General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
|F-16 Fighting Falcon|
|A USAF F-16C flying over the desert in Iraq, 2008|
|Role||Multirole fighter, air superiority fighter|
|National origin||United States|
|Introduction||17 August 1978|
|Primary users||United States Air Force|
25 other users (see operators page)
|Number built||4,604 (June 2018)|
|Variants||General Dynamics X-62 VISTA|
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force (USAF). Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,600 aircraft have been built since production was approved in 1976. Although no longer being purchased by the U.S. Air Force, improved versions are being built for export customers. In 1993, General Dynamics sold its aircraft manufacturing business to the Lockheed Corporation, which in turn became part of Lockheed Martin after a 1995 merger with Martin Marietta.
The Fighting Falcon's key features include a frameless bubble canopy for good visibility, side-mounted control stick to ease control while maneuvering, an ejection seat reclined 30 degrees from vertical to reduce the effect of g-forces on the pilot, and the first use of a relaxed static stability/fly-by-wire flight control system that helps to make it an agile aircraft. The F-16 has an internal M61 Vulcan cannon and 11 locations for mounting weapons and other mission equipment. The F-16's official name is "Fighting Falcon", but "Viper" is commonly used by its pilots and crews, because of a perceived resemblance to a viper snake as well as to the fictional Colonial Viper starfighter from the television program Battlestar Galactica which aired at the time the F-16 entered service.
In addition to active duty in the U.S. Air Force, Air Force Reserve Command, and Air National Guard units, the aircraft is also used by the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds aerial demonstration team, and as an adversary/aggressor aircraft by the United States Navy. The F-16 has also been procured to serve in the air forces of 25 other nations. As of 2015, it was the world's most numerous fixed-wing aircraft in military service.
Lightweight Fighter program
Experiences in the Vietnam War revealed the need for air superiority fighters and better air-to-air training for fighter pilots. Based on his experiences in the Korean War and as a fighter tactics instructor in the early 1960s, Colonel John Boyd with mathematician Thomas Christie developed the energy–maneuverability theory to model a fighter aircraft's performance in combat. Boyd's work called for a small, lightweight aircraft that could maneuver with the minimum possible energy loss and which also incorporated an increased thrust-to-weight ratio. In the late 1960s, Boyd gathered a group of like-minded innovators who became known as the Fighter Mafia, and in 1969, they secured Department of Defense funding for General Dynamics and Northrop to study design concepts based on the theory.
Air Force F-X proponents remained hostile to the concept because they perceived it as a threat to the F-15 program, but the USAF's leadership understood that its budget would not allow it to purchase enough F-15 aircraft to satisfy all of its missions. The Advanced Day Fighter concept, renamed F-XX, gained civilian political support under the reform-minded Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard, who favored the idea of competitive prototyping. As a result, in May 1971, the Air Force Prototype Study Group was established, with Boyd a key member, and two of its six proposals would be funded, one being the Lightweight Fighter (LWF). The request for proposals issued on 6 January 1972 called for a 20,000-pound (9,100 kg) class air-to-air day fighter with a good turn rate, acceleration, and range, and optimized for combat at speeds of Mach 0.6–1.6 and altitudes of 30,000–40,000 feet (9,100–12,000 m). This was the region where USAF studies predicted most future air combat would occur. The anticipated average flyaway cost of a production version was $3 million. This production plan, though, was only notional, as the USAF had no firm plans to procure the winner.
Selection of finalists and flyoff
Five companies responded, and in 1972, the Air Staff selected General Dynamics' Model 401 and Northrop's P-600 for the follow-on prototype development and testing phase. GD and Northrop were awarded contracts worth $37.9 million and $39.8 million to produce the YF-16 and YF-17, respectively, with the first flights of both prototypes planned for early 1974. To overcome resistance in the Air Force hierarchy, the Fighter Mafia and other LWF proponents[which?] successfully advocated the idea of complementary fighters in a high-cost/low-cost force mix. The "high/low mix" would allow the USAF to be able to afford sufficient fighters for its overall fighter force structure requirements. The mix gained broad acceptance by the time of the prototypes' flyoff, defining the relationship of the LWF and the F-15.
The YF-16 was developed by a team of General Dynamics engineers led by Robert H. Widmer. The first YF-16 was rolled out on 13 December 1973. Its 90-minute maiden flight was made at the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, California, on 2 February 1974. Its actual first flight occurred accidentally during a high-speed taxi test on 20 January 1974. While gathering speed, a roll-control oscillation caused a fin of the port-side wingtip-mounted missile and then the starboard stabilator to scrape the ground, and the aircraft then began to veer off the runway. The test pilot, Phil Oestricher, decided to lift off to avoid a potential crash, safely landing six minutes later. The slight damage was quickly repaired and the official first flight occurred on time. The YF-16's first supersonic flight was accomplished on 5 February 1974, and the second YF-16 prototype first flew on 9 May 1974. This was followed by the first flights of Northrop's YF-17 prototypes on 9 June and 21 August 1974, respectively. During the fly off, the YF-16s completed 330 sorties for a total of 417 flight hours; the YF-17s flew 288 sorties, covering 345 hours.
Air Combat Fighter competition
Increased interest turned the LWF into a serious acquisition program. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway were seeking to replace their F-104G Starfighter fighter-bombers. In early 1974, they reached an agreement with the U.S. that if the USAF ordered the LWF winner, they would consider ordering it as well. The USAF also needed to replace its F-105 Thunderchief and F-4 Phantom II fighter-bombers. The U.S. Congress sought greater commonality in fighter procurements by the Air Force and Navy, and in August 1974 redirected Navy funds to a new Navy Air Combat Fighter program that would be a navalized fighter-bomber variant of the LWF. The four NATO allies had formed the Multinational Fighter Program Group (MFPG) and pressed for a U.S. decision by December 1974; thus, the USAF accelerated testing.
To reflect this serious intent to procure a new fighter-bomber, the LWF program was rolled into a new Air Combat Fighter (ACF) competition in an announcement by U.S. Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger in April 1974. The ACF would not be a pure fighter, but multi-role, and Schlesinger made it clear that any ACF order would be in addition to the F-15, which extinguished opposition to the LWF. ACF also raised the stakes for GD and Northrop because it brought in competitors intent on securing what was touted at the time as "the arms deal of the century". These were Dassault-Breguet's proposed Mirage F1M-53, the Anglo-French SEPECAT Jaguar, and the proposed Saab 37E "Eurofighter". Northrop offered the P-530 Cobra, which was similar to the YF-17. The Jaguar and Cobra were dropped by the MFPG early on, leaving two European and two U.S. candidates. On 11 September 1974, the U.S. Air Force confirmed plans to order the winning ACF design to equip five tactical fighter wings. Though computer modeling predicted a close contest, the YF-16 proved significantly quicker going from one maneuver to the next and was the unanimous choice of those pilots that flew both aircraft.
On 13 January 1975, Secretary of the Air Force John L. McLucas announced the YF-16 as the winner of the ACF competition. The chief reasons given by the secretary were the YF-16's lower operating costs, greater range, and maneuver performance that was "significantly better" than that of the YF-17, especially at supersonic speeds. Another advantage of the YF-16 – unlike the YF-17 – was its use of the Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine, the same powerplant used by the F-15; such commonality would lower the cost of engines for both programs. Secretary McLucas announced that the USAF planned to order at least 650, possibly up to 1,400 production F-16s. In the Navy Air Combat Fighter competition, on 2 May 1975 the Navy selected the YF-17 as the basis for what would become the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet.
Commencement of production
The U.S. Air Force initially ordered 15 full-scale development (FSD) aircraft (11 single-seat and four two-seat models) for its flight test program, but was reduced to eight (six F-16A single-seaters and two F-16B two-seaters). The YF-16 design was altered for the production F-16. The fuselage was lengthened by 10.6 in (0.269 m), a larger nose radome was fitted for the AN/APG-66 radar, wing area was increased from 280 sq ft (26 m2) to 300 sq ft (28 m2), the tailfin height was decreased, the ventral fins were enlarged, two more stores stations were added, and a single door replaced the original nosewheel double doors. The F-16's weight was increased by 25% over the YF-16 by these modifications.
The FSD F-16s were manufactured by General Dynamics in Fort Worth, Texas, at United States Air Force Plant 4 in late 1975; the first F-16A rolled out on 20 October 1976 and first flew on 8 December. The initial two-seat model achieved its first flight on 8 August 1977. The initial production-standard F-16A flew for the first time on 7 August 1978 and its delivery was accepted by the USAF on 6 January 1979. The F-16 was given its name of "Fighting Falcon" on 21 July 1980, entering USAF operational service with the 34th Tactical Fighter Squadron, 388th Tactical Fighter Wing, at Hill AFB in Utah, on 1 October 1980.
On 7 June 1975, the four European partners, now known as the European Participation Group, signed up for 348 aircraft at the Paris Air Show. This was split among the European Participation Air Forces (EPAF) as 116 for Belgium, 58 for Denmark, 102 for the Netherlands, and 72 for Norway. Two European production lines, one in the Netherlands at Fokker's Schiphol-Oost facility and the other at SABCA's Gosselies plant in Belgium, would produce 184 and 164 units respectively. Norway's Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk and Denmark's Terma A/S also manufactured parts and subassemblies for EPAF aircraft. European co-production was officially launched on 1 July 1977 at the Fokker factory. Beginning in November 1977, Fokker-produced components were sent to Fort Worth for fuselage assembly, then shipped back to Europe for final assembly of EPAF aircraft at the Belgian plant on 15 February 1978; deliveries to the Belgian Air Force began in January 1979. The first Royal Netherlands Air Force aircraft was delivered in June 1979. In 1980, the first aircraft were delivered to the Royal Norwegian Air Force by SABCA and to the Royal Danish Air Force by Fokker.
During the late 1980s and 1990s, Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) produced 232 Block 30/40/50 F-16s on a production line in Ankara under license for the Turkish Air Force. TAI also produced 46 Block 40s for Egypt in the mid-1990s and 30 Block 50s from 2010. Korean Aerospace Industries opened a production line for the KF-16 program, producing 140 Block 52s from the mid-1990s to mid-2000s (decade). If India had selected the F-16IN for its Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft procurement, a sixth F-16 production line would have been built in India. In May 2013, Lockheed Martin stated there were currently enough orders to keep producing the F-16 until 2017.
Improvements and upgrades
One change made during production was augmented pitch control to avoid deep stall conditions at high angles of attack. The stall issue had been raised during development but had originally been discounted. Model tests of the YF-16 conducted by the Langley Research Center revealed a potential problem, but no other laboratory was able to duplicate it. YF-16 flight tests were not sufficient to expose the issue; later flight testing on the FSD aircraft demonstrated a real concern. In response, the area of each horizontal stabilizer was increased by 25% on the Block 15 aircraft in 1981 and later retrofitted to earlier aircraft. In addition, a manual override switch to disable the horizontal stabilizer flight limiter was prominently placed on the control console, allowing the pilot to regain control of the horizontal stabilizers (which the flight limiters otherwise lock in place) and recover. Besides reducing the risk of deep stalls, the larger horizontal tail also improved stability and permitted faster takeoff rotation.
