FANCM

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Fanconi anemia, complementation group M
Identifiers
Symbol FANCM
Alt. symbols KIAA1596
Entrez 57697
HUGO 23168
OMIM 609644
PDB 4BXO
RefSeq XM_048128
UniProt Q8IYD8
Other data
EC number 3.6.1.-
Locus Chr. 14 q21.3

Fanconi anemia, complementation group M, also known as FANCM is a human gene.[1][2]

Function[edit]

The protein encoded by this gene, FANCM displays DNA binding against fork structures[3] and an ATPase activity associated with dissociation of DNA triplexes. It is believed that FANCM in conjunction with other Fanconi anemia-associated proteins repair DNA at stalled replication forks.[4][5]

Disease linkage[edit]

Homozygous mutations in the FANCM gene are associated with Fanconi anemia.[6] A founder mutation in the Scandinavian population is also associated with a higher than average frequency of triple negative breast cancer in heterozygous carriers[7]

Meiosis[edit]

A current model of meiotic recombination, initiated by a double-strand break or gap, followed by pairing with an homologous chromosome and strand invasion to initiate the recombinational repair process. Repair of the gap can lead to crossover (CO) or non-crossover (NCO) of the flanking regions. CO recombination is thought to occur by the Double Holliday Junction (DHJ) model, illustrated on the right, above. NCO recombinants are thought to occur primarily by the Synthesis Dependent Strand Annealing (SDSA) model, illustrated on the left, above. Most recombination events appear to be the SDSA type.

Recombination during meiosis is often initiated by a DNA double-strand break (DSB). During recombination, sections of DNA at the 5' ends of the break are cut away in a process called resection. In the strand invasion step that follows, an overhanging 3' end of the broken DNA molecule then "invades" the DNA of an homologous chromosome that is not broken forming a displacement loop (D-loop). After strand invasion, the further sequence of events may follow either of two main pathways leading to a crossover (CO) or a non-crossover (NCO) recombinant (see Genetic recombination and Homologous recombination). The pathway leading to a NCO is referred to as synthesis dependent strand annealing (SDSA).

In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana FANCM helicase antagonizes the formation of CO recombinants during meiosis, thus favoring NCO recombinants.[8] The FANCM helicase is required for genome stability in humans and yeast, and is a major factor limiting meiotic CO formation in A. thaliana.[9] A pathway involving another helicase, RECQ4A/B, also acts independently of FANCM to reduce CO recombination.[8] These two pathways likely act by unwinding different joint molecule substrates (e.g. nascent versus extended D-loops; see Figure).

Only about 4% of DSBs in A. thaliana are repaired by CO recombination;[9] the remaining 96% are likely repaired mainly by NCO recombination. Sequela-Arnaud et al.[8] suggested that CO numbers are restricted because of the long-term costs of CO recombination, that is, the breaking up of favorable genetic combinations of alleles built up by past natural selection.

In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, FANCM helicase also directs NCO recombination during meiosis.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nagase T, Kikuno R, Nakayama M, Hirosawa M, Ohara O (August 2000). "Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVIII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273–81. