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Schematics of a FAMAS rifles
|Type||Bullpup assault rifle|
|Place of origin||France|
|Used by||See Users|
|Unit cost||F1: 1,500 €
G2: 3,000 €
|No. built||F1: 400,000|
|Rate of fire||
|Effective firing range||
|Maximum firing range||3200 meters|
|Sights||Rear aperture fitted with tritium night inserts, front post|
The FAMAS (French: Fusil d'Assaut de la Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne or "Assault Rifle from the Saint-Étienne Weapon Factory") is a bullpup-styled assault rifle designed and manufactured in France by MAS located in Saint-Étienne, which is now a member of the French government-owned Nexter group. It is the service rifle of the French military.
The first French bullpup rifles were developed between 1946 and 1950 at the AME (Atelier Mécanique de Mulhouse) and MAS, testing rounds such as .30 US Carbine, 7.92×33mm Kurz, 7.65×38mm (Made by Cartoucherie de Valence) and some other intermediate calibers. Since France was engaged in the First Indochina War at the time, and was also the second-largest contributor to NATO, the research budgets for new types of weapons were limited and priority was given to the modernization and production of existing service weapons. Nevertheless, approximately forty different 7.62×51mm NATO caliber prototype rifles were developed between 1952 and 1962, most notably the FA-MAS Type 62. However, the United States adoption of the M16 rifle and 5.56×45mm cartridge caused the French to rethink their approach, and consequently the Type 62 was not adopted.
In the 1960s, MAS began to manufacture under license the Heckler & Koch G3 battle rifle and later on the Heckler & Koch HK33 assault rifle as temporary substitutes. At the same time, the French embraced the idea of developing a new 5.56 mm automatic rifle. However, simply adopting the German-designed HK33 rifle was considered unsatisfactory for many members of the French high command. General Marcel Bigeard was also against the idea of relying on foreign weapons; while visiting the Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne, he asked the engineers to develop a homemade French 5.56 mm automatic rifle, which subsequently led to the creation and adoption of the FAMAS.
The FAMAS project began in 1967 under the direction of General Paul Tellié and the first prototype was completed in 1971, with French military evaluation of the rifle beginning in 1972. When production problems delayed the general issue of the new rifles, and with the 1978 Battle of Kolwezi showing an immediate need for a more modern weapon, the French Army began searching for an emergency temporary rifle until the FAMAS came into full production. While the Heckler & Koch HK33 was considered, with a batch of 1,200 examples tested, it was ultimately turned down in favor of the SIG SG 540, built under license by Manurhin, until enough domestically-built FAMAS rifles were produced to issue to French forces. In late 1978, the French military accepted the FAMAS as their standard-issue rifle.
After adoption, the FAMAS F1 replaced both the aging MAS 49/56 rifle and MAT-49 submachine gun. Approximately 400,000 FAMAS F1 assault rifles were produced by MAS. While a capable rifle, the F1 had numerous problems to overcome. For instance, many plastic pieces on the rifle easily broke, including critical parts like the cheek riser on the buttstock. The FAMAS was also susceptible to malfunction on occasion because of poorly-built magazines. The FAMAS was also designed around the concept of single-use, disposable magazines; when the limited budget of the French military forced soldiers to reuse disposable magazines over and over, the FAMAS would jam and require immediate attention. MAS would eventually manufacture more durable magazines for the FAMAS that reduced malfunctions.
The F1 was followed by the G1 version that included several minor improvements, such as redesigned grips and an enlarged trigger guard for operation with gloves. However, the G1 remained conceptual and was never actually produced.
The FAMAS G2 was developed in 1994 to comply with NATO standards by accepting standard NATO magazines and by employing tighter barrel rifling to accurately fire both older 5.56 mm 55 gr (3.6 g) ammunition and new standard 5.56mm NATO 62gr ammo. The G2 also included several other upgrades taken from the G1 model, such as an enlarged trigger guard and improved hand guards made from reinforced fiberglass instead of plastic. The French Navy purchased the FAMAS G2 in 1995 and issued it to their Fusiliers Marins and Commandos Marine. However, the French army refused to purchase the G2, preferring to rely on the FAMAS F1 as their primary rifle.
|Views of different versions of the FAMAS|
The FAMAS Infanterie is an improvement of the FAMAS F1, obtained by retrofiting an accessory rail onto the top of the handguard. This allows mounting combat optics, most notably reflex sights or the 4× magnification SCROME J4 scope.