In the 1980s, the Multinational Staged Improvement Program (MSIP) was conducted to evolve the F-16's capabilities, mitigate risks during technology development, and ensure the aircraft's worth. The program upgraded the F-16 in three stages. The MSIP process permitted the quick introduction of new capabilities, at lower costs and with reduced risks compared to traditional independent upgrade programs. In 2012, the USAF had allocated $2.8 billion to upgrade 350 F-16s while waiting for the F-35 to enter service. One key upgrade has been an auto-GCAS (Ground collision avoidance system) to reduce instances of controlled flight into terrain. Onboard power and cooling capacities limit the scope of upgrades, which often involve the addition of more power-hungry avionics.
Lockheed won many contracts to upgrade foreign operators' F-16s. BAE Systems also offers various F-16 upgrades, receiving orders from South Korea, Oman, Turkey, and the US Air National Guard; BAE lost the South Korean contract because of a price breach in November 2014. In 2012, the USAF assigned the total upgrade contract to Lockheed Martin. Upgrades include Raytheon's Center Display Unit, which replaces several analog flight instruments with a single digital display.
In 2013, sequestration budget cuts cast doubt on the USAF's ability to complete the Combat Avionics Programmed Extension Suite (CAPES), a part of secondary programs such as Taiwan's F-16 upgrade. Air Combat Command's General Mike Hostage stated that if he only had money for a service life extension program (SLEP) or CAPES, he would fund SLEP to keep the aircraft flying. Lockheed Martin responded to talk of CAPES cancellation with a fixed-price upgrade package for foreign users. CAPES was not included in the Pentagon's 2015 budget request. The USAF said that the upgrade package will still be offered to Taiwan's Republic of China Air Force, and Lockheed said that some common elements with the F-35 will keep the radar's unit costs down. In 2014, the USAF issued a RFI to SLEP 300 F-16 C/Ds.
To make more room for assembly of its newer F-35 Lightning II fighter aircraft, Lockheed Martin moved the F-16 production from Fort Worth, Texas to its plant in Greenville, South Carolina. Lockheed delivered the last F-16 from Fort Worth to the Iraqi Air Force on 14 November 2017, ending 40 years of F-16 production there. The company resumed production in 2019, though engineering and modernization work will remain in Fort Worth. A gap in orders made it possible to stop production during the move; after completing orders for the last Iraqi purchase, the company was negotiating an F-16 sale to Bahrain that would be produced in Greenville. This contract was signed in June 2018.
The F-16 is a single-engine, highly maneuverable, supersonic, multi-role tactical fighter aircraft. It is much smaller and lighter than its predecessors but uses advanced aerodynamics and avionics, including the first use of a relaxed static stability/fly-by-wire (RSS/FBW) flight control system, to achieve enhanced maneuver performance. Highly agile, the F-16 was the first fighter aircraft purpose-built to pull 9-g maneuvers and can reach a maximum speed of over Mach 2. Innovations include a frameless bubble canopy for better visibility, a side-mounted control stick, and a reclined seat to reduce g-force effects on the pilot. It is armed with an internal M61 Vulcan cannon in the left wing root and has multiple locations for mounting various missiles, bombs and pods. It has a thrust-to-weight ratio greater than one, providing power to climb and vertical acceleration.
The F-16 was designed to be relatively inexpensive to build and simpler to maintain than earlier-generation fighters. The airframe is built with about 80% aviation-grade aluminum alloys, 8% steel, 3% composites, and 1.5% titanium. The leading-edge flaps, stabilators, and ventral fins make use of bonded aluminum honeycomb structures and graphite epoxy lamination coatings. The number of lubrication points, fuel line connections, and replaceable modules is significantly lower than preceding fighters; 80% of the access panels can be accessed without stands. The air intake was placed so it was rearward of the nose but forward enough to minimize air flow losses and reduce aerodynamic drag.
Although the LWF program called for a structural life of 4,000 flight hours, capable of achieving 7.33 g with 80% internal fuel; GD's engineers decided to design the F-16's airframe life for 8,000 hours and for 9-g maneuvers on full internal fuel. This proved advantageous when the aircraft's mission changed from solely air-to-air combat to multi-role operations. Changes in operational use and additional systems have increased weight, necessitating multiple structural strengthening programs.
The F-16 has a cropped-delta wing incorporating wing-fuselage blending and forebody vortex-control strakes; a fixed-geometry, underslung air intake (with splitter plate) to the single turbofan jet engine; a conventional tri-plane empennage arrangement with all-moving horizontal "stabilator" tailplanes; a pair of ventral fins beneath the fuselage aft of the wing's trailing edge; and a tricycle landing gear configuration with the aft-retracting, steerable nose gear deploying a short distance behind the inlet lip. There is a boom-style aerial refueling receptacle located behind the single-piece "bubble" canopy of the cockpit. Split-flap speedbrakes are located at the aft end of the wing-body fairing, and a tailhook is mounted underneath the fuselage. A fairing beneath the rudder often houses ECM equipment or a drag chute. Later F-16 models feature a long dorsal fairing along the fuselage's "spine", housing additional equipment or fuel.
Aerodynamic studies in the 1960s demonstrated that the "vortex lift" phenomenon could be harnessed by highly swept wing configurations to reach higher angles of attack, using leading edge vortex flow off a slender lifting surface. As the F-16 was being optimized for high combat agility, GD's designers chose a slender cropped-delta wing with a leading-edge sweep of 40° and a straight trailing edge. To improve maneuverability, a variable-camber wing with a NACA 64A-204 airfoil was selected; the camber is adjusted by leading-edge and trailing edge flaperons linked to a digital flight control system regulating the flight envelope. The F-16 has a moderate wing loading, reduced by fuselage lift. The vortex lift effect is increased by leading-edge extensions, known as strakes. Strakes act as additional short-span, triangular wings running from the wing root (the junction with fuselage) to a point further forward on the fuselage. Blended into the fuselage and along the wing root, the strake generates a high-speed vortex that remains attached to the top of the wing as the angle of attack increases, generating additional lift and allowing greater angles of attack without stalling. Strakes allow a smaller, lower-aspect-ratio wing, which increases roll rates and directional stability while decreasing weight. Deeper wing roots also increase structural strength and internal fuel volume.
Early F-16s could be armed with up to six AIM-9 Sidewinder heat-seeking short-range air-to-air missiles (AAM) by employing rail launchers on each wingtip, as well as radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow medium-range AAMs in a weapons mix. More recent versions support the AIM-120 AMRAAM, and US aircraft often mount that missile on their wingtips to reduce wing flutter. The aircraft can carry various other AAMs, a wide variety of air-to-ground missiles, rockets or bombs; electronic countermeasures (ECM), navigation, targeting or weapons pods; and fuel tanks on 9 hardpoints – six under the wings, two on wingtips, and one under the fuselage. Two other locations under the fuselage are available for sensor or radar pods. The F-16 carries a 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A1 Vulcan cannon, which is mounted inside the fuselage to the left of the cockpit.
Negative stability and fly-by-wire
The F-16 is the first production fighter aircraft intentionally designed to be slightly aerodynamically unstable, also known as relaxed static stability (RSS), to improve maneuverability. Most aircraft are designed with positive static stability, which induces aircraft to return to straight and level flight attitude if the pilot releases the controls; this reduces maneuverability as the inherent stability has to be overcome. Aircraft with negative stability are designed to deviate from controlled flight and are thus more maneuverable. At supersonic speeds the F-16 gains stability (eventually positive) because of aerodynamic changes.
To counter the tendency to depart from controlled flight and avoid the need for constant trim inputs by the pilot, the F-16 has a quadruplex (four-channel) fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control system (FLCS). The flight control computer (FLCC) accepts pilot input from the stick and rudder controls and manipulates the control surfaces in such a way as to produce the desired result without inducing control loss. The FLCC conducts thousands of measurements per second on the aircraft's flight attitude to automatically counter deviations from the pilot-set flight path; leading to a common aphorism among pilots: "You don't fly an F-16; it flies you."
The FLCC further incorporates limiters governing movement in the three main axes based on attitude, airspeed and angle of attack (AOA); these prevent control surfaces from inducing instability such as slips or skids, or a high AOA inducing a stall. The limiters also prevent maneuvers that would exert more than a 9 g load. Flight testing has revealed that "assaulting" multiple limiters at high AOA and low speed can result in an AOA far exceeding the 25° limit, colloquially referred to as "departing"; this causes a deep stall; a near-freefall at 50° to 60° AOA, either upright or inverted. While at a very high AOA, the aircraft's attitude is stable but control surfaces are ineffective. The pitch limiter locks the stabilators at an extreme pitch-up or pitch-down attempting to recover. This can be overridden so the pilot can "rock" the nose via pitch control to recover.
Unlike the YF-17, which had hydromechanical controls serving as a backup to the FBW, General Dynamics took the innovative step of eliminating mechanical linkages from the control stick and rudder pedals to the flight control surfaces. The F-16 is entirely reliant on its electrical systems to relay flight commands, instead of traditional mechanically linked controls, leading to the early moniker of "the electric jet". The quadruplex design permits "graceful degradation" in flight control response in that the loss of one channel renders the FLCS a "triplex" system. The FLCC began as an analog system on the A/B variants but has been supplanted by a digital computer system beginning with the F-16C/D Block 40. The F-16's controls suffered from a sensitivity to static electricity or electrostatic discharge (ESD). Up to 70–80% of the C/D models' electronics were vulnerable to ESD.
Cockpit and ergonomics
A key feature of the F-16's cockpit is the exceptional field of view. The single-piece, bird-proof polycarbonate bubble canopy provides 360° all-round visibility, with a 40° look-down angle over the side of the aircraft, and 15° down over the nose (compared to the common 12–13° of preceding aircraft); the pilot's seat is elevated for this purpose. Furthermore, the F-16's canopy lacks the forward bow frame found on many fighters, which is an obstruction to a pilot's forward vision. The F-16's ACES II zero/zero ejection seat is reclined at an unusual tilt-back angle of 30°; most fighters have a tilted seat at 13–15°. The tilted seat can accommodate taller pilots and increases g-force tolerance; however, it has been associated with reports of neck ache, possibly caused by incorrect head-rest usage. Subsequent U.S. fighters have adopted more modest tilt-back angles of 20°. Because of the seat angle and the canopy's thickness, the ejection seat lacks canopy-breakers for emergency egress; instead the entire canopy is jettisoned prior to the seat's rocket firing.
The pilot flies primarily by means of an armrest-mounted side-stick controller (instead of a traditional center-mounted stick) and an engine throttle; conventional rudder pedals are also employed. To enhance the pilot's degree of control of the aircraft during high-g combat maneuvers, various switches and function controls were moved to centralized hands on throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls upon both the controllers and the throttle. Hand pressure on the side-stick controller is transmitted by electrical signals via the FBW system to adjust various flight control surfaces to maneuver the F-16. Originally, the side-stick controller was non-moving, but this proved uncomfortable and difficult for pilots to adjust to, sometimes resulting in a tendency to "over-rotate" during takeoffs, so the control stick was given a small amount of "play". Since the introduction of the F-16, HOTAS controls have become a standard feature on modern fighters.
The F-16 has a head-up display (HUD), which projects visual flight and combat information in front of the pilot without obstructing the view; being able to keep their head "out of the cockpit" improves the pilot's situation awareness. Further flight and systems information are displayed on multi-function displays (MFD). The left-hand MFD is the primary flight display (PFD), typically showing radar and moving-maps; the right-hand MFD is the system display (SD), presenting information about the engine, landing gear, slat and flap settings, and fuel and weapons status. Initially, the F-16A/B had monochrome cathode ray tube (CRT) displays; replaced by color liquid-crystal displays on the Block 50/52. The Mid-life Update (MLU) introduced compatibility with night-vision goggles (NVG). The Boeing Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) is available from Block 40 onwards, for targeting based on where the pilot's head faces, unrestricted by the HUD, using high-off-boresight missiles like the AIM-9X.
