The Ezulwini Consensus is a position on international relations and reform of the United Nations, agreed by the African Union. It calls for a more representative and democratic Security council, in which Africa, like all other world regions, is represented.
The consensus is named after Ezulwini, a valley in central Swaziland - with several tourist hotels - where the agreement was made in 2005. The consensus was then adopted at an Extraordinary Session of the Executive Council of the African Union, in March 2005, in Addis Ababa.
The agreement covered several areas, including: EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 7th Extraordinary Session (7–8 March 2005). THE COMMON AFRICAN POSITION ON THE PROPOSED REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS: “THE EZULWINI CONSENSUS” (Report). African Union.
Collective security - preventive measures
- Underlining the serious threats posed by HIV/AIDS, poverty, and environmental degradation
- Encouraging debts of highly indebted states to be written off
- Recommending adoption of the Lomé Declaration and Algiers Declaration on Unconstitutional Changes of Governments.
- Calling for an end to illicit manufacturing, trade, and stockpiling of small arms & light weapons (SALW).
- Recommending steps toward "complete elimination of nuclear weapons"
Collective security - use of force
- A cautious approach to the Responsibility to protect: "It is important to reiterate the obligation of states to protect their citizens, but this should not be used as a pretext to undermine the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of states."
- Prohibiting any use of force outside Article 51 of the UN Charter (self-defence) and Article 4h of AU (preventing genoicide and serious crimes against humanity).
- Calling for the UN to fund and support peacekeeping forces provided by regional organisations such as the AU.
- Proposing a Peacebuilding Commission.
United Nations reform
- At least two permanent seats (including veto power), and five non-permanent seats on the Security Council.
- The African Union would choose which African governments get the seats.
- Further calls for ECOSOC to be strengthened.
References and citations
- "AFRICAN UNION (AU)" (PDF). Inventory of International Nonproliferation Organizations and Regimes. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "Walking a tightrope: SA, Africa and the UN". Helen Suzman Foundation. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "‘OUT OF DATE AND OUT OF TOUCH’, SECURITY COUNCIL REQUIRES URGENT REFORM, ASSEMBLY PRESIDENT SAYS, URGING DELEGATIONS TO MOVE SWIFTLY TO END IMPASSE". GA/10786. United Nations. Retrieved 13 October 2012.