stone circles and earth barrows on the moors above the present village have largely been destroyed, although some remain and more are recorded. The most notable site is the Wet Withens stone circle on Eyam Moor.[5] Coins bearing the names of many emperors provide evidence of Roman lead-mining locally.[6] However, the village's name derives from Old English and is first recorded in the Domesday Book as Aium. It is a dative form of the noun ēg (an island) and probably refers to a patch of cultivable land amidst the moors,[7] or else to the settlement's situation between two brooks.[8]

The Anglo-Saxon cross

In the churchyard is an Anglo-Saxon cross in Mercian style dated to the 8th century, moved there from its original location beside a moorland cart track. Grade I listed and a Scheduled Ancient Monument,[9] it is covered in complex carvings and is almost complete, but for a missing section of the shaft.[10]

The present parish church of St. Lawrence dates from the 14th century, but evidence of an earlier church there can be found in the Saxon font, a Norman window at the west end of the north aisle, and Norman pillars that are thought to rest on Saxon foundations. There have been alterations since the Middle Ages, including a large sundial dated 1775 mounted on a wall outside. Some of the rectors at the church have had contentious histories, none less than the fanatically Royalist Sherland Adams who, it was accused, "gave tythe of lead ore to the King against the Parliament", and as a consequence was removed from the living and imprisoned.

The lead mining tithe was due to the rectors by ancient custom. They received one penny for every 'dish' of ore and twopence farthing for every load of hillock-stuff. Owing to the working of a newly discovered rich vein during the 18th century, the Eyam living was a valuable one. Mining continued into the 19th century, after which better sources were discovered and a change-over was made to the working and treatment of fluorspar as a slagging agent in smelting. The last to close was the Ladywash Mine, which was operative between 1948 and 1979. Within a 3-mile radius of the village there are 439 known mines (some running beneath the village itself), drained by 49 drainage levels ('soughs').[11]

According to the 1841 Census for Eyam, there were 954 inhabitants living in the parish, chiefly employed in agriculture, lead mining, and cotton and silk weaving. By the 1881 Census, most men either worked as lead miners or in the manufacture of boots and shoes, a trade that only ended in the 1960s. The transition from industrial village to tourist-based economy is underlined by Roger Ridgeway's statement that, at the beginning of the 20th century, "a hundred horses and carts would have been seen taking fluorspar to Grindleford and Hassop stations. Until recently, up to a dozen coach loads of visiting children arrived each day in the village,"[12] and as of the 2011 Census the population has remained largely unchanged at 969.[13]

1665 plague outbreak[edit]

The history of the plague in the village began in 1665 when a flea-infested bundle of cloth arrived from London for Alexander Hadfield, the local tailor.[14] Within a week his assistant George Viccars, noticing the bundle was damp, had opened it up.[15] Before long he was dead and more began dying in the household soon after.[16]

As the disease spread, the villagers turned for leadership to their rector, the Reverend William Mompesson, and the ejected Puritan minister Thomas Stanley. They introduced a number of precautions to slow the spread of the illness from May 1666. The measures included the arrangement that families were to bury their own dead and relocation of church services to the natural amphitheatre of Cucklett Delph,[17] allowing villagers to separate themselves and so reducing the risk of infection. Perhaps the best-known decision was to quarantine the entire village to prevent further spread of the disease. Merchants from surrounding villages sent supplies that they would leave on marked rocks; the villagers then made holes there which they would fill with vinegar to disinfect the money left as payment.[18]

The plague ran its course over 14 months and one account states that it killed at least 260 villagers, with only 83 surviving out of a population of 350.[16] That figure has been challenged, with alternative figures of 430 survivors from a population of around 800 being given.[16] The church in Eyam has a record of 273 individuals who were victims of the plague.[19]

Survival among those affected appeared random, as many who remained alive had close contact with those who died but never caught the disease. For example, Elizabeth Hancock was uninfected despite burying six children and her husband in eight days. The graves are known as the Riley graves after the farm where they lived.[14] The unofficial village gravedigger, Marshall Howe, also survived, despite handling many infected bodies.[16]

Plague Sunday[edit]

Plague Sunday has been celebrated in the village since the plague's bicentenary in 1866. Originally held in mid-August, it now takes place in Cucklett Delph on the last Sunday in August, coinciding with the (much older) Wakes Week and well dressing ceremonies.[20]

Places of interest[edit]

The Boundary Stone

Today Eyam has various plague-related places of interest. One is the Boundary Stone in the fields between Eyam and Stony Middleton in which money, usually soaked in vinegar, which was believed to kill the infection, was placed in exchange for food and medicine. It is just one of several 'plague stones' marking the boundary that should not be crossed by either inhabitant or outsider. Another site is the isolated enclosure of the Riley graves mentioned above, now under the guardianship of the National Trust.