During the late 1980s, Century Arms imported a very small number of semi-automatic FAMAS rifles into the United States. However, due to poor sales, production and importation ceased and the existing number are not only extremely rare but cost in the range of $10,000 with no spare parts available on the market.
The FAMAS assault rifle is a bullpup configuration, with the ammunition feed behind the trigger. The receiver housing is made of a special steel alloy, and the rifle furniture is made of fiberglass. The rifle uses a lever-delayed blowback action, an action used on the AA-52 machine gun derived from the prototypes built during Army Technical Department tests having taken place between the First and Second World Wars.
Fire mode is controlled by a selector within the trigger guard, with three settings: safe (central position), single shot (to the right), and automatic fire (to the left). Automatic fire can be in three-shot bursts (rafale) or fully automatic; this is determined by another selector, located under the housing and behind the magazine.
The FAMAS G2 weighs 3.8 kg (8.38 lb). The G1 and G2 have a large, grip-length trigger-guard like a Steyr AUG to allow easy access to the trigger when wearing gloves.
Both F1 and G2 models of the FAMAS feature a bipod attached to the upper hand-guard.
The FAMAS-G2 and some F1 sport a "polyvalent hand-guard" which features a standard NATO Accessory Rail, allowing a variety of sights to be mounted, notably red dot sights and night vision units.
The FAMAS uses a delayed blowback operating system that functions best with French-specified steel-casing 5.56x45mm ammunition. Using standard brass-casing 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition employed by other armies can create over-pressure and case ruptures in the FAMAS, which can lead to severe malfunctions. Using incorrectly built ammunition also results in approximately two minor injuries for every million rounds fired from a FAMAS. As a result, the French military has discreetly banned the use of foreign-produced ammunition in all French-issued FAMAS rifles.
The FAMAS F1 uses a proprietary 25-round magazine. It has a chrome-lined barrel with 1 turn in 12 inch (1:12 inch) rifling and functions best with the 55 gr (3.6 g) (M193 type) ammunition. When using the French made 5.56 mm 55 gr (3.6 g) ammo it has a muzzle velocity of 3,150 ft/s (960 m/s).
The FAMAS G2 uses M16-type, NATO-compatible 30-round STANAG magazines. It has a chrome-lined barrel with 1 turn in 9 inch (1:9 inch) rifling and functions equally well with both the older 55 gr (3.6 g) (M193 type) ammo and the newer 62 gr (4.0 g) (SS109 type) ammo. When using the French made 5.56 mm 62 gr (4.0 g) ammo it has a muzzle velocity of 3,035 ft/s (925 m/s).
During training with blank ammunition, a special plug is added to the muzzle of the FAMAS. This plug is necessary for automatic or semi-automatic blank fire operation, and functions by blocking part of the gas used in a blank bullet.
The FAMAS features two alidades for aiming rifle grenades with several modes:
- direct fire at 75 or 100 metres, in anti-vehicle role
- indirect fire, in anti-personnel role:
- with the FAMAS inclined by 45°, allowing fire from 120 to 340 metres
- with the FAMAS inclined by 74°, allowing fire from 60 to 170 metres
In indirect fire mode the grenade support (more exactly named "grenade enforcement ring" in French) is moved forwards or backwards on the barrel which has markings (12/13?). This changes the position of the grenade on the barrel and automatically the volume of the chamber in which the gas expands to push the grenade forward. Each position of the grenade support has a number which is multiplied by a certain fixed number depending on the alidade position, 45° or 75°; this will accurately indicate the firing distance of the grenade.
The FAMAS can also accommodate an external grenade launcher as an add-on module under the hand guard; the US M203 grenade launcher is sometimes used.
The FAMAS first saw service in Chad during Operation Manta and again in desert operations during Operation Desert Storm and in other various peacekeeping missions. Officially, operational conditions proved the weapon to be reliable and trustworthy under combat conditions. The FAMAS is affectionately known by French-speaking troops as le Clairon ("the Bugle") because of its shape. An improved version of the FAMAS F1 is integrated in the Félin system.