The F-16A/B was originally equipped with the Westinghouse AN/APG-66 fire-control radar. Its slotted planar array antenna was designed to be compact to fit into the F-16's relatively small nose. In uplook mode, the APG-66 uses a low pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) for medium- and high-altitude target detection in a low-clutter environment, and in look-down/shoot-down employs a medium PRF for heavy clutter environments. It has four operating frequencies within the X band, and provides four air-to-air and seven air-to-ground operating modes for combat, even at night or in bad weather. The Block 15's APG-66(V)2 model added a more powerful signal processing, higher output power, improved reliability and increased range in cluttered or jamming environments. The Mid-Life Update (MLU) program introduced a new model, APG-66(V)2A, which features higher speed and more memory.
The AN/APG-68, an evolution of the APG-66, was introduced with the F-16C/D Block 25. The APG-68 has greater range and resolution, as well as 25 operating modes, including ground-mapping, Doppler beam-sharpening, ground moving target indication, sea target, and track while scan (TWS) for up to 10 targets. The Block 40/42's APG-68(V)1 model added full compatibility with Lockheed Martin Low-Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infra-Red for Night (LANTIRN) pods, and a high-PRF pulse-Doppler track mode to provide Interrupted Continuous Wave guidance for semi-active radar-homing (SARH) missiles like the AIM-7 Sparrow. Block 50/52 F-16s initially used the more reliable APG-68(V)5 which has a programmable signal processor employing Very-High-Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) technology. The Advanced Block 50/52 (or 50+/52+) are equipped with the APG-68(V)9 radar, with a 30% greater air-to-air detection range and a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode for high-resolution mapping and target detection-recognition. In August 2004, Northrop Grumman was contracted to upgrade the APG-68 radars of Block 40/42/50/52 aircraft to the (V)10 standard, providing all-weather autonomous detection and targeting for Global Positioning System (GPS)-aided precision weapons, SAR mapping and terrain-following radar (TF) modes, as well as interleaving of all modes.
The F-16E/F is outfitted with Northrop Grumman's AN/APG-80 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. Northrop Grumman developed the latest AESA radar upgrade for the F-16 (selected for USAF and Taiwan's Republic of China Air Force F-16 upgrades), named the Scalable Agile Beam Radar (SABR) APG-83. In July 2007, Raytheon announced that it was developing a Next Generation Radar (RANGR) based on its earlier AN/APG-79 AESA radar as a competitor to Northrop Grumman's AN/APG-68 and AN/APG-80 for the F-16. On 28 February 2020, Northrop Grumman received an order from USAF to extend the service lives of their F-16s to at least 2048 with APG-83 Scalable Agile Beam Radar (SABR) as part of the service-life extension program (SLEP).
The initial powerplant selected for the single-engined F-16 was the Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-200 afterburning turbofan, a modified version of the F-15's F100-PW-100, rated at 23,830 lbf (106.0 kN) thrust. During testing, the engine was found to be prone to compressor stalls and "rollbacks", wherein the engine's thrust would spontaneously reduce to idle. Until resolved, the Air Force ordered F-16s to be operated within "dead-stick landing" distance of its bases. It was the standard F-16 engine through the Block 25, except for the newly built Block 15s with the Operational Capability Upgrade (OCU). The OCU introduced the 23,770 lbf (105.7 kN) F100-PW-220, later installed on Block 32 and 42 aircraft: the main advance being a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) unit, which improved reliability and reduced stall occurrence. Beginning production in 1988, the "-220" also supplanted the F-15's "-100", for commonality. Many of the "-220" engines on Block 25 and later aircraft were upgraded from 1997 onwards to the "-220E" standard, which enhanced reliability and maintainability; unscheduled engine removals were reduced by 35%.
The F100-PW-220/220E was the result of the USAF's Alternate Fighter Engine (AFE) program (colloquially known as "the Great Engine War"), which also saw the entry of General Electric as an F-16 engine provider. Its F110-GE-100 turbofan was limited by the original inlet to thrust of 25,735 lbf (114.5 kN), the Modular Common Inlet Duct allowed the F110 to achieve its maximum thrust of 28,984 lbf (128.9 kN). (To distinguish between aircraft equipped with these two engines and inlets, from the Block 30 series on, blocks ending in "0" (e.g., Block 30) are powered by GE, and blocks ending in "2" (e.g., Block 32) are fitted with Pratt & Whitney engines.)
The Increased Performance Engine (IPE) program led to the 29,588 lbf (131.6 kN) F110-GE-129 on the Block 50 and 29,160 lbf (129.4 kN) F100-PW-229 on the Block 52. F-16s began flying with these IPE engines in the early 1990s. Altogether, of the 1,446 F-16C/Ds ordered by the USAF, 556 were fitted with F100-series engines and 890 with F110s. The United Arab Emirates' Block 60 is powered by the General Electric F110-GE-132 turbofan with a maximum thrust of 32,500 lbf (144.6 kN), the highest thrust engine developed for the F-16.
F-16s have participated in numerous conflicts, most of them in the Middle East.
The F-16 is being used by the active duty USAF, Air Force Reserve, and Air National Guard units, the USAF aerial demonstration team, the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds, and as an adversary-aggressor aircraft by the United States Navy at the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center.
The U.S. Air Force, including the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard, flew the F-16 in combat during Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and in the Balkans later in the 1990s. F-16s also patrolled the no-fly zones in Iraq during Operations Northern Watch and Southern Watch and served during the War in Afghanistan and the War in Iraq from 2001 and 2003 respectively. In 2011, Air Force F-16s took part in the intervention in Libya.
On 11 September 2001, two unarmed F-16s were launched in an attempt to ram and down United Airlines Flight 93 before it reached Washington D.C. during the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, but Flight 93 was brought down by the passengers first, so the F-16s were retasked to patrol the local airspace and later escorted Air Force 1 back to Washington.[importance?]
The F-16 had been scheduled to remain in service with the U.S. Air Force until 2025. Its replacement was planned to be the F-35A variant of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, which is expected to gradually begin replacing several multi-role aircraft among the program's member nations. However, owing to delays in the F-35 program, all USAF F-16s will receive service life extension upgrades. In 2022, it was announced the USAF would continue to operate the F-16 for another two decades.
The F-16's first air-to-air combat success was achieved by the Israeli Air Force (IAF) over the Bekaa Valley on 28 April 1981, against a Syrian Mi-8 helicopter, which was downed with cannon fire. On 7 June 1981, eight Israeli F-16s, escorted by six F-15s, executed Operation Opera, their first employment in a significant air-to-ground operation. This raid severely damaged Osirak, an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction near Baghdad, to prevent the regime of Saddam Hussein from using the reactor for the creation of nuclear weapons.
The following year, during the 1982 Lebanon War Israeli F-16s engaged Syrian aircraft in one of the largest air battles involving jet aircraft, which began on 9 June and continued for two more days. Israeli Air Force F-16s were credited with 44 air-to-air kills during the conflict.
In January 2000, Israel completed a purchase of 102 new F-16I aircraft in a deal totaling $4.5 billion. F-16s were also used in their ground-attack role for strikes against targets in Lebanon. IAF F-16s participated in the 2006 Lebanon War and the 2008–09 Gaza War. During and after the 2006 Lebanon war, IAF F-16s shot down Iranian-made UAVs launched by Hezbollah, using Rafael Python 5 air-to-air missiles.
On 10 February 2018, an Israeli Air Force F-16I was shot down in northern Israel when it was hit by a relatively old model S-200 (NATO name SA-5 Gammon) surface-to-air missile of the Syrian Air Defense Force. The pilot and navigator ejected safely in Israeli territory. The F-16I was part of a bombing mission against Syrian and Iranian targets around Damascus after an Iranian drone entered Israeli air space and was shot down. An Israel Air Force investigation determined on 27 February 2018 that the loss was due to pilot error since the IAF determined the air crew did not adequately defend themselves.
During the Soviet–Afghan War, PAF F-16As shot down between 20-30 Soviet & Afghan warplanes however the political situation resulted in PAF officially recognising only 9 kills which were made inside Pakistani airspace. From May 1986 to January 1989, PAF F-16s from the Tail Choppers and Griffin squadrons using mostly AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles, shot down four Afghan Su-22s, two MiG-23s, one Su-25, and one An-26s. Most of these kills were by missiles, but at least one, a Su-22, was destroyed by cannon fire. One F-16 was lost in these battles.
On 7 June 2002, a Pakistan Air Force F-16B Block 15 (S. No. 82-605) shot down an Indian Air Force unmanned aerial vehicle, an Israeli-made Searcher II, using an AIM-9L Sidewinder missile, during a night interception near Lahore
The Pakistan Air Force has used its F-16s in various foreign and internal military exercises, such as the "Indus Vipers" exercise in 2008 conducted jointly with Turkey.
Between May 2009 and November 2011[update], the PAF F-16 fleet flew more than 5,500 sorties[needs update] in support of the Pakistan Army's operations against the Taliban insurgency in the FATA region of North-West Pakistan. More than 80% of the dropped munitions were laser-guided bombs.
On 27 February 2019, following a Pakistan air force airstrike in Kashmir, Pakistani officials said that two of its fighter jets shot down one MiG-21 and one Su-30MKI belonging to the Indian Air Force. Indian officials only confirmed the loss of one MiG-21 but denied losing any Su-30MKI in the clash. Additionally Indian officials also claimed to have shot down one F-16 belonging to Pakistan air force. This was denied by the Pakistani side and later backed by a report by Foreign Policy magazine, reporting that the US had completed a physical count of Pakistan's F-16s and found none missing. A report by the Washington Post noted that the Pentagon and State Department refused public comment on the matter but did not deny the earlier report.
The Turkish Air Force acquired its first F-16s in 1987. F-16s were later produced in Turkey under four phases of Peace Onyx programs. In 2015, they were upgraded to Block 50/52+ with CCIP by Turkish Aerospace Industries. Turkish F-16s are being fitted with indigenous AESA radars and EW suite called SPEWS-II.
On 18 June 1992, a Greek Mirage F-1 crashed during a dogfight with a Turkish F-16. On 8 February 1995, a Turkish F-16 crashed into the Aegean sea after being intercepted by Greek Mirage F1 fighters.
On 8 October 1996, seven months after the escalation a Greek Mirage 2000 reportedly fired an R.550 Magic II missile and shot down a Turkish F-16D over the Aegean Sea near Chios island. The Turkish pilot died, while the co-pilot ejected and was rescued by Greek forces. In August 2012, after the downing of a RF-4E on the Syrian Coast, Turkish Defence Minister İsmet Yılmaz confirmed that the Turkish F-16D was shot down by a Greek Mirage 2000 with an R.550 Magic II in 1996 near Chios island. Greece denies that the F-16 was shot down. Both Mirage 2000 pilots reported that the F-16 caught fire and they saw one parachute.
On 23 May 2006, two Greek F-16s intercepted a Turkish RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft and two F-16 escorts off the coast of the Greek island of Karpathos, within the Athens FIR. A mock dogfight ensued between the two sides, resulting in a midair collision between a Turkish F-16 and a Greek F-16. The Turkish pilot ejected safely, but the Greek pilot died owing to damage caused by the collision.