A reminder of the village's industrial past remains in the name of its only pub, the Miner's Arms. Built in 1630, before the plague, it was originally called The Kings Arms. Opposite the church is the Mechanics' Institute, originally established in 1824,[21] although the present building with its handsome pillared portico dates from 1859 and was enlarged in 1894. At one time it held a library paid for by subscription, which then contained 766 volumes.[22] The premises now double as the village club. Up the main street is the Jacobean-styled Eyam Hall, built just after the plague. It was leased and managed by the National Trust for five years until December 2017 but is now run by the owners (the Wright Family). The green opposite has an ancient set of village stocks reputedly used to punish the locals for minor crimes.

Catherine Mompesson's tabletop grave is in the churchyard and has a wreath laid on it every Plague Sunday. This is in remembrance of her constancy in staying by her husband, rather than moving away with the rest of her family, and dying in the very last days of the plague. The church's burial register also records "Anna the traveller, who according to her own account, was 136 years of age" and was interred on 30 December 1663. A more recent arrival there is the cricketer Harry Bagshaw, who played for Derbyshire and then acted as a respected umpire after retiring. At the apex of his headstone is a hand with a finger pointing upwards. Underneath the lettering a set of stumps is carved with a bat, and the bails flying off where a ball has just hit the wicket.[23]

Respect for its heritage has not always been a priority in Eyam. In his Peak Scenery (1824), Ebenezer Rhodes charges that by the start of the 19th century many former gravestones of plague victims had been pulled up to floor houses and barns and that ploughing was allowed to encroach on the Riley Graves (pp. 34–5); that the lime trees planted on either side of Mrs Mompesson's grave had been cut down for timber (39–40); that the missing piece from the shaft of the Saxon Cross had been broken up for domestic use (p. 44); and that in general the profit of the living was put before respect for the dead (46–7).[24]

Cultural representations[edit]

Paintings[edit]

Eyam Museum was opened in 1994 and, besides its focus on the plague, includes exhibits on the village's local history in general. Among the art exhibits there are painted copies from different eras of a print (taken from a drawing by Francis Chantrey) in Ebenezer Rhodes' Peak Scenery (1818). These depict the sweep of the road by the 'plague cottages' where the first victims died, with the church tower beyond.[25] The local amateur John Platt painted in naive style and is represented by depictions of the Riley Graves (1871)[26] and the old windmill (1874).[27]

Since the area is scenically beautiful it has attracted many artists, among whom one of the most notable was the Sheffield artist Harry Epworth Allen. The picturesque is subordinated in his paintings of Eyam so as to interpret his subject as a living community within a worked landscape. His "Road above Eyam" (1936), now in the Laing Art Gallery, is travelled by people going about their daily business, for example,[28] and his "Burning Limestone" in Newport Museum and Art Gallery acknowledges the two centuries and more of industrialisation by which the local inhabitants earned their living among harsh conditions.[29]

Literature[edit]

The village green and Church Street

“The village of Eyam," its historian begins his account, "has been long characterized throughout the Peak of Derbyshire, as the birthplace of genius – the seat of the Muses – the Athens of the Peak". During the 18th century the place was notable for having no fewer than four poets associated with it. Reverend Peter Cunningham, curate there between 1775 and 1790, published two sermons during that time as well as several poems of a political nature. In addition, William Wood's account speaks of "numberless stones in the burial place that contain the offerings of his muse".[30]

