The pilgrims and visitors of Fátima in front of the Shrine of Our Lady
|Intermunic. comm.||Médio Tejo|
|• Total||71.84 km2 (27.74 sq mi)|
|• Density||160/km2 (420/sq mi)|
|Patron||Nossa Senhora dos Prazeres and Nossa Senhora de Fátima|
Fátima (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈfatimɐ] ( listen)) is a civil parish in the municipality of Ourém, in the Portuguese Santarém District. The population in 2011 was 11,596, in an area of 71.84 km². The parish encompasses several villages and localities of which Fátima, with a population of 7,756 residents, is the largest. Part of the urban agglomeration of Leiria, it is 187 km (116 mi) south of Porto and 123 km (76 mi) north of Lisbon.
The civil parish has been permanently associated with the Marian apparitions that were witnessed by three shepherd children at the Cova da Iria in 1917. The Catholic Church later recognized these events as "worthy of belief." A small chapel was built here in honor of Our Lady of Fátima beginning in 1918, and a statue of her installed. It has crowned by the Vatican. The chapel and statue have since been enclosed within a large shrine and basilicas. Associated facilities, including a hotel and medical facility, have also been built over the decades at this site. Each year thousands of pilgrims visit the Sanctuary of Fátima.
The name of the town and parish is a rendition of the Arabic given name Fátima ( فاطمة Fāṭimah). (Fatimah is the namesake of Fatimah bint Muhammad, a daughter of the Islamic founder and prophet Muhammad).
Fátima was said to be the name of a Moorish princess kidnapped by Gonçalo Hermigues and his companions. The knight took Fatima to a small village of the recently created Kingdom of Portugal, in the Serra de Aire hills. According to the Western Catholic narrative, Fatima fell in love with her kidnapper and decided to convert to Christianity in order to marry him. She was baptized and given a Christian name "Oureana."
The parish was founded in 1568, when it was annexed by the Collegiate of Ourém (Portuguese: Colegiada de Ourém). For centuries, most of the villagers kept herds of sheep and depended also on subsistence farming.
Since the early 20th century, Fátima has been associated with events in which three local children: Lúcia dos Santos and her cousins, Francisco and Jacinta Marto, saw visions of a lady since believed to be the Virgin Mary, known as Our Lady of Fátima. On 13 May 1917, while guarding their families' sheep in the Cova da Iria, the children first saw an apparition of a "lady dressed in white" and shining with a bright light. [page needed][page needed]
The three shepherd children were born in Aljustrel, a small hamlet about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from Fátima. To the west, near Aljustrel, is Loca do Cabeço, a smaller agglomeration of rocky outcroppings where, in 1916, an angel appeared twice to the three children. The angel visitation was not recounted until the 1930s, when Sister Lucia dos Santos (she had joined a convent) began publishing her memoirs.
The children saw the Marian apparition on six occasions; they said the last would be 13 October 1917. An estimated 70,000 pilgrims went to the site for the last prophesied apparition in October. Some of them reported what has been referred to as the Miracle of the Sun, when some observers reported it appeared to be behaving unusually.
The local bishop investigated the events and determined that the apparitions were worthy of belief. The site was marked by a cross erected by locals. In 1918 they built a small chapel, built from rock and limestone and covered in tile. It was 3.3 metres (11 ft) by 2.8 metres (9.2 ft) length, and 2.85 metres (9.4 ft) height. It became a centre for Marian devotion, receiving names such as a fé. Fátima, cidade da Paz ("the faith of Fátima, City of Peace"), or Terra de Milagres e Aparições ("Land of Miracles and Apparitions").
The chapel has since been enclosed within a large basilica and sanctuary, part of a complex including a hotel and other facilities. In 1930 the statue of Our Lady in the Chapel of Apparitions was crowned by the Vatican.
The children Jacinta died in 1919 and Francisco in 1920 during the international Spanish flu pandemic. Lucia dos Santos became a nun and lived until 2005. The two who died young were beatified on 13 May 2000 by Pope John Paul II.
The construction of the sanctuary and the steady visits by pilgrims stimulated local development. In addition to construction of a large shrine, basilica, and sanctuary, the complex includes a hotel and other facilities. The town of Fátima was elevated to the status of city on 12 July 1997.
In the early 21st century, numerous residents of the parish (primarily from its business sector) worked to have Fátima designated as an independent municipality. The project, led by Júlio Silva, engineer and ex-president of the Junta de Freguesia (Parish Council), was vetoed on July 2003 by President of Portugal Jorge Sampaio.
Fátima is located on the Estremenho Limestone Massif, on the flanks of the Serra de Aire, approximately 300 metres (980 ft) above sea level. The geology of the Serras de Aire and Candeeiros gives rise to an arid landscape with a rocky ground interspersed with limestone outcroppings. There are various geological formations in the region including sinkholes, uvalas and polje (like the Polje de Minde-Mata), as well as karst grottoes, caves with stalactites and stalagmites, in addition to lapiez fields.
The climate is characterized by heavy precipitation during the winter, with approximately 1,400 millimetres (55 in) annually, and warm, dry summers.
The trees in this area are primarily dominated by Holly oak (Quercus ilex), Portuguese oak (Quercus faginea), Strawberry trees (Arbutus unedo), Buckthorn and Olive trees, all of which are resistant to the precipitation extremes of the climate. There are also areas of savannah, strips of land bounded by walls of loose stone.
