In medieval times the region was a clerical state ruled by the abbey of Fürstenfeld. When the clerical states of Holy Empire were dissolved in 1803, the territory was annexed by Bavaria. The district of Fürstenfeldbruck was established in 1939.
The district is occupied by the western Munich metropolitan area. It has the highest population density of all Bavarian districts. More than 90 percent of the population live in the eastern half of the district, which includes the suburbs of Munich.