F1 grenade (Russia)
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|F1 anti-personnel hand grenade|
F1 hand grenade
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1941–present (Russia)|
|Used by||Soviet Union, Brazil, China|
World War II|
Rhodesian Bush War
Yom Kippur War
2011 Libyan Civil War
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
|Filling weight||60 g|
|Time delay fuse 3.2 to 4.2 s|
The Soviet F1 hand grenade, is an anti-personnel fragmentation defensive grenade. It is based on the French F1 grenade and contains a 60-gram explosive charge (TNT). The total weight of the grenade with the fuze is about 600 grams.
Due to its shape, it is nicknamed the limonka (fem. "lemon"). It is also nicknamed Efka (Russian: Эфка) for the letter F. It is similar to the American Mk2 grenade "Pineapple grenade", which was also ultimately modeled on the French F1.
The UZRGM (Universal'nyi Zapal, Ruchnaya Granata, Modernizirovannyi > “Universal Igniter, Hand Grenade, Improved") fuze is a universal Russian type also used in the RG-41, RG-42, RGO-78, RGN-86 and RGD-5 grenades. The standard time delay for this fuze is 3.5 to 4 seconds. However, UZRGM fuze variants are available which give delays between zero (i.e., instantaneous, specifically for use in booby-traps) and 13 seconds. It is possible to hear a loud "pop" as the fuze ignites and begins to burn.
The F1 was introduced during World War II and subsequently redesigned post-war. It has a steel exterior that is notched to facilitate fragmentation upon detonation and to prevent hands from slipping. The distance the grenade can be thrown is estimated at 30–45 meters. The radius of the shrapnel dispersion is up to 200 meters (effective radius is about 30 meters, by some sources (Russian)). Hence, the grenade has to be deployed from a defensive position to avoid harm. About 60 percent of the grenade body pulverizes during the explosion, only 30 percent of the body splints into 290 high velocity sharp cut splinters each weighing around 1 gram with initial speed of about 700 meters per second.
The F1 grenade has been supplied to various foreign countries over the years, including Iraq and other Arab nations, and there are different production variations according to country of origin (in terms of finish, markings and spoon/lever design). Though obsolete and no longer in production, it can still be encountered in combat zones.
- People's Republic of China: Type 1 Grenade.
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