The club was founded in 1908 as Robur Caserta and became known as Unione Sportiva Casertana from 1928 until 2005, when the team was cancelled by the federation. The club also had two stints in Serie B in 1970–71 and 1991–92.
The club was refounded in 2005 as A.S. Caserta Calcio and was later renamed A.S. Casertana Calcio. During the 2009–10 Serie D season, the side took back its traditional denomination.
Casertana made its return to professionalism at the end of the 2012–13 season, after finishing fourth in Serie D, thus reaching the promotion play-off only to be beaten by Virtus Verona in the final. However, the club was successively admitted into Lega Pro Seconda Divisione as a replacement for a number of teams that went bankrupt by the end of the season. The club ended the 2013–14 season in second place, thus qualifying to the 2014–15 Lega Pro division.