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Ezar Vorbarra was the Emperor of Barrayar during the time of the novel Shards of Honor. His son, Crown Prince Serg, was killed during the Escobar War, leaving five-year-old Prince Gregor as the only direct descendent of the Vorbarra line. As a result of Ezar's death, and Gregor's minority, Aral Vorkosigan was appointed Regent of the Barrayaran Imperium till the end of Gregor's minority, when he would rule rightly as Emperor.
Ezar Vorbarra is historically important to Barrayar because of his direct involvement in ending Mad Emperor Yuri's Reign of Terror. Ezar, with the assistance of Count Piotr Vorkosigan, prince Xav Vorbarra and Vorkosigan's loyal army, overthrew the reigning Emperor, Yuri, to end his paranoid reign of terror.