The rector for whom Cunningham deputised much of the time, Thomas Seward, published infrequently, but at least one poem written during his tenure at Eyam deals with personal matters. His "Ode on a Lady's Illness after the Death of her Child", dated 14 April 1748, concerns the death in infancy of his daughter Jenny.[31] Seward also encouraged one of his surviving daughters, Anna Seward, to write poetry, but only after she moved with her father to Lichfield. A pioneer of Romanticism, Seward could not hide from herself the fact that the wild natural rocks she admired were daily being blasted for utilitarian purposes and the "perpetual consumption of the ever burning lime kilns", while the view was hidden behind the smoke from the smelting works.[32] Following a visit to her birthplace in 1788, she wrote a poem about it filled with nostalgia.[33] She celebrated this lost domain of happiness once more in "Epistle to Mr. Newton, the Derbyshire Minstrel, on receiving his description in verse of an autumnal scene near Eyam, September 1791".[34] No copy of the poem by William Newton now exists. The author was a labouring-class protégé from nearby, originally discovered by Cunningham and introduced to Miss Seward in 1783.

The poet Richard Furness belongs to the early 19th century and was known as 'the Poet of Eyam' after his birthplace, but the bulk of his poetry too was written after he had left the district. Among the several references to the village there are his "Lines written in sight of the rectory", which praises both Anna Seward and her father.[35] William Wood, the author of The History and Antiquities of Eyam, was a village resident. At the head of his first chapter is an excerpt from a poem that links the place with the story of the plague.[36] Simply initialled W. W., the inference to be drawn is that it had earlier appeared in Wood's collection, The genius of the Peak and other poems (1837). A later visitor from across the Peak District was Thomas Matthew Freeman, who included a blank verse meditation "On Eyam" and its plague history in his collection Spare minutes of a country parson.[37] At the start of the following century Sarah Longsdon O'Ferrall was living at Eyam Rectory and published The Lamp of St Helen and other poems in 1912. This contained hymns sung on special occasions in Eyam and some verse referring to plague sites.[38]

Prose writers also came to live in the area. The village of Milton that figures in some of Robert Murray Gilchrist's fiction is in fact based upon Eyam. His The Peakland Faggot (1897) consists of short stories, each focusing on a particular character in the village.[39] This was followed by two other series, Nicholas and Mary and Other Milton Folk (1899) and Natives of Milton (1902). Eyam was also featured under its own name in Joseph Hatton's novel The Dagger and the Cross (1897). Set in the former Bradshaw Hall in the year before the plague arrives, it includes local characters who had key roles during the spread of the disease, such as George Vicars and William and Catherine Mompesson.[40]

Plague literature[edit]

Poems[edit]

  • The Village of Eyam: a poem in four parts by John Holland, Macclesfield, 1821[41]
  • "Eyam Banks", an anonymously authored lyric that accompanied an account of the plague published in 1823.[42]
  • The Desolation of Eyam by William and Mary Howitt, London, 1827[43]
  • "Cucklet Church", a poem that accompanied a description of Eyam and its history by the prolific Sheffield author, Samuel Roberts.[44]
  • The Tale of Eyam, a story of the plague in Derbyshire, and other poems by an OLD BLUE, London, 1888.
  • A Moral Ballad of the Plague of Eyam by Francis McNamara (1884–1946). This was published as an Irish broadside in 1910.[45]
  • In his poem "Lockdown" (2020), written in response to the coronavirus pandemic, Simon Armitage draws a parallel at the start with the voluntary quarantine of the inhabitants of Eyam.[46]

Fiction[edit]

  • "Riley Grave-Stones: a Derbyshire story", published under a pseudonym in The London Magazine for January – June 1823.[47] An account of the plague in Eyam and the encounter between the author and a granddaughter of one of the victims, it is prefaced by lines purporting to come from a poem titled "The Plague of Eyam" and also contains the lyric "Eyam Banks".
  • The Brave Men of Eyam – a tale of the great plague year by Edward N. Hoare, SPCK, 1881.[48]
  • God and the Wedding Dress by Marjorie Bowen, Hutchinson, 1938.[49]
  • A Parcel of Patterns by Jill Paton Walsh, a novel for young adults, Puffin Books, 1983.[50]
  • Children of Winter by Berlie Doherty, a fantasy novel for children, published by Methuen, 1985;
    adapted for television 1994.[51]
  • The Naming of William Rutherford by Linda Kempton, a fantasy novel for children, published by Heinemann, 1992.[52]
  • Year of Wonders by Geraldine Brooks, published by Fourth Estate, 2001.[53]
  • Black Death by M. I. McAllister, children's fiction, Oxford University Press, 2003.[54]
  • Kiss of Death by Malcolm Rose, a thriller for young adults, published by Usborne Publishing, 2006.[55]
  • TSI: The Gabon Virus by Paul McCusker and Walt Larimore, M.D., Christian suspense fiction, published by Howard Books (USA), 2009.[56]
  • Eyam: Plague Village by David Paul, Amberley Publishing, 2012.[57]