Senegal and the United Arab Emirates received a small number of FAMAS F1 rifles from France, though it was unknown when they received them. Djibouti uses this weapon in its military as the standard infantry weapon. The Philippines also received a limited number and is used by the Philippine National Police Special Action Force.
The FAMAS has been used in the following conflicts:
The French armed forces are still using F1 series rifles, some produced as early as 1979. With the closing of the Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Etienne (MAS) factory in 2002, the newest produced FAMAS rifles were over a decade old in 2016. The French armed forces currently use an estimated 400,000 FAMAS F1 and G1 rifles in their arsenal. The military also ceased manufacture of special steel-case ammunition for the FAMAS. Because the FAMAS did not function properly with NATO standard brass-cased ammunition, coupled with concerns about the age of existing weapons, the French military sought a replacement for their standard issue FAMAS rifle.
On May 2014, the French Ministère de la Défense announced a European Union-wide tender for 90,000 rifles and carbines to be issued across the entire French armed forces. On August 2016, the Ministère de la Défense selected Heckler and Koch's HK416 rifle to replace the FAMAS as the new general-issue service rifle. Under the French contract, the new rifle is to be designated as the HK416F, with 'F' designating the France version of the rifle. 16,000 rifles will be annually purchased until a final total of 90,000 to 101,000 rifles are delivered. Upon issue, the new rifles are expected to be in French service for at least 30 years.
- Argentina: Used by a few units of the amphibious and tactical divers of the Argentinian navy.
- France: Used by the French Armed Forces since 1979, with over 700,000 rifles purchased. Also used by several law enforcement agencies.
- Indonesia: Komando Pasukan Katak (KOPASKA) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.
- Papua New Guinea
- Philippines: Used by the Philippine National Police and Special Action Force.
- Serbia: Used by the police special forces unit PTJ (Counter-Terrorist Unit), and formerly used by JSO (Special Operations Unit).
- Tunisia: Used by the Tunisian Presidential Guard.
- United Arab Emirates
Sources and references
- "Modern Firearms – FAMAS". World.guns.ru. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "French MAS Type 1955". Forgotten Weapons. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "French MAS Type 62". Forgotten Weapons. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "FA-MAS Type 62". Securityarms.com. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- L'armée rencontre de sérieuses difficultés avec les munitions du fusil Famas
- Hogg, Ian V.; Weeks, John S. (2000). Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (7 ed.). Krause Publications. pp. 238–239. ISBN 978-0873418249.
- Kemp, Ian (April–May 2007). "Assault rifles in a 5.56 mm evolution: the fielding of new designs and the upgrade of existing weapons will ensure that 5.56 mm remains the predominant assault rifle calibre". Armada International. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- "Famas F-1". Rifles n Guns. 2 January 2007. Archived from the original on 22 February 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2008.
- Bishop, Chris. Guns in Combat. Chartwell Books, Inc (1998). ISBN 0-7858-0844-2.
- Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.
- "LiveLeak.com - ISIS Reportedly Fighting Alongside the Free Syrian Army and Al-Qaeda in Al-Zabadani". liveleak.com.
- France launches FAMAS replacement tender Archived 24 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. – IHS Jane's Defence Weekly, 22 May 2014
- "France Launches Program to Replace FAMAS Rifle - The Firearm Blog". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
- http://www.janes.com/article/64230/french-army-selects-hk416-to-replace-famas French Army selects HK416 to replace FAMAS. Nicholas de Larrinaga. London. IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. 30 September 2016
- BREAKING: Heckler & Koch CONFIRMED Winner of French AIF Rifle Contract; FN to Appeal French Decision - Thefirearmblog.com, 14 September 2016
- Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (27 January 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
- "Kopassus & Kopaska – Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- "Geeks spot French rifles in PNG coup attempt". Keith Jackson & Friends: PNG ATTITUDE.
- "PNG's mutineers trade guns for amnesty". The Australian. 31 January 2012.
- "Vanuatu Daily Newspaper". modestclub.com.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to FAMAS.|
- Official Nexter FAMAS page
- Buddy Hinton FAMAS Photo Collection
- FELIN article, with FAMAS pictured as part of FELIN system
- Modern Firearms
|French Army rifle