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Félix Malloum

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Félix Malloum
فليكس معلوم
2nd President of Chad
In office
15 April 1975 – 23 March 1979
Vice PresidentMamari Djime Ngakinar
Hissène Habré
Preceded byNoël Milarew Odingar
Succeeded byGoukouni Oueddei
Personal details
Born10 September 1932
Fort Archambault, French Chad
Died12 June 2009(2009-06-12) (aged 76)
Paris, France
Military service
Allegiance France
Branch/service French Army
 Chadian Ground Forces
Years of service1951–1960 (France)
1960–1979 (Chad)
RankBrigadier general
Battles/warsFirst Indochina War

Félix Malloum or Félix Malloum Ngakoutou Bey-Ndi (Arabic: فليكس معلوم Filiks Mʿalūm; 10 September 1932 – 12 June 2009) was a Chadian military officer and politician who served as the second President of Chad from 1975 to 1978.

A native of southern Chad, Malloum became a high-ranking officer in the Chadian military under the country's first president, François Tombalbaye. In the context of the first Chadian Civil War, he was arrested and imprisoned by Tombalbaye in 1972 after being suspected of plotting a coup. Following Tombalbaye's overthrow and assassination during the 1975 Chadian coup d'état, he became the country's new president, inheriting the civil war against northern rebels. In 1978, he integrated the forces of rebel leader Hissène Habré, who was appointed prime minister, into his military to fight against rival rebel leader Goukouni Oueddei. Their alliance was short-lived, and Habré soon turned against Malloum in 1979. Under the terms of the Lagos Accord, Malloum resigned, while a new transitional government was created using a power-sharing agreement between Habré and Goukouni. After spending 23 years in exile in Nigeria, he returned to Chad in 2002, and died in a hospital in France seven years later.


He attended the French military academy and saw action in Indochina and Algeria. He later served as an officer in the Chadian Military and a member of the ruling Chadian Progressive Party (PPT). In 1966 he married Khalié Brahim Djadarab, having a son with her.[1] In 1971, he became the Chief of General Staff with the rank of colonel and named Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces in 1972. In July 1973, he was arrested and imprisoned by President François Tombalbaye on charges of conspiring against the government, but was released after a successful coup-d'etat on 13 April 1975. He served as both President and Prime Minister of Chad until 29 August 1978, when Hissène Habré was appointed Prime Minister to integrate armed northern rebels into the government. However, he was unsuccessful and resigned from the presidency on 23 March 1979,[2] after signing the Kano Peace Agreement which allowed the rebels to form a provisional government.[3] He was related to the politician Kalthouma Nguembang, who was tortured by Tombalbaye's regime.[4]

Malloum retired from politics and settled in Nigeria. He returned to the Chadian capital N'Djamena on 31 May 2002, after 23 years in exile. Upon his return he was entitled to the various benefits allowed to former presidents; these benefits included a monthly stipend of 3,000,000 CFA francs, a residence, and coverage of his health expenses, along with two vehicles and a driver.[5]

Malloum died from cardiac arrest aged 76 on 12 June 2009 at the American Hospital in Paris, France.[6][7]


  1. ^ Jeremy Rich (2012). "Djadarab, Khalié Brahim". In Emmanuel Kwaku Akyeampong; Henry Louis Gates (eds.). Dictionary of African Biography. OUP USA. pp. 230–231. ISBN 978-0-19-538207-5.
  2. ^ Hornburger, Jane (1981). African countries and cultures : a concise illustrated dictionary. New York: D. McKay Co. ISBN 0679205071.
  3. ^ M. Lentz, Harris (4 February 2014). Heads of States and Governments Since 1945. Routledge. pp. 155–156. ISBN 9781134264902.
  4. ^ jeremy, rich (2012), "Nguembang, Kaltouma", Dictionary of African Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/acref/9780195382075.001.0001/acref-9780195382075-e-1543, ISBN 978-0-19-538207-5, retrieved 2021-01-20
  5. ^ "Félix Malloum: Retour à N'Djamena de l'ancien président tchadien" Archived 2006-10-04 at the Wayback Machine, Afrique Express, N° 251, June 18, 2002 (in French)
  6. ^ Décès de l'ex-président Félix Malloum, Jeune Afrique, June 13, 2009 (in French)
  7. ^ "Chadians pay last respect to late ex-president Malloum". Retrieved 27 October 2016.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Head of State of Chad
Succeeded by