Theatre[edit]

  • The Brave Men of Eyam: 1665–1666, a radio play by Michael Reynolds, originally broadcast on 30 August 1936, and reprinted by permission of the Radio Times.[58]
  • Isolation at Eyam; a play in one act for women by Joyce Dennys, published by French, 1954.[59]
  • The Roses of Eyam by Don Taylor; first performed 1970, broadcast on TV in 1973;[60] published by Heinemann, 1976.[61]
  • A different drum by Bridget Foreman; first performed 1997 by the Riding Lights Theatre Company; revived 2013.[62] The plague story interspersed with other stories of self-sacrifice.
  • Ring Around the Rosie by Anne Hanley; staged reading by Fairbanks Shakespeare Theatre (Alaska), 2004.[63]
  • Plague at Eyam, a script for young adults published by the Association of Science Education, 2010.[64]
  • Eyam by Matt Hartley; performed on the main stage at Shakespeare's Globe, 2018,[65] and also published that year by Nick Hern Books.

Music[edit]

Operas[edit]

  • Plague upon Eyam an opera in three acts by John D. Drummond, librettist Patrick Little; University of Otago Press (New Zealand), 1984;
    Songs recorded on Mr Polly at the Potwell Inn, Sirius CD SP004, 2000.[66]
  • Ring of White Roses, a one-act light opera by Les Emmans, librettist Pat Mugridge, 1984; published Plays & Musicals, 2004.[67]
  • The Plague of Eyam by Ivor Hodgson, 2010; overture performed on BBC radio, March 2010.[68]

Musicals[edit]

  • Eyam: A Musical, music by Andrew Peggie, book and lyrics by Stephen Clark; pioneered as a group production in 1990,[69] CD Joseph Weinberger, 1995; London production at the Bridewell Theatre, 1998
  • A Ring of Roses, Darren Vallier, Dress Circle Records (STG1) 1996; first performed at the Savoy Theatre, 1997; Jasper Publishing 2004.[70]
  • The Ring of Stones premiered in Manchester in 1999 and since then has been revived and performed at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 2011.[71]
  • Catherine of Eyam, created at Boundstone Community College by Tom Brown and Aedan Kerney in the 1990s and then revived and rewritten as a community musical for 2017 performance.[72]

Songs[edit]

The Eyam legend[edit]

For over a century there have been those who have questioned the details of the story of Eyam's response to the plague and the wisdom of the actors in it. The reviewer of The Tale of Eyam in the British Medical Journal for 30 November 1889 dismissed its poetic religiosity: "The author speaks of the pestilence and its hellborn brood; and again of firebolts from heaven's reeking nostrils. Such phraseology aptly exemplifies the mental attitude of men who lived in the infancy of modern science, when in the plague they saw the angry stroke of offended Deity, and recognised the 'scourge' of God in what we know to be only the scourge of filth.'[75] Shortly afterwards, writing in his A History of Epidemics in Britain (Cambridge University Press, 1891, Charles Creighton questioned the wisdom of the actions taken at the revival of the epidemic in 1666 as mistaken, though well-meaning. Instead, "the villagers of Eyam were sacrificed…to an idea, and to an idea which we may now say was not scientifically sound."[76]

A recent study of Eyam's story as history finds in it no more than a literary construct fabricated long after the actual events. Contemporary reporting was rare and often the result of political or religious bias. From the dawn of the 19th century, the romanticised and sentimental accounts of events at Eyam were "largely produced by poets, writers and local historians – not doctors",[77] as is apparent from the dissenting opinions quoted above. The 1886 bicentenary commemoration, repeated annually for close on a century and a half now, is seen by the author as the beginning of "an overtly invented tradition" which has spawned a heritage industry to profit the village in the face its declining prosperity and population, and provided instead "a plague tourism infrastructure".[78]