The parish contains the following localities: Aljustrel, Alvaijar, Amoreira, Boleiros, Casa Velha, Casal Farto, Chã, Charneca, Cova da Iria, Eira da Pedra, Fátima, Giesteira, Lomba da Égua, Maxeira, Moimento, Moita Redonda, Moitas, Montelo, Pederneira, Poço Sodo, Ramila and Vale de Cavalos.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Fátima is twinned with:
The economy of the town relies on religious tourism because Our Lady of Fátima attracts Christian pilgrimages. The locals have numerous shops and stalls devoted to the sale of religious articles and souvenirs. In addition, services for tourists, restaurants and other retail also benefit from the visitors. Other economic activities in the region include: marble sculpturing, saw-milling, carpentry, civil construction, commerce, and services.
- Cistern of Gaiola (Portuguese: Cisterna em Gaiola)
- Cistern of Ramila (Portuguese: Cisterna em Ramila)
- Cistern of Capuchos (Portuguese: Cisterna dos Capuchos)
- Civil Parish Building of Fátima (Portuguese: Junta de Freguesia de Fátima)
- Fountain of Alvaijar (Portuguese: Fonte do Alvaijar)
- Fountain of Lameira (Portuguese: Fonte da Lameira)
- Fountain of Poço de Soudo (Portuguese: Fonte em Poço de Soudo)
- Fountain of Vale da Pena (Portuguese: Fonte do Vale da Pena)
- Fountain (New) (Portuguese: Fonte Nova)
- House of Casal Farto (Portuguese: Casa em Casal Farto)
- Mill of Fátima (Portuguese: Moinhos em Fátima)
- Mill of Fazarga (Portuguese: Moinhos da Fazarga)
- Mill of Giesteira (Portuguese: Moinhos da Giesteira)
- Mill of Ortiga (Portuguese: Moinho em Ortiga)
- Mill of Ramila (Portuguese: Moinho Arruinado em Ramila)
- Olive Oil Press in Estrada das Matas (Portuguese: Lagar de azeite na Estrada das Matas)
- Porch House with Sundial (Portuguese: Casa Alpendrada com relógio de Sol em Casal Farto)
- Residence of Francisco and Jacinta Marte (Portuguese: Casa onde nasceram os videntes de Fátima / Casa de Francisco e Jacinta)
- Residence of Lúcia de Santos (Portuguese: Casa onde nasceu a vidente de Fátima Lúcia dos Santos / Casa de Lúcia)
- Threshing-floor of Ramila (Portuguese: Eira em Ramila)
- Chapel of Casal Forte (Portuguese: Capela de Casal Forto)
- Chapel of Lombo de Égua (Portuguese: Capela de Lombo de Égua)
- Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Portuguese: Capela da Amoreira/Capela de Nossa Senhora da Conceição)
- Church of Nossa Senhora do Livramento (Portuguese: Capela de Boleiros/Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Livramento)
- Church of Santo António (Portuguese: Igreja Paroquial de Fátima / Igreja Paroquial de Santo António)
- Church of the Santíssima Trindade/Basilica of the Santíssima Trinidade (Portuguese: Igreja da Santíssima Trindade no Santuário de Fátima / Basílica da Santíssima Trindade), on the far side of the sanctuary's esplanade is the basilica, a neo-classical structure with a central tower 65 meters (213 ft) high, which was begun on 13 May 1928. It is flanked by colonnades linking it with the extensive convent and hospital buildings. Within the basilica are the tombs of the three witnesses to the apparitions: Jacinta and Francisco Marto and Lúcia dos Santos. The Church of the Holy Trinity, one of the largest churches in the world, was built on the other side of the esplanade in the early 21st century.
- Sanctuary of Fátima (Portuguese: Santuário de Fátima)
- Sanctuary of Nossa Senhora da Ortiga (Portuguese: Santuário de Nossa Senhora da Ortiga)
- Parochial building of Fátima (Portuguese: Casa Paroquial de Fátima)
- Via Sacra of Santo Estêvão (Portuguese: Lugar do Cabeço de Aljustrel/Lugar de Valinhos/Via Sacra/Calvário/Capela de Santo Estêvão)
The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima, in Cova da Iria, is the principal focus of all visitors. Annually Catholic pilgrims regularly fill the country roads leading to the Marian shrine. Numbers can reach hundreds of the thousands on 13 May and 13 October, the most significant dates of the apparitions in Fátima.
- Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE), Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal
- Direção-Geral do Território[permanent dead link]
- Junta Freguesia, ed. (2011), História (in Portuguese), Fátima (Ourém), Portugal, retrieved 12 October 2012
- Walsh, William Thomas (1 October 1954), Our Lady of Fátima, Random House, ISBN 978-0385028691
- Junta Freguesia, ed. (2011), Caracterização (in Portuguese), Fátima (Ourém), Portugal, retrieved 12 October 2012
- Walsh, William Thomas (1 October 1954), Our Lady of Fátima, Random House, ISBN 978-0385028691
- "Association of Towns awarded The Europe Prize". www.czestochowa.um.gov.pl. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
- Trudy Ring (1996), p.245
- Sanctuary of Fátima – Official website
- The Chapel of Apparitions – Online transmissions
- The Wax Museum of Fátima
- Museum "Life of Christ"
- Fátima TV
- Fatima Experience