Turkey used its F-16s extensively in its conflict with Kurdish insurgents in southeastern parts of Turkey and Iraq. Turkey launched its first cross-border raid on 16 December 2007, a prelude to the 2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq, involving 50 fighters before Operation Sun. This was the first time Turkey had mounted a night-bombing operation on a massive scale, and also the largest operation conducted by the Turkish Air Force.
During the Syrian Civil War, Turkish F-16s were tasked with airspace protection on the Syrian border. After the RF-4 downing in June 2012 Turkey changed its rules of engagement against Syrian aircraft, resulting in scrambles and downings of Syrian combat aircraft. On 16 September 2013, a Turkish Air Force F-16 shot down a Syrian Arab Air Force Mil Mi-17 helicopter in Latakia Governorate near the Turkish border. On 23 March 2014, a Turkish Air Force F-16 shot down a Syrian Arab Air Force Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 when it allegedly entered Turkish air space during a ground attack mission against Al Qaeda-linked insurgents. On 16 May 2015, Two Turkish Air Force F-16s shot down a Syrian Mohajer 4 UAV firing two AIM-9 missiles after it trespassed into Turkish airspace for 5 minutes. A Turkish Air Force F-16 shot down a Russian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 on the Turkey-Syria border on 24 November 2015.
On 1 March 2020, two Syrian Sukhoi Su-24s were shot down by Turkish Air Force F-16s using air-to-air missiles over Syria's Idlib Governorate. All four pilots safely ejected. On 3 March 2020, a Syrian Arab Army Air Force L-39 combat trainer was shot down by a Turkish F-16 over Syria's Idlib province. The pilot died.
As a part of Turkish F-16 modernization program new air to air missiles are being developed and tested for the aircraft. GÖKTUĞ program led by TUBITAK SAGE has presented two types of air to air missiles named as Bozdogan (Merlin) and Gokdogan (Peregrine). While Bozdogan has been categorized as a Within Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (WVRAAM), Gokdogan is a Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air-Missile (BVRAAM). On 14 April 2021, first live test exercise of Bozdogan have successfully completed and the first batch of missiles are expected to be delivered throughout the same year to the Turkish Air Force.
On 16 February 2015, Egyptian F-16s struck weapons caches and training camps of the Islamic State (ISIS) in Libya in retaliation for the murder of 21 Egyptian Coptic Christian construction workers by masked militants affiliated with ISIS. The air strikes killed 64 ISIS fighters, including three leaders in Derna and Sirte on the coast.
A Yugoslavian MiG-29 was shot down by a Dutch F-16AM during the Kosovo War in 1999. Belgian and Danish F-16s also participated in joint operations over Kosovo during the war. Dutch, Belgian, Danish, and Norwegian F-16s were deployed during the 2011 intervention in Libya and in Afghanistan. In Libya, Norwegian F-16s dropped almost 550 bombs and flew 596 missions, some 17% of the total strike missions including the bombing of Muammar Gaddafi's headquarters.
The Royal Moroccan Air Force and the Royal Bahraini Air Force each lost a single F-16C, both shot down by Houthis anti aircraft fire during the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, respectively on 11 May 2015 and on 30 December 2015.
In late March 2018, Croatia announced its intention to purchase 12 used Israeli F-16C/D "Barak"/"Brakeet" jets, pending U.S. approval. Acquiring these F-16s would allow Croatia to retire its aging MiG-21s.
On 11 July 2018, Slovakia's government approved the purchase of 14 F-16s Block 70/72 to replace its aging fleet of Soviet-made MiG-29s. A contract was signed on 12 December 2018 in Bratislava.
F-16 models are denoted by increasing block numbers to denote upgrades. The blocks cover both single- and two-seat versions. A variety of software, hardware, systems, weapons compatibility, and structural enhancements have been instituted over the years to gradually upgrade production models and retrofit delivered aircraft.
While many F-16s were produced according to these block designs, there have been many other variants with significant changes, usually because of modification programs. Other changes have resulted in role-specialization, such as the close air support and reconnaissance variants. Several models were also developed to test new technology. The F-16 design also inspired the design of other aircraft, which are considered derivatives. Older F-16s are being converted into QF-16 drone targets.
- The F-16A (single seat) and F-16B (two seat) were initial production variants. These variants include the Block 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 versions. Block 15 was the first major change to the F-16 with larger horizontal stabilizers. It is the most numerous of all F-16 variants with 475 produced. Many F-16A and B aircraft have been upgraded to the Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) Block 20 standard, becoming functionally equivalent to mid-production C/D models.
- The F-16C (single seat) and F-16D (two seat) variants entered production in 1984. The first C/D version was the Block 25 with improved cockpit avionics and radar which added all-weather capability with beyond-visual-range (BVR) AIM-7 and AIM-120 air-air missiles. Block 30/32, 40/42, and 50/52 were later C/D versions. The F-16C/D had a unit cost of US$18.8 million (1998). Operational cost per flight hour has been estimated at $7,000 to $22,470 or $24,000, depending on calculation method.
- The F-16E (single seat) and F-16F (two seat) are newer F-16 Block 60 variants based on the F-16C/D Block 50/52. The United Arab Emirates invested heavily in its development. It features improved AN/APG-80 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, avionics, conformal fuel tanks (CFTs), and the more powerful General Electric F110-GE-132 engine.[N 1]
- For the Indian MRCA competition for the Indian Air Force, Lockheed Martin offered the F-16IN Super Viper. The F-16IN is based on the F-16E/F Block 60 and features conformal fuel tanks; AN/APG-80 AESA radar, GE F110-GE-132A engine with FADEC controls; electronic warfare suite and Infra-red search and track (IRST) unit; updated glass cockpit; and a helmet-mounted cueing system. As of 2011, the F-16IN is no longer in the competition. In 2016, Lockheed Martin offered the new F-16 Block 70/72 version to India under the Make in India program. In 2016, Indian government offered to purchase 200 (potentially up to 300) fighters in a deal worth $13–15bn. As of 2017, Lockheed Martin has agreed to manufacture F-16 Block 70 fighters in India with the Indian defense firm Tata Advanced Systems Limited. The new production line could be used to build F-16s for India and for exports.
- In September 2010, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency informed the United States Congress of a possible Foreign Military Sale of 18 F-16IQ aircraft along with the associated equipment and services to the newly reformed Iraqi Air Force. Total value of sale is estimated at US$4.2 billion.
- The F-16N was an adversary aircraft operated by the United States Navy. It is based on the standard F-16C/D Block 30 and is powered by the General Electric F110-GE-100 engine, and is capable of supercruise. The F-16N has a strengthened wing and is capable of carrying an Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation (ACMI) pod on the starboard wingtip. Although the single-seat F-16Ns and twin-seat (T)F-16Ns are based on the early-production small-inlet Block 30 F-16C/D airframe, they retain the APG-66 radar of the F-16A/B. In addition, the aircraft's 20 mm cannon has been removed, as has the ASPJ, and they carry no missiles. Their EW fit consists of an ALR-69 radar warning receiver (RWR) and an ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser. The F-16Ns and (T)F-16Ns have the standard Air Force tailhook and undercarriage and are not aircraft carrier capable. Production totaled 26 airframes, of which 22 are single-seat F-16Ns and four are twin-seat TF-16Ns. The initial batch of aircraft were in service between 1988 and 1998. At that time, hairline cracks were discovered in several bulkheads and the Navy did not have the resources to replace them, so the aircraft were eventually retired, with one aircraft sent to the collection of the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola, Florida, and the remainder placed in storage at Davis-Monthan AFB. These aircraft were later replaced by embargoed ex-Pakistani F-16s in 2003. The original inventory of F-16Ns were previously operated by adversary squadrons at NAS Oceana, Virginia; NAS Key West, Florida and the former NAS Miramar, California. The current F-16A/B aircraft are operated by the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center at NAS Fallon, Nevada.
- At the 2012 Singapore Air Show, Lockheed Martin unveiled plans for the new F-16V variant with the V suffix for its Viper nickname. It features an AN/APG-83 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, a new mission computer and electronic warfare suite, automated ground collision avoidance system, and various cockpit improvements; this package is an option on current production F-16s and can be retrofitted to most in service F-16s. First flight took place 21 October 2015. Lockheed and AIDC both invested in the development of the aircraft and will share revenue from all sales and upgrades. Upgrades to Taiwan's F-16 fleet began in January 2017. The first country to confirm the purchase of 16 new F-16V Block 70/72 was Bahrain. Greece announced the upgrade of 84 F-16C/D Block 52+ and Block 52+ Advanced (Block 52M) to the latest V (Block 70/72) variant in October 2017. Slovakia announced on 11 July 2018 that it intends to purchase 14 F-16V Block 70/72 aircraft. Lockheed Martin has redesignated the F-16V Block 70 as the "F-21" in its offering for India's fighter requirement. Taiwan's Republic of China Air Force announced on 19 March 2019 that it formally requested the purchase of an additional 66 F-16V jets. The Trump administration approved the sale on 20 August 2019. On 14 August 2020, Lockheed Martin was awarded a US$62 billion contract by the US DoD that includes 66 new F-16s at US$8 billion for Taiwan.
- In September 2013, Boeing and the U.S. Air Force tested an unmanned F-16, with two US Air Force pilots controlling the airplane from the ground as it flew from Tyndall AFB over the Gulf of Mexico.
- Vought Model 1600
- Proposed naval variant
- General Dynamics F-16XL
- 1980s technology demonstrator
- General Dynamics NF-16D VISTA
- 1990s experimental fighter
- Mitsubishi F-2
- 1990s Japanese multi-role fighter based on the F-16
By July 2010, there had been 4,500 F-16s delivered.
- Italy – Italian Air Force leased up to 30 F-16As and 4 F-16Bs from the USAF from 2001 until 2012.
- Norway – Royal Norwegian Air Force on 6 January 2022, Norway announced that all F-16s had been retired.
Notable accidents and incidents
- On 8 May 1975, while practicing a 9-g aerial display maneuver with the second YF-16 (tail number 72-1568) at Fort Worth, Texas, prior to being sent to the Paris Air Show, one of the main landing gears jammed. The test pilot, Neil Anderson, had to perform an emergency gear-up landing and chose to do so in the grass, hoping to minimize damage and to avoid injuring any observers. The aircraft was only slightly damaged, but because of the mishap the first prototype was sent to the Paris Air Show in its place.
- On 15 November 1982, while on a training flight outside Kunsan Air Base in South Korea, USAF Captain Ted Harduvel died when he crashed inverted into a mountain ridge. In 1985, Harduvel's widow filed a lawsuit against General Dynamics claiming an electrical malfunction, not pilot error, as the cause; a jury awarded the plaintiff $3.4 million in damages. However, in 1989, the U.S. Court of Appeals ruled the contractor had immunity to lawsuits, overturning the previous judgment. The court remanded the case to the trial court "for entry of judgment in favor of General Dynamics". The accident and subsequent trial was the subject of the 1992 film Afterburn.
- On 23 March 1994, during a joint Army-Air Force exercise at Pope AFB, North Carolina, F-16D (AF Serial No. 88-0171) of the 23d Fighter Wing / 74th Fighter Squadron was simulating an engine-out approach when it collided with a USAF C-130E. Both F-16 crew members ejected, but their aircraft, on full afterburner, continued on an arc towards Green Ramp and struck a USAF C-141 that was being boarded by US Army paratroopers. This accident resulted in 24 fatalities and at least 100 others injured. It has since been known as the "Green Ramp disaster".