The village's legend has also been invoked medically as the "Eyam Hypothesis" in the recent discussion over whether observed isolationary behaviour in sickness among vertebrates is the result of evolution or of altruism and still awaits validation.[79]

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "Parish Headcounts: Eyam CP". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
  2. ^ "Eyam in brief". eyamvillage.org. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
  3. ^ Bemroses' Guide to Buxton, Castleton, High Peak, Eyam, Dovedale etc, London 1869, p.58
  4. ^ Skipalis, Brandi. "Construction of Heritage and Identity in the Plague Village: Examining the Intersections of Local Identity, Heritage Tourism, and Local Heritage Museum in Eyam" (PDF). University of Manchester. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Wet Withens Embanked Stone Circle - Northwest of Grindleford, Derbyshire". www.stone-circles.org.uk.
  6. ^ Roger Ridgeway, Eyam village site Archived 3 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Kenneth Cameron, English Place Names, London 1996, p.172
  8. ^ "Eyam". Key to English Place-names. English Place Name Society at the University of Nottingham. Retrieved 18 August 2013. Probably referring to its situation between Hollow Brook and Jumber Brook
  9. ^ Historic England. "Eyam Saxon cross (1100263)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  10. ^ Neville T. Sharpe, Crosses of the Peak District (Landmark Collectors Library, 2002)
  11. ^ Doug Nash, Eyam village site Archived 23 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Eyam Village site, "Mining and Industry" Archived 3 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Civil parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Mystery of the Black Death". Secrets of the Dead. PBS. Retrieved 12 April 2007.
  15. ^ "Village remembered for sacrifice of residents during plague". AP. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  16. ^ a b c d Clifford (1989)
  17. ^ "Eyam - Cucklett Church in the Delph". Picture the Past.
  18. ^ Ross, Eleanor. "Did this sleepy village stop the Great Plague". BBC - Travel. BBC. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  19. ^ "List of plague victims". Archived from the original on 11 March 2012.
  20. ^ Wallis (2006).
  21. ^ White (1857), p.570.
  22. ^ "Wishful Thinking". Archived from the original on 24 August 2007.
  23. ^ Jacques, Alan. "Harry the Umpire (Harry Bagshaw, 1859–1927)". UK & Ireland Genealogy. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008.
  24. ^ Rhodes, Ebenezer (28 March 1824). "Peak scenery; or, The Derbyshire tourist". London, Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, and the author, Sheffield – via Internet Archive.
  25. ^ "Plague Cottages, Eyam, Derbyshire | Art UK". artuk.org.
  26. ^ "Riley Graves, Eyam, Derbyshire | Art UK". artuk.org.
  27. ^ "The Old Windmill | Art UK". artuk.org.
  28. ^ "Eyam, Derbyshire | Art UK". artuk.org.
  29. ^ "Burning Limestone | Art UK". artuk.org.
  30. ^ The History and Antiquities of Eyam, 1842, Wishful Thinking
  31. ^ It was not published until a decade later in the London Chronicle
  32. ^ Sylvia Bowerbank, Speaking for Nature: Women and Ecologies of Early Modern England, Johns Hopkins University 2004, p.167
  33. ^ Poetical Works, vol.3, pp.1–3
  34. ^ Poetical Works vol. 3, pp. 22–4
  35. ^ Furness, Richard; Holland, G. C. (George Calvert) (28 March 1858). "The poetical works of the late Richard Furness : with a sketch of his life". London : Partridge and co. – via Internet Archive.
  36. ^ Wood (1842), p.1]
  37. ^ Spare minutes of a country parson: A volume of miscellaneous poetry (Manchester 1874), pp.43-4
  38. ^ "'THE LAMP OF ST. HELEN and Other Poems by Sarah Longsdon O'FERRALL :EYAM : 1912". eBay.
