F1 grenade (Russia)

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F1 anti-personnel hand grenade
F1 grenade DoD.jpg
F1 hand grenade
TypeHand grenade
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1941–present (Russia)
Used bySoviet Union, Brazil, Cuba, China
WarsWorld War II
Hukbalahap Rebellion
Korean War
Vietnam War
Rhodesian Bush War[1]
Six-Day War
Yom Kippur War
Iraq War
2011 Libyan Civil War
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
Production history
Unit cost$5 (black market of Lebanon, 1992)[2]
Mass600 g
Length130 mm
Diameter55 mm

Filling weight60 g
Time delay fuse 3.2 to 4.2 s
Grenade cutaway and training sample (DOSAAF Museum, Minsk)
Russian MUV booby trap firing device. A zero-delay pull fuze which is normally connected to a tripwire. The MUV fuze is fully compatible with F1 and RGD-5 grenades. Fitting an MUV fuze makes it easier to conceal the grenade when setting a boobytrap e.g. partial burial. Note that the detonator is usually threaded, so it can be screwed into the F1 grenade body

The Soviet F1 hand grenade (Russian: Фугасный > Fugasnyy 1, "Explosive, Type #1"), is an anti-personnel fragmentation defensive grenade. It is based on the French F1 grenade and contains a 60-gram explosive charge (TNT). The total weight of the grenade with the fuze is about 600 grams.

Due to its shape and its yellow-green color, it is nicknamed the limonka (fem. "lemon"). It is also nicknamed Efka (Russian: Эфка) for the letter F.[3] It is similar to the American Mk 2 "pineapple grenade", which was also ultimately modeled on the French F1.


The UZRGM (Universal'nyi Zapal, Ruchnaya Granata, Modernizirovannyi, 'Universal Igniter, Hand Grenade, Improved') fuse is a universal Russian type also used in the RG-41, RG-42, RGO-78, RGN-86 and RGD-5 grenades. The standard time delay for this fuse is 3.5 to 4 seconds. However, UZRGM fuse variants are available which give delays between zero (i.e., instantaneous, specifically for use in booby-traps) and 13 seconds. It is possible to hear a loud "pop" as the fuse ignites and begins to burn.


The F1 was introduced during World War II and subsequently redesigned post-war. It has a steel exterior that is notched to facilitate fragmentation upon detonation and to prevent hands from slipping. The distance the grenade can be thrown is estimated at 30–45 meters. The radius of the shrapnel dispersion is up to 200 meters (effective radius is about 30 meters, by some sources (Russian)). Hence, the grenade has to be deployed from a defensive position to avoid self harm. About 60 percent of the grenade body pulverizes during the explosion, only 30 percent of the body splints into 290 high velocity sharp cut splinters each weighing around 1 gram with initial speed of about 700 meters per second.

Foreign copies[edit]

The F1 grenade has been supplied to various Soviet allies and Third World nations over the years, including Iraq and other Arab nations, and there are different production variations according to country of origin (in terms of finish, markings and spoon/lever design). Though obsolete and no longer in production[citation needed], it can still be encountered in combat zones.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]