- On 15 September 2003, a USAF Thunderbirds F-16C crashed during an air show at Mountain Home AFB, Idaho. Captain Christopher Stricklin attempted a "split S" maneuver based on an incorrect mean-sea-level altitude of the airfield. Climbing to only 1,670 ft (510 m) above ground level instead of 2,500 ft (760 m), Stricklin had insufficient altitude to complete the maneuver, but was able to guide the aircraft away from spectators and ejected less than one second before impact. Stricklin survived with only minor injuries; the aircraft was destroyed. USAF procedure for demonstration "Split-S" maneuvers was changed, requiring both pilots and controllers to use above-ground-level (AGL) altitudes.
- On 26 January 2015, a Greek F-16D crashed while performing a NATO training exercise in Albacete, Spain. Both crew members and nine French soldiers on the ground died when it crashed in the flight-line, destroying or damaging two Italian AMXs, two French Alpha jets, and one French Mirage 2000.
- On 7 July 2015, an F-16CJ collided with a Cessna 150M over Moncks Corner, South Carolina, U.S. The pilot of the F-16 ejected safely, but both people in the Cessna were killed.
- On 11 October 2018, an F-16 MLU from the 2nd Tactical Wing of the Belgian Air Component, on the apron at Florennes Air Station, was hit by a gun burst from a nearby F-16, whose cannon was fired inadvertently during maintenance. The aircraft caught fire and was burned to the ground, while two other F-16s were damaged and two maintenance personnel were treated for aural trauma.
- On 11 March 2020, a Pakistani F-16AM (Serial No. 92730) belonging to the No. 9 Squadron (Pakistan Air Force) crashed in the Shakarparian area of Islamabad during rehearsals for the Pakistan Day Parade. The plane crashed when the F-16 was executing an aerobatic loop. As a result, the pilot of the F-16, Wing Commander Noman Akram, who was also the Commanding Officer of the No. 9 Squadron "Griffins", lost his life. A board of inquiry ordered by the Pakistan Air Force later revealed that the pilot had every chance to eject but opted not to and tried his best to save the aircraft and avoid civilian casualties on the ground. Videos taken by locals on the ground show his F-16AM crashing into some woods. He was hailed a hero by Pakistanis while also gaining some attraction internationally.
Aircraft on display
- FA-01 – On display at the Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History in Brussels, Belgium
- FA-16 – On display at Kleine Brogel Air Base
- FA-55 – On display at the Chateau de Savigny les Beaune in Beaune, France. A former Belgian Air Force example.
- FA-113 – On display at Beauvechain Air Base.
- F-16A Netz 107 – on display at the Israeli Air Force Museum in Hatzerim Airbase, Beer Sheva. This F-16 was credited with 6.5 shoot-downs of enemy aircraft and took part in Operation Opera in which the Iraqi nuclear reactor was destroyed.
- TS-1643 – On display at the Roesmin Nurjadin Air Force Base in Pekanbaru, Riau. This F-16 was previously crashed and then burned because of a technical problem when taking off from Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport and suffered total loss from the incident.
- 15150 – On display at Monte Real Air Base, Portugal
- J-215 of the RNLAF on display at the National Military museum at former airbase Soesterberg.
- J-228 of the RNLAF on pylon display past the Leeuwarden Airbase Main Gate entry road.
- J-240 of the RNLAF on pylon display past the Volkel Airbase Main Gate on the entry road.
- J-246 of the RNLAF on pylon display on the N264 / Zeelandsedijk roundabout near the Volkel Airbase Main Gate entry.
- 674 of the RNoAF at the Norwegian Aviation Museum, Bodø. According to the web page, the plane is as of November 2022, not yet part of the exhibition.
- 687 of the RNoAF at the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection, Gardermoen.
- 79-0324 – On display at Royal Thai Air Force Museum, Thailand.
- 79-0375 – On display at Navaminda Kasatriyadhiraj Royal Thai Air Force Academy, Thailand.
- 72-1567 – Virginia Air and Space Center, Hampton, Virginia
- 72-1568 – under restoration for display at the Fort Worth Aviation Museum in Fort Worth, Texas.
- YF-16A (Full-Scale Development)
- 75-0745 – Used as a traveling exhibit, on loan from the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
- 75-0746 – Pylon-mounted gate guard, McEntire Air National Guard Base, South Carolina
- 75-0748 – Cadet Area Terrazzo, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado
- 75-0750 – Experimental Aircraft Display Hangar, National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
- YF-16B (FSD)
- 75-0751 – under restoration at the Air Force Flight Center Museum, Edwards AFB, California.
- 75-0752 – Frontiers of Flight Museum, Dallas, Texas
- 78-0001 – Langley AFB Memorial Park, Langley AFB, Virginia. First production model F-16A delivered to USAF.
- 78-0005 – 162d Fighter Wing Park, Tucson Air National Guard Base, Arizona
- 78-0025 – Valiant Air Command Warbird Museum, Titusville, FL. Formerly a gate guard, Burlington Air National Guard Base, Vermont
- 78-0042 – Gate guard, Montgomery Air National Guard Base/Dannelly Field, Alabama
- 78-0052 – Eielson AFB Heritage Park, Eielson AFB, Alaska
- 78-0059 – Selfridge Military Air Museum and Air Park, Selfridge ANGB, Michigan
- 78-0061 – Highland Home "Flying Squadron" High School Football Field, Highland Home, Alabama
- 78-0065 – 388th Fighter Wing and 419th Fighter Wing combined Headquarters, Hill AFB, Utah
- 78-0066 – On display in Kansas Air National Guard Memorial Park area, McConnell AFB, Kansas
- 79-0290 – On display at Great Falls Air National Guard Base, Montana.
- 79-0296 – Gate guard, Jacksonville Air National Guard Base, Florida
- 79-0307 – On display at Cannon AFB Air Park, Cannon AFB, New Mexico
- 79-0309 – Base park area adjacent to USAFCENT Headquarters, Shaw AFB, South Carolina. Painted as 20th Fighter Wing F-16C 93–0534. Memorial to Maj Brinson Phillips, 20 FW, killed 19 March 2000 while flying F-16C 93-0534
- 79-0312 – On pylon display, 8th Street Park, Douglas, Arizona
- 79-0326 – Gate guard, Homestead Air Reserve Base, Florida
- 79-0327 – Pedestal mounted memorial, Luke AFB, Arizona. Painted in 302d Fighter Squadron markings, to include World War II Tuskegee Airmen "Red Tails" empennage
- 79-0334 – USS Alabama Battleship Memorial Park, Mobile, Alabama
- 79-0337 – Ground-mobile static display aircraft, normally located at Hancock Field Air National Guard Base, New York. Used by New York Air National Guard's 174th Attack Wing (former 174th Fighter Wing) at fairs and expositions for Air National Guard recruiting.
- 79-0352 – On static display with 23d Wing at Moody AFB, Georgia
- 79-0366 – Memorial park static display, Mountain Home AFB, Idaho
- 79-0373 – On display at Buckley Space Force Base, Colorado. Aircraft painted in markings of Colorado Air National Guard's 140th Fighter Wing based at Buckley SFB.
- 79-0388 – Hill Aerospace Museum, Hill AFB, Utah
- 79-0402 – Hill Aerospace Museum, Hill AFB, Utah
- 79-0403 – Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum, New York City, New York
- 80-0481 – Display on Parade Ground, Sheppard AFB, Texas
- 80-0527 – Former Arizona Air National Guard 162d Fighter Wing aircraft destined for transfer to/display at the Pima Air and Space Museum, Tucson, Arizona.
- 80-0528 – City park in Pinellas Park, Florida. Painted in markings of 56th Tactical Training Wing-cum-56th Fighter Wing, previously assigned to nearby MacDill AFB in the 1980s and early 1990s.
- 80-0573 – Air Force Armament Museum, Eglin AFB, Florida
- 80-0612 – Memorial park static display at Puerto Rico National Guard's Camp Santiago, Salinas, Puerto Rico. Former Puerto Rico Air National Guard F-16ADF, painted in markings of PRANG's former 198th Fighter Squadron, but marked as 81612.
- 81-0663 – On display in United States Air Force Thunderbirds markings at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio.
- 81-0676 – Museum of Aviation, Robins AFB, Warner Robins, Georgia
- 81-0721 – MacDill AFB Memorial Park, MacDill AFB, Florida. Former Florida Air National Guard 125th Fighter Wing F-16ADF repainted in markings of a 56th Fighter Wing F-16A previously assigned to MacDill in the 1980s.
- 81-0807 – On display at Minnesota Air National Guard Museum, Saint Paul, Minnesota.
- 82-0926 – On display at Fargo Air National Guard Base, Fargo, North Dakota.
- 82-0930 – On display at Ellington Field Joint Reserve Base, Houston, Texas
- 78-0088 – On display at the Naval Air Station Wildwood Aviation Museum, Cape May County Airport, New Jersey
- 78-0101 – On display at United States Space Camp / Aviation Challenge, Huntsville, Alabama
- 78-0107 – On display adjacent to Parade Ground, Lackland AFB, Texas
- 79-0430 – Stafford Air & Space Museum, Weatherford, Oklahoma
- 80-0633 – Yanks Air Museum, Chino, California.
- 81-0816 – Pylon display gate guard, Atlantic City Air National Guard Base, New Jersey
- 81-0817 – Russell Military Museum, Russell, Illinois.
- 83-1126 – Pylon display at Hill Memorial Park, Hill AFB, Utah
- 84-1264 – Air park display, Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station, Indiana. Aircraft retains Air Force Heritage paint scheme honoring 358th Fighter Group during World War II.
- 84-1393 – Pylon display at Texas National Guard's Camp Mabry, Austin, Texas. Former Texas Air National Guard 147th Fighter Wing/111th Fighter Squadron aircraft.
- 85-1469 – Static display at Joe Foss Field Air National Guard Station, South Dakota
- 87-0255 – On display adjacent to 149th Fighter Wing, Lackland AFB, Texas
- 87-0323 – Preserved as Thunderbird 1 in front of the USAF Air Demonstration Squadron/United States Air Force Thunderbirds hangar, Nellis AFB, Nevada. Assigned to Thunderbirds in the 1992–2008 timeframe. Had number 1 attached on 11 June 1999; number 2 in the 2004 season; number 3 on 3 March 2003 and number 4 on 1 April 2005.
- 163269 – San Diego Aerospace Museum, San Diego, California
- 163271 – Pacific Coast Air Museum, Santa Rosa, California
- 163277 – Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California
- 163569 – NAS Fort Worth JRB, Fort Worth, Texas. It is painted in USAFR colors of the 457th FS, 301st FW.
- 163572 – National Naval Aviation Museum, Naval Air Station Pensacola, Pensacola, Florida
- 163576 – Air Power Park, Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada
Specifications (F-16C Block 50 and 52)
- Crew: 1
- Length: 49 ft 5 in (15.06 m)
- Wingspan: 32 ft 8 in (9.96 m)
- Height: 16 ft (4.9 m)
- Wing area: 300 sq ft (28 m2)
- Airfoil: NACA 64A204
- Empty weight: 18,900 lb (8,573 kg)
- Gross weight: 26,500 lb (12,020 kg)
- Max takeoff weight: 42,300 lb (19,187 kg)
- Fuel capacity: 7,000 pounds (3,200 kg) internals
- Payload: 15,800 lb (7,167 kg)
- Powerplant: 1 × General Electric F110-GE-129 for Block 50 aircraft afterburning turbofan, 17,155 lbf (76.31 kN) thrust dry, 29,500 lbf (131 kN) with afterburner
(1 × Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 for Block 52 aircraft, 17,800 lbf (79 kN) thrust dry and 29,160 lbf (129.7 kN) with afterburner.)