  39. ^ Terry Goble, The Literary Way Archived 5 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ Available online at Read Any Book
  41. ^ Cooper, Thompson. "Holland John (1794-1872)" – via Wikisource.
  42. ^ The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, vol. 1 (I823), p.326
  43. ^ Howitt, William; Howitt, Mary Botham (28 March 1827). "The Desolation of Eyam: the Emigrant: A Tale of the American Woods and Others Poems". Wightman and Cramp – via Google Books.
  44. ^ Samuel Roberts, Eyam: its Trials and its Triumphs (Sheffield, 1834), pp.17-24
  45. ^ "Villanova Digital Library - A Moral Ballad of the Plague of Eyam, 1666". digital.library.villanova.edu.
  46. ^ ""Lockdown: Simon Armitage writes poem about coronavirus outbreak". Guardian. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  47. ^ Vol. VII, pp.282 – 291
  48. ^ Hoare, Edward Newenham (28 March 1881). "The Brave Men of Eyam, Or, A Tale of the Great Plague Year". Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge – via Google Books.
  49. ^ "God and the Wedding Dress by Marjorie Bowen". www.fantasticfiction.com.
  50. ^ "Book Reviews, Sites, Romance, Fantasy, Fiction". Kirkus Reviews.
  51. ^ BBC School Radio
  52. ^ "Children's Books - Reviews - The Naming of William Rutherford | BfK No. 87". booksforkeeps.co.uk.
  53. ^ The opening chapters are on Google Books
  54. ^ Oxford Reading Tree: Levels 15-16: TreeTops True Stories: Black Death: Amazon.co.uk: McAllister, Margaret, Englander, Alice: Books. ASIN 0199196591.
  55. ^ "The Kiss of Death by Malcolm Rose". www.fantasticfiction.com.
  56. ^ McCusker, Paul; Larimore, Walt (18 August 2009). The Gabon Virus. ISBN 9781416569718 – via www.simonandschuster.com.
  57. ^ Details on Google Books
  58. ^ "THE BRAVE MEN OF EYAM: 1665–1666 : (Radio Times) : Derbyshire/Plague: 1936". eBay.
  59. ^ Isolation at Eyam: Play (Acting Edition): Amazon.co.uk: Dennys, Joyce: 9780573032585: Books. ASIN 0573032580.
  60. ^ "Mad Dog > Derbyshire's 'plague village' > The Roses of Eyam". www.survivors-mad-dog.org.uk.
  61. ^ Preview on Google Books
  62. ^ Review from The York Press
  63. ^ Panache Productions
  64. ^ "Drama: The Plague at Eyam and The Discovery of Vaccines | STEM". www.stem.org.uk.
  65. ^ Miriam Gillinson, "Eyam review – song and sacrifice as Black Death descends on Derbyshire", The Guardian, 21 September 2018
  66. ^ Griffel, Margaret Ross (21 December 2012). Operas in English: A Dictionary. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810883253 – via Google Books.
  67. ^ Preview script at Plays and Musicals
  68. ^ Live, Cheshire (30 March 2010). "Kelsall composer Ivor Hodgson completes opera after 25 years in the making". chesterchronicle.
  69. ^ "Eyam - Guide to Musical Theatre". www.guidetomusicaltheatre.com.
  70. ^ "Biography". Valliermusic.com.
  71. ^ Tracks and photos at the show's website Archived 16 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ "Catherine of Eyam | Making Music". www.makingmusic.org.uk.
  73. ^ Trevor Midgley; the words are quoted at Mudcat
  74. ^ "I Like Trains". 12 December 2016.
  75. ^ Group, British Medical Journal Publishing (30 November 1889). "Notes on Books". Br Med J. 2 (1509): 1225. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1509.1225. S2CID 220238362 – via www.bmj.com.
  76. ^ Charles Creighton, A History of Epidemics in Britain (CUP 1891), p.687
  77. ^ Patrick Wallis, "A Dreadful Heritage: Interpreting Epidemic Disease at Eyam, 1666-2000", Working Papers on The Nature of Evidence: How Well Do 'Facts' Travel?, No.02/05 (May 2005), p.22
  78. ^ "The epidemic and the village", pp.27-31
  79. ^ Shakhar, Keren; Shakhar, Guy (16 October 2015). "Why Do We Feel Sick When Infected—Can Altruism Play a Role?". PLOS Biology. 13 (10). doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002276. PMC 4608734. Retrieved 23 June 2021.

References[edit]

External links[edit]