Attractiveness

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Attractiveness or attraction is a quality that causes an interest, desire in, or gravitation to something or someone.[1]:59[2][Notes 1][Notes 2] Attraction may also refer to the object of the attraction itself, as in tourist attraction.

Visual attractiveness[edit]

Visual attractiveness or visual appeal is attraction produced primarily by visual stimuli.

Physical attractiveness[edit]

Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, similarity and physique.[citation needed]

Physical attractiveness can also include the attraction of smell. Pheromones secreted by animals and humans alike can attract others, and this is viewed as being attracted to smell.[3][better source needed] Human sex pheromones may play a role in human attraction, although it is unclear how well humans can actually pick up on the pheromones of another.

Judgment of attractiveness of physical traits is partly universal to all human cultures, partly dependent on culture or society or time period, partly biological, and partly subjective and individual.[4][1][2]

The Science Behind Attraction[edit]

According to a study determining the golden ratio for facial beauty, the most attractive face is one with average distances between facial features, and an average length and width of the face itself.[5]. Facial attractiveness, or beauty, can also be determined by symmetry. If a face is asymmetrical, this can indicate unhealthy genetic information. Therefore, if a face is symmetrical (see Facial symmetry), healthy genetic information is implied. People will judge potential mates based off the physical expression of the genetic health, which is their apparent attractiveness[6]. This supports the good genes theory, which indicates that attractiveness is seen as a way to ensure that offspring will have the healthiest genes and therefore the best chance of survival. Certain trains that indicate good genes (such as clear skin or facial symmetry) are seen as desirable when choosing a partner[7].

Sexual Selection and Attraction in Non-human Animals[edit]

Among animals, females often are "choosy" about who they pick for a mate. They will look for characteristics in their potential mates that ensure their offspring will have healthy genetic material. Therefore, they will be attracted to certain traits or behaviors of their potential mates. Attraction among animals is based mostly on what will give the females the best chance of having the most and healthiest offspring that will likely survive to adulthood because of the traits they will inherit from the male[8]. Females will look for signs of health in the males, such as large and fancy adornments, bright colors, or other features that the male will only have if he is in good health. [9].

Eye candy (slang for visual appeal)[edit]

Eye candy is a slang term for superficial attractiveness.[10] In a 2017 Boston Globe article about the potential for cheerleading at the Olympics, eye candy was used to describe cheerleaders as "entertainment popularized by professional sports in the United States."[11][12] The term has also been used in professional sports in the United States referring to female athletes.[13]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Their often-cited 1988 publication provided a "general theory of how psychological situations elicit emotions and make them intense. Its chief application is in computer science as the emotion engine of intelligent agents in computer games, and interactive training modules." Anthony Ortony, professor at Northwestern University with a focus on Psychology, Education, and Computer Science; Gerald L. Clore is a Psychology Professor at the University of Virginia with a focus on emotion and its cognitive consequences; and Allan Collins is professor of Learning Sciences specializing in Education, Psychology, and Artificial Intelligence at Northwestern University.
  2. ^ In The Cognitive Structure of Emotions Ortony, Clore and Collins describe the intensity of joy emotions; praiseworthiness affects the intensity of pride emotions, and appealingness affects the intensity of the object-based attraction emotions. The "perception of charm and physical beauty" through their influence on "appealingness" only have an indirect effect on the intensity of attraction emotions.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ortony, Andrew; Gerald L. Clore; Allan Collins (1989). The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press. p. 59. doi:10.2307/2074241. ISBN 0-521-38664-0.
  2. ^ a b Colby, B. N. (November 1989). "Review of 'The Cognitive Structure of Emotions' by Andrew Ortony, Gerald L. Clore and Allan Collins". Contemporary Sociology. American Sociological Association. 18 (6): 957–958. JSTOR 2074241.
  3. ^ Gregoire, Carolyn (2015-02-14). "The Strange Science Of Sexual Attraction". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  4. ^ Hönekopp, Johannes (2006). "Once more: Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Relative contributions of private and shared taste to judgments of facial attractiveness" (PDF). APA.
  5. ^ Pallett, Pamela; Link, Stephen; Lee, Kang (November 6, 2009). "New "Golden" Ratios for Facial Beauty". Vision Research. 50: 149–154. PMC 2814183.
  6. ^ Jones, B.C.; Little, A.C.; Penton-Voak, I.S.; Tiddeman, B.P.; Burt, D.M.; Perrett, D.I. (November 2001). "Facial symmetry and judgements of apparent health: Support for a "good genes" explanation of the attractiveness–symmetry relationship". Evolution and Human Behavior. 22: 417–420.
  7. ^ The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. "Good genes hypothesis". Encyclopedia Brittanica. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  8. ^ Alcock, J. (2001). The Evolution of Reproductive Behavior. In Animal Behavior. (7 ed. pp. 341) Sunderland, Massachusetts: Arizona State University.
  9. ^ Bateson, P. Editor. (1983). Sexual Selection by Female Choice by Peter O'Donald. in Mate Choice. (pp. 53). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  10. ^ "The English We Speak". BBC. November 3, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  11. ^ Springer, Shira (February 18, 2017). "Is cheerleading coming to the Olympics?". Boston Globe. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  12. ^ Ryan, Shannon (January 7, 2016). "Time for NFL to end use of cheerleaders". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
  13. ^ "It's Time For Sports Broadcasting To Stop Relegating Women to Sideline Eye Candy". Forbes. January 21, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2017.