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.05, 1,176 kn (1,353 mph; 2,178 km/h) at 40,000 feet, clean
- Mach 1.2, 800 kn (921 mph; 1,482 km/h) at sea level
- Combat range: 295 nmi (339 mi, 546 km) on a hi-lo-hi mission with 4 × 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs
- Ferry range: 2,277 nmi (2,620 mi, 4,217 km) with drop tanks
- Service ceiling: 58,000 ft (18,000 m)[failed verification]
- g limits: +9.0
- Roll rate: 324°/s
- Wing loading: 88.3 lb/sq ft (431 kg/m2)
- Thrust/weight: 1.095 (1.24 with loaded weight & 50% internal fuel)
- Guns: 1 × 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A1 Vulcan 6-barrel rotary cannon, 511 rounds
- Hardpoints: 2 × wing-tip air-to-air missile launch rails, 6 × under-wing, and 3 × under-fuselage pylon (2 of 3 for sensors) stations with a capacity of up to 17,000 lb (7,700 kg) of stores
- Air-to-air missiles:
- Air-to-surface missiles:
- Anti-ship missiles:
- 8 × CBU-87 Combined Effects Munition
- 8 × CBU-89 Gator mine
- 8 × CBU-97 Sensor Fuzed Weapon
- 4 × Mark 84 general-purpose bombs
- 8 × Mark 83 GP bombs
- 12 × Mark 82 GP bombs
- 8 × GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb (SDB)
- 4 × GBU-10 Paveway II
- 6 × GBU-12 Paveway II
- 4 × GBU-24 Paveway III
- 4 × GBU-27 Paveway III
- 4 × Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) series
- Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD)
- B61 nuclear bomb
- B83 nuclear bomb
- SUU-42A/A Flares/Infrared decoys dispenser pod and chaff pod or
- AN/ALQ-131 & AN/ALQ-184 ECM pods on centerline or
- LANTIRN, Lockheed Martin Sniper XR & LITENING targeting pods or
- AN/ASQ-213 HARM Targeting System (HTS) Pod (typically configured on station 5L with Sniper XR pod on station 5R) or
- Up to 3 × 300/330/370/600 US gallon Sargent Fletcher drop tanks for ferry flight/extended range/loitering time or
- UTC Aerospace DB-110 long range EO/IR sensor pod on centerline
- AN/APG-68 radar, being replaced on US Air Force F-16C/D Block 40/42 and 50/52 by AN/APG-83 SABR
- AN/ALR-56M radar warning receiver
- AN/ALQ-213 electronic warfare suite
- MIL-STD-1553 bus
Notable appearances in media
- 4th generation jet fighter
- Green Ramp disaster
- David S. Lewis (General Dynamics' CEO during formative period for F-16)
- RSAF Black Knights – F-16 Aerobatic Team
- Vought Model 1600
- General Dynamics F-16XL
- General Dynamics X-62 VISTA
- AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo
- KAI T-50 Golden Eagle
- Mitsubishi F-2
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era
- Chengdu J-10
- Dassault Mirage 2000
- McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet
- Mikoyan MiG-29
- PAC/CAC JF-17 Thunder
- Saab JAS 39 Gripen
- Weisgerber, Marcus (22 March 2007). "Lockheed to Move F-16 Production to South Carolina". Defense One. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "How the F-16 fighter jet put Fort Worth on the aerospace map". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2017.
- "Lockheed Martin Awarded Contract to Build F-16 Block 70 Aircraft for Bahrain". Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "Lockheed Martin to deliver 4,500th F-16 fighter". McClatchy DC. 2 April 2012. Archived from the original on 31 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon – International Users". Global Security. Archived from the original on 24 August 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- Rosenwald, Michael S. "Downside of Dominance? Popularity of Lockheed Martin's F-16 Makes Its F-35 Stealth Jet a Tough Sell." Archived 14 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Washington Post, updated 17 December 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- "Company Histories – Lockheed Martin Corporation". Funding universe. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Aleshire 2005, p. xxii.
- Peacock 1997, p. 100.
- Stout, Joe and Laurie Quincy. "United States Government Awards Lockheed Martin Contract to Begin Production of Advanced F-16 Aircraft for Morocco." Archived 4 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Lockheed Martin press release, 8 June 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2008.
- "Strength in numbers: The World's Top 10 military aircraft types". FlightGlobal. 9 January 2015. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Spick 2000, p. 190.
- Hillaker, Harry. "John Boyd, USAF Retired, Father of the F-16". Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2008. Code One: An Airpower Projection Magazine, April/July 1997. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Code One, April & July 1991. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Richardson 1990, pp. 7–8.
- Coram 2002, pp. 245–46.
- Bjorkman, Eileen, Small fast and in your face, Air & Space, Feb/March 2014, pp. 28–35
- Peacock 1997, pp. 9–10.
- Richardson 1990, pp. 7–9.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 10–11.
- Richardson 1990, pp. 8–9.
- Martin, Douglas. "Robert H. Widmer, Designer of Military Aircraft, Dies at 95." Archived 28 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, 2 July 2011.
- Mizokami, Kyle (23 January 2020). "That Time When the F-16 Accidentally Had Its First Flight". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
- Richardson 1990, pp. 12–13.
- Jenkins 2000, p. 14.
- Osborne, Phil, Executive Producer. "F-16 Fighting Falcon" (video #9-315842-037444). Magna Pacific, 2009. Quote: At 17:29, "Another development, which both manufacturers were aware of, was the aging F-104 Starfighters, which equip several European NATO air forces, would soon need to be replaced."
- Jenkins 2000, pp. 14–15, 19–20.
- Richardson 1990, p. 14.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 12–13.
- "YF-16 The Birth of a Fighter". f-16.net. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- Dörfer, Ingemar. "The Selling of the F-16." Archived 17 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Foreignaffairs.com, 1983. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- Coram 2002, p. 305.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 13–16.
- Richardson 1990, p. 13.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 14, 17–19, 33–34.
- Donald, David ed. "Boeing F/A-18 Hornet". Warplanes of the Fleet. London: AIRtime, 2004. ISBN 1-880588-81-1.
- Darling 2003, p. 17.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 31–32.
- Spick 2000, p. 196.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 17–19, 33–34.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 14–16, 21.
- Richardson 1990, pp. 13–15.
- "Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon." Jane's All The World's Aircraft, updated 21 January 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- Fuquay, Jim. "Iraq to buy 18 more Lockheed F-16 fighters." Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Star-Telegram, 1 May 2013.
- Chambers, Joseph R. "Lockheed Martin F-16 Fighting Falcon: Curing Deep Stall", Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s."; Monographs in Aerospace History Number 19, The NASA History Series (NASA SP-2000-4519). Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, 2000. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
- Darling 2003, p. 56.
- Camm, Frank. "The F-16 Multinational Staged Improvement Program: A Case Study of Risk Assessment and Risk Management," (Accession No. ADA281706). Archived 16 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine RAND Corp, 1993. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- Wolf, Jim. "U.S. plans $2.8 billion upgrade of F-16 fighter." Archived 2 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine Reuters, 2 February 2012.
- Reed Business Information Limited (13 September 2013). "Savings in aircraft losses swing the argument in favour of auto-GCAS". Archived from the original on 17 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "DoD clears AESA export policy as F-16 sales await". Reed Business Information Limited. 4 February 2009. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "BAE Wins Korean F-16 Upgrade Contract". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Continuing to Provide Critical F-16 Support Equipment to Oman". Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "BAE Systems Growing Steadily in Defense Services By Beating Incumbents". Forbes. 12 August 2013. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Waldron, Greg (6 November 2014). "South Korea kills BAE Systems F-16 upgrade programme". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Majumdar, Dave. "US Air Force changes acquisitions strategy for F-16 radar modernization." Archived 15 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Flight Global, 12 October 2012.
- "New Mega Display Cleared for F-16s' Primary Flight Reference". defense-update.com. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Minnick, Wendell (19 September 2013). "US Budget Woes Could Affect Taiwan F-16 Upgrades". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- MINNICK, WENDELL; MEHTA, AARON (2 February 2014). "Unfunded F-16 Upgrades Put Jet's Combat Value in Doubt". Defense News. Gannett Government Media. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Waldron, Greg (11 February 2014). "SINGAPORE: Lockheed offers fixed-price F-16 upgrade". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- MINNICK, WENDELL; MEHTA, AARON (8 March 2014). "Taiwan Faces Tough Choices After US Cancels F-16 Upgrade". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- MEHTA, AARON (19 March 2014). "USAF: Taiwan Will Still Receive F-16 Radar Upgrades". defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media. Archived from the original on 21 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Parsons, Dan (9 October 2014). "US Air Force moves ahead with F-16 service life extension". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- Baker, Max (24 November 2017). "How the F-16 fighter jet put Fort Worth on the aerospace map". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Baker, Max (22 March 2017). "Lockheed Martin to shift F-16 production line to South Carolina". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "F-16 Fact Sheet". U.S. Air Force. 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- Hillaker, Harry J. "Technology and the F-16 Fighting Falcon Jet Fighter." Archived 28 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine nae.edu. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- Richardson 1990, p. 10.
- Ibrahim, I.H.; Ng, E.Y.K.; Wong, K. (19 November 2014). "Flight Maneuverability Characteristics of the F-16 CFD and Correlation with its Intake Total Pressure Recovery and Distortion". Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics. 5 (2): 223–234. doi:10.1080/19942060.2011.11015366. S2CID 124964283.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 99–102.
- Dryden, Joe Bill. "F-16 Aerodynamics". Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2009. Code One Magazine, April 1986 issue. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Spick 2000, pp. 226–228, 232.
- Rogoway, Tyler (6 May 2021). "The Definitive Answer on Why F-16s Carry AIM-120 AMRAAMs on Their Wingtip Rails". The War Zone. The Drive. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
- Frawley 2002, p. 114.
- Hoh and Mitchell 1983, pp. 11ff.
- Aronstein and Piccirillo 1996, p. 21.
- Greenwood, Cynthia. "Air Force Looks at the Benefits of Using CPCs on F-16 Black Boxes."Archived 11 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine CorrDefense, Spring 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- Hoh and Mitchell 1983, p. 5.
- Dryden, Joe Bill. "Recovering From Deep Stalls And Departures". Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2010. Code One, July 1986. Retrieved 17 April 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Richardson 1990, p. 12.
- Nielsen, Mats. "Total Immersion Fuel Tank Airborne Cable Assemblies: Glenair's Manufacturing Model and Qualification Process." Archived 2 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine Glenair, 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- Day, Dwayne A. "Computers in Aviation." Archived 7 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2003. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- Thompson, William H. "F-16 Study." Electrical Overstress-Electrostatic Discharge Symposium Proceedings, 1984: EOS-6, p. 23. EOS/ESD Association, Inc. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- Peacock 1997, p. 99.
- Albano, J. J. and J. B. Stanford. "Prevention of Minor Neck Injuries in F-16 Pilots". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine Issue 69, 1998, pp. 1193–1199.
- Peacock 1997, pp. 99–100.
- Sherman, Robert. "F-16 Fighting Falcon." Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Federation of American Scientists (FAS), updated 30 May 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Pike, John. "F-16 Fighting Falcon." Archived 18 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine Global Security, updated 27 April 2005. Retrieved 20 June 2008.
- Task, H. L. "Optical Effects of F-16 Canopy-HUD (Head Up Display) Integration", (Accession No. ADP003222). Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Lab, December 1983.
- Spick 2000, p. 222.
- "Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS)." Archived 11 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Boeing Integrated Defense Systems. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- John Raahauge. "The AN/APG-66 Radar". Archived from the original on 30 January 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Kopp, Carlo. "Active Electronically Steered Arrays: A Maturing Technology." Archived 19 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine Australian Aviation, June 2002 (as reprinted by Air Power Australia). Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- "NGC's SABR to Help Extend Viability of USAF F-16s Beyond 2025". ASDNews.com. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "SABR (Scalable Agile Beam Radar) APG-83 AESA for the F-16 and Legacy Aircraft". Northrop Grumman. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
- Donald, David. "U.S. Air Force Orders AESA Radar for F-16s". AINOnline. 3 March 2020.
- Bjorkman, Eileen, Small, fast and in your face, Air & Space, February/March 2014, pp. 28–35
- Peacock 1997, pp. 102–103.
- Pike, John. "F100-PW-100/-200." Archived 21 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine Global Security, updated 13 March 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Camm, Frank and Thomas K. Glennan, Jr. "The Development of the F100-PW-220 and F110-GE-100 Engines (N-3618-AF)." Archived 6 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine RAND Corp, 1993. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Peacock 1997, p. 103.
- Pike, John. "F110." Archived 14 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine Global Security, updated 15 March 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- "Libya live blog: Coalition confirms strike on Gadhafi compound". CNN. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Penney, Heather (13 September 2013). "Heather Penney, the 9/11 fighter pilot, says celebrating normalcy is a way to honor heroes". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020.
- Hendrix, Steve (8 September 2011). "F-16 pilot was ready to give her life on Sept. 11". The Washington Post.
- Tirpak, John A. "Making the Best of the Fighter Force." Archived 21 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Air Force Magazine, March 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2008.
- "AF seeks F-16 fleet upgrade, requests 19 more F-35As". Air Force Times. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Tirpak, John A. (4 April 2022). "F-16s to Serve Nearly Two More Decades, Replacement Choice Still 6-8 Years Away". Air Force Magazine. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
- Record-breaking F-16 Falcon to be retired from IDF service Archived 13 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, ynet, 11 February 2015
- Iskra, Alex. "GD/L-M F-16A/B Netz in Israeli Service." Archived 10 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Air Combat Information Group (ACIG), 26 September 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- Grant, Rebecca. "Osirak and Beyond." Air Force Magazine, August 2002. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
- Schow, Jr., Kenneth C., Lt. Col., USAF. "Falcons Against the Jihad: Israeli Airpower and Coercive Diplomacy in Southern Lebanon." Archived 25 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Air University Press, November 1995. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "F-16 Air Forces – Israel". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Marie Colvin, Tony Allen-Mills and Uzi Mahnaimi. "Israeli jets kill ‘at least 225’ in strikes on Gaza." Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Sunday Times, 28 December 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #87-1672". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "IAF shoots down hostile drone from Lebanon off Haifa". The Jerusalem Post. 25 April 2013. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "IAF shoots down UAV in northern Negev". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 27 August 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Zitun, Yoav (25 February 2018). "Investigation finds pilots of downed F-16 failed to defend themselves". Ynetnews. Archived from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Andrew Carey, Laura Smith-Spark and Nicole Chavez. "Israeli F-16 jet crashes after Syrian fire". CNN. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018.
- "Israel Air Force Investigation into F-16 Crash Blames Pilot Error". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
- Rai Muhammad Saleh Azam. "An Airman Remembered". Defence Journal. Archived from the original on 22 April 2003.
due to political reasons, the kills made inside Afghan airspace by the PAF (estimated to be between 20 and 30, were never officially recognized or disclosed. To date, PAF officially recognized only the eight kills made inside Pakistani airspace and one forced manoeuvre kill.
- "PAF F-16 air kills illustrations". PAFwallpapers.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "IAF's Searcher-II Loss on June 07, 2002". Vayu-sena-aux.tripod.com. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- Bokhari, Farhan. "Pakistan and Turkey organise air force exercises." (subscription required) Jane's Defence Weekly, 17 April 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
- Schmitt, Eric. "Pakistan Injects Precision Into Air War on Taliban." Archived 19 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, 29 July 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
- PPI (14 November 2011). "PAF conducted 5,500 bombing runs in Fata since 2008". The Express Tribune. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "In a first, PAF Chief reveals shooting down of IAF Russian made Su 30 MKI, inside details of Indian Combat Helicopter downing". Times of Islamabad. 17 April 2019.
- "Pakistan shoots down two Indian fighter jets: Military". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2019.
- "Pakistan says it downed two IAF jets, identifies pilots behind act". Hindustan Times. 6 March 2019.
- Helen Regan; Nikhil Kumar; Adeel Raja; Swati Gupta (27 February 2019). "Pakistan says it shot down two Indian jets as Kashmir border crisis deepens". CNN.
- "India's Exhibit A: Debris of AMRAAM missile that nails Pakistan's F-16 denial". 1 March 2019.
- "Radar images prove Pakistan F-16 shot down, says Indian Air Force". The Japan Times. 9 April 2019. Archived from the original on 10 April 2019.
- Marlow, Iain. "India Never Shot Down Pakistani F-16, New Report Says". Time. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- Seligman, Lara. "Did India Shoot Down a Pakistani Jet? U.S. Count Says No". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Lalwani, Sameer; Tallo, Emily. "Analysis | Did India shoot down a Pakistani F-16 in February? This just became a big deal". The Washington Post.
Indian media reported that a U.S. Defense Department spokesman said he was unaware of any investigation. The Pentagon, like the State Department, has yet to issue a public statement on the F-16 count, but there have been no counter-leaks contradicting the Foreign Policy report.
- "F-16 Air Forces – Turkey". f-16.net.
- sabah, daily (7 February 2019). "Turkey's F-16 jets equipped with new domestic electronic warfare systems". Daily Sabah.
- on YouTube
- "While engaged by two THK F-16Cs, Sialmas entered a break that was too much for the F.1CG at low level: the aircraft entered a spin and crashed into the sea surface, killing the pilot". Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Sander Peeters. "Greek & Turkish Air-to-Air Victories". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 crash heightens tension in Aegean". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- on YouTube
- Turkish Air Force "Our History" Archived 11 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine hvkk.tsk.tr, Retrieved: 3 February 2012.
- "Turkish F-16 jet crashes after Greek interception". Chicago Sun-Times. 9 October 1996. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- "Deadly 1996 Aegean clash is confirmed". f-16.net. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- on YouTube
- "F-16 Aircraft Database: F-16 Airframe Details for 91-0023". Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Cenciotti, David. "30 years later, Ankara admits Turkish Air Force jet was shot own by Iraq." Archived 30 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Aviationist, 6 September 2012.
- "Court rejects Turkish request for trial of Greek pilot who allegedly shot down F-16 jet". 24 February 2017. Archived from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
- "Κατάρριψη τουρκικού F-16 – Τι δήλωσε ο Έλληνας πιλότος | Newsbomb". 14 November 2018. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
- "Turkish court wants trial of Greek pilot for allegedly shooting down fighter jet". Ekathimerini.com.
- on YouTube
- "It will be recalled that on 23 May 2006, a Greek F-16 aircraft crashed into a Turkish F-16". Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Greek F-16 and Turkish F-16 collide – 1 pilot OK". Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Gürgen, Murat. "Uçaklar nasıl vurdu?". Vatan, 17 December 2007. Retrieved 3 February 2012.
- "Turkish F-16 jets scramble to intercept 2 Syrian Su-24s". Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Fahim, Kareem; Arsu, Sebnem (16 September 2013). "Turkey Says It Shot Down Syrian Military Helicopter Flying in Its Airspace". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Al Qaeda-Linked Islamists Capture Christian Town". CBN. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- Butler, Desmond (16 May 2015). "Turkey Says It Shot Down Syrian Helicopter". ABC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "F-16'ların vurduğu İHA, İran yapımı 'Muhacir'". MİLLİYET HABER – TÜRKİYE'NİN HABER SİTESİ. 18 May 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Putin calls plane's downing by Turkey 'stab in the back'". CNN. 24 November 2015. Archived from the original on 24 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
- "بعد إسقاطها لمروحيتين الشهر الفائت.. القوات التركية تسقط طائرتين حربيتين تابعة للنظام السوري في أجواء محافظة إدلب". SOHR. March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
- "Two Syrian jets shot down near Turkish border, pilots survive". CP24 Toronto News. 1 March 2020.
- "Joint Turkish-Russian patrols to begin on March 15 – latest updates". 7 March 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
- "Syrian pilot killed as Turkey downs warplane: monitor". Radio France Internationale. 3 March 2020.
- SABAH, DAILY (14 April 2021). "Turkey's air-to-air missile Bozdoğan successfully hits target". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- "Turkey becomes 1 of few countries with air-to-air missile". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
- Chris Stephen (17 February 2015). "Egyptian air strikes in Libya kill dozens of Isis militants". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Senior 2002, p. 92.
- Winning, Andrew. "Libya: Gaddafi envoy in Europe, exchanging fire in Brega."[permanent dead link] Reuters, 4 April 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Spick 2000, p. 241.
- Composante Air Archived 18 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, La Défense. Retrieved 19 February 2014
- "Norway withdraws fighter jets from Libya mission: military". defencetalk.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "Accidental Heroes : Britain, France and the Libya Operation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
- Ramona Tancau. "Norway involved in Gaddafi bombing". theforeigner.no. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "The Houthis' Do-It-Yourself Air Defenses". 23 January 2018. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- "Government Adopts Final Decision to Buy Israeli F-16 Jets". Archived from the original on 4 April 2018.
- "Croatia agrees to buy Israeli F-16s for $500 million". Anadolu Agency. 26 January 2018. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- "Slovakia's Government approves purchase of US F-16 fighter jets". Archived from the original on 14 December 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, Herpa and Hobbymaster". Flying Tigers. 4 July 2019.
- "Boeing Receives First F-16 For Conversion into QF-16 Aerial Drone." Archived 1 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Boeing, 27 May 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- Darling 2003, pp. 55–57.
- Darling 2003, pp. 58–62.
- Joshi, Saurabh. "Gripen operational cost lowest of all western fighters: Jane’s Archived 16 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine" Stratpost, 4 July 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Venlet, David. "F-35 Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823–198 Archived 13 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine" p84. Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval, 31 December 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Trimble, Steven. "US Air Force combat fleet's true operational costs revealed Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine" Flight International, 26 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
- Darling 2003, pp. 62–63.
- "Dubai 2007: UAE shows off its most advanced Falcons". Reed Business Information Limited. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Top Falcons: The UAE's F-16 Block 60/61 Fighters". Defense Industry Daily. 19 July 2018. Archived from the original on 26 August 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
- Darling 2003, p. 63.
- Piccirillo, Albert C. (2014). Elegance in Flight: A Comprehensive History of the F-16XL Experimental Prototype and its Role in NASA Flight Research. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-62683-022-6.
- Pandey, Vinay. "F-16 maker Lockheed mounts an India campaign." Archived 30 June 2012 at archive.today Times of India, 17 January 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- "F-16IN page". Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2007. Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Tellis: US fighters lost MMRCA contract due to technical faults." Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine Flight International, 3 June 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "In exclusive deal, India to get 'most advanced' F-16 fighter jets by 2019–20". The Hindu. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- "F-16 Block 70 Under Make in India". lockheedmartin.com. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
- "Govt offers to buy 200 foreign fighter jets if they are Made in India". Archived from the original on 9 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- Gady, Franz-Stefan. "Lockheed Martin Agrees to Build F-16 Fighter Jets in India". thediplomat.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "Iraq – F-16 Aircraft." Archived 28 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 15 September 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "What it Was Like Flying and Fighting the F-16N Viper, Topgun's Legendary Hotrod". 9 May 2016. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "F-16 Versions – (T)F-16N". Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Dan Petty. "The US Navy – Fact File: F-16A/B Fighting Falcon Fighter". Archived from the original on 14 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Reed Business Information Limited (15 February 2012). "Singapore: Lockheed Martin announces F-16V development". Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Seligman, Lara (21 October 2015). "Lockheed's New F-16V Flies With Advanced AESA Radar". Defense news. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- "First F-16V Developed for Taiwan Requirement Takes Flight". Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- Salmonsen, Renée (23 February 2018). "Taiwan earns money off Korean fighter jet purchase". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
- Gady, Franz-Stefan. "Taiwan Begins Upgrade of 144 F-16 Fighter Jets". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- "Bahrain order keeps F-16 production ticking over". 25 June 2018. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- "Lockheed lands first customer for its new F-16 fighter jet". The Business Journals. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
- "Government of Greece – Upgrade of F-16 Aircraft to F-16 Block V Configuration". Defence Security Cooperation Agency.
- "F-16V for the Hellenic Air Force". Lockheed Martin. 2 March 2018.
- Garrett, Reim (12 July 2018). "Slovakia to purchase 14 Lockheed Martin F-16s". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
- Gould, Joe (18 November 2018). "With F-16 buy, Slovakia 'cutting off' Russian hardware". Defense News. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
- "AERO INDIA: F16V rechristened 'F-21' for New Delhi fighter deal". 20 February 2019. Archived from the original on 21 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Pressured by China's Military Updates, Taiwan Asks US for More Weapons". Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Wong, Edward (16 August 2019). "Trump Administration Approves F-16 Fighter Jet Sales to Taiwan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 January 2022. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
- "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO) – F-16C/D Block 70 Aircraft and Related Equipment and Support | The Official Home of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency". dsca.mil.
- "Contracts For Aug. 14, 2020 AIR FORCE". Archived from the original on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 19 August 2020.
- "66 new fighter jets to arrive in Taiwan by 2026". Taiwan News. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
- "Forget drones – F-16 makes unmanned flight". 3 news. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "First unmanned QF-16 flight takes place". AF. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Boeing". Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Lockheed Martin F-16 Is Ready for the Future As The World's Most Advanced 4th Generation Fighter". Archived from the original on 15 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Shamim, Asif. "Italian F-16 'Peace Caesar' program comes to an end." Archived 3 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine F-16.net, 24 May 2012.
- "Norway retires F-16 as F-35 takes on national air defence".
- Ranter, Harro. "Aviation Safety Network > ASN Aviation Safety WikiBase > ASN Aviation Safety Database results". aviation-safety.net. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
- "F-16 Mishaps & Accident Reports". f-16.net. Archived from the original on 18 June 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- on YouTube. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- "United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit. – 878 F.2d 1311". Justia Law. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Schindehette, Susan. "For Love and Honor." Archived 8 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine People, 1 June 1992.
- Tucker, Ken. "Afterburn Review." Archived 8 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Entertainment Weekly, 29 May 1992.
- Brooks, Drew. "Fort Bragg Report: Green Ramp Disaster anniversary was March 23". Fay Observer. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
- Harro Ranter (23 March 1994). "23 March 1994 crash". Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Gladman, Paul. "Thunderbirds Lockheed Martin F-16 Ejection". Archived 13 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Flightglobal, 3 October 2008.
- "Thunderbirds accident report released". AF.mil. Archived from the original on 14 February 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Greek fighter-jet crash in Spain leaves at least 10 dead". Archived 18 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian, 26 January 2015.
- Onze morts dont neuf Français lors du crash d'un avion de chasse en Espagne Archived 28 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine Le Monde.fr avec AFP |26 January 2015 à 19h27 • Mis à jour le 27 January 2015 à 13h36
- "2 killed when F-16, Cessna collide in midair over S.C." Archived 10 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine USA Today, 8 July 2015.
- "A Florennes, un F-16 a bien été détruit par un tir accidentel: "L'explosion a été provoquée par un tir de canon". RTL Info, 9 November 2018.
- "Pakistan pays tribute to Wing Commander Noman Akram on his first martyrdom anniversary". 11 March 2021.
- "Aviation Photography – Royal Army and Military History Museum, Brussels". Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Chateau de Savigny les Beaune, Savigny-les-Beaunes, France". Aviationmuseum.eu. 10 January 2015. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- Fortner, Mark (11 January 2015). "French Chateau Hosts an Insane Collection of Cars, Motorcycles and Jets". Yahoo Autos.
- "Poortwachter F-16A F-113 – Hangar Flying". luchtvaarterfgoed.be. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0057". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Patut Dibanggakan: Pekanbaru Miliki Wisata Edukasi Monumen F-16". radarnusantara.com (in Indonesian). 31 October 2019. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Ini Kronologi Terbakarnya Pesawat F-16 di Halim". nasional.tempo.co (in Indonesian). 16 April 2015. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0053". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0215". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0228". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0240". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0246". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 January 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
- "Endelig - F-16 er på plass i museet!". Norwegian Aviation Museum (in Norwegian). Retrieved 21 November 2022.
- "Military Aircrafts [sic] collected". Norwegian Aviation Museum. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
- "General Dynamics / Lockheed Martin F-16 AM". The Norwegian Armed forces aircraft collection at Oslo airport Gardermoen (in Norwegian). Retrieved 21 November 2022.
- "18 years since shot-down of F-16 #88-550". Kurir. Archived from the original on 24 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- "Museum of Aviation, Belgrade". Exhibition 29. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0324". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0375". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #89-0032". f-16.net. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "Hava Kuvvetleri Muzesi Komutanligi (Turkish Air Force Museum) – Yesilkoy – Istanbul – Turkey". aviationmuseum.eu. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- "YF-16 Fighting Falcon (72-1567)". Virginia Air & Space Center (VASC). Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "YF-16 #2 FIGHTING FALCON". fortworthaviationmuseum.com. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #75-0745". aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #75-0746". aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #75-0748". aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/75-0750". National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #75-0751". aerialvisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/75-0752". Frontiers of Flight Museum. 18 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0001". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 14 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0005". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0025". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0042". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0052". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/78-0059". Selfridge air museum. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Davis, Judd. "Crenshaw County: Highland Home's Flying Squadron". wsfa.com. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0065". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0066". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0290". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0296". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0307". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0309". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0312". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0326". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0327". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/79-0334". USS Alabama Battleship Memorial Park. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0337". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0352". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0366". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #79-0373". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/79-0388". Hill Aerospace Museum. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/79-0402". Hill Aerospace Museum. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/79-0403". USS Intrepid Museum. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #80-0481". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #80-0527". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #80-0528". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/80-0573". Air Force Armament Museum. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #80-0612". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/81-0663". National Museum of the USAF. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/81-0676". Museum of Aviation. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #81-0721". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #81-0807", F-16.net, retrieved 21 November 2016
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #82-0926". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 22 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #82-0930". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0088". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0101". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #78-0107". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 22 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Fighting Falcon/79-0430". Stafford museum. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Yanks Search Results". yanksair.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #81-0816". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 6 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #81-0817", F-16.net, retrieved 9 December 2015
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #83-1126". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #84-1264". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #84-1393". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #85-1469". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #87-0255". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #87-0323". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #163269". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "F-16 Viper/163271". Pacific coast air museum. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- "F-16 Viper/163277". Palm springs air museum. Archived from the original on 1 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #163569", F-16.net, retrieved 9 December 2015
- "F-16 Viper/163272". National Naval Aviation Museum. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Airframe Details for F-16 #163576". F-16.net. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- HAF SERIES AIRCRAFT, Flight Manual of F-16 C/D Block 50 and 52+ (GR1F-16CJ-1), June 2003.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "SEMPER VIPER!". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- Thrust (28,600 lb) / Loaded weight with 50% internal fuel (23,000 lb)
- "U.S. Air Force Deploys APKWS Laser-Guided Rockets on F-16s". baesystems.com. BAE. 8 June 2016. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- Hunter, Jamie. "USAF launches huge upgrade program for its F-16s". Skies Magazine. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
- Leone, Dario. "USAF to Upgrade 608 F-16 fighter jets to V variant in Viper Fleet largest Modification Work in History". The Aviation Geek Club. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
- "MIL-STD-1553 Avionics Bus Description. Military Standard". Interfacebus.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Aleshire, Peter. Eye of the Viper: The Making of an F-16 Pilot (Illustrated ed.). Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Globe Pequot, 2005. ISBN 1-59228-822-7.
- Aronstein, David C. and Albert C. Piccirillo. The Lightweight Fighter Program: A Successful Approach to Fighter Technology Transition. Reston, VA: AIAA, 1996. ISBN 978-1-56347-193-3.
- Coram, Robert. Boyd: The Fighter Pilot Who Changed the Art of War. New York: Little, Brown, and Co., 2002. ISBN 0-316-88146-5.
- Darling, Kev. F-16 Fighting Falcon (Combat Legend). London: Airlife, 2003. ISBN 1-84037-399-7.
- Eden, Paul, ed. (July 2006). The Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London, UK: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 978-1-904687-84-9.
- Frawley, Gerard. The International Directory of Military Aircraft. Manly NSW, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2.
- Hampton, Dan. Viper Pilot: the autobiography of one of America's most decorated F-16 combat pilots. William Morrow, 2012. ISBN 9780062130358
- Hoh, Roger H. and David G. Mitchell. "Flying Qualities of Relaxed Static Stability Aircraft – Volume I: Flying Qualities Airworthiness Assessment and Flight Testing of Augmented Aircraft." Federal Aviation Administration (DOT/FAA/CT-82/130-I), September 1983. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. F/A-18 Hornet: A Navy Success Story. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. ISBN 978-0-07134-696-2.
- Peacock, Lindsay. On Falcon Wings: The F-16 Story. RAF Fairford, United Kingdom: The Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund Enterprises, 1997. ISBN 1-899808-01-9.
- Richardson, Doug. General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon. London: Salamander Books, 1990. ISBN 0-86101-534-7.
- Senior, Tim. The AirForces Monthly Book of the F-16 Fighting Falcon. Stamford, UK: Key Books Ltd, 2002. ISBN 0-946219-60-5.
- Spick, Mike, ed. Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, MN: MBI, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.
- Drendel, Lou. F-16 Fighting Falcon – Walk Around No. 1. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Books, 1993. ISBN 0-89747-307-8.
- Gunston, Bill. United States Military Aircraft of the 20th century London: Salamander Books Ltd, 1984. ISBN 0-86101-163-5.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Supreme Heavy-Weight Fighter. Arlington, Texas: Aerofax, 1998. ISBN 1-85780-081-8.
- Sweetman, Bill. Supersonic Fighters: The F-16 Fighting Falcons. Mankato, Minnesota: Capstone Press, 2008. ISBN 1-4296-1315-7.
- Williams, Anthony G. and Dr. Emmanuel Gustin. Flying Guns: The Modern Era. Ramsbury, UK: The Crowood Press, 2004. ISBN 1-86126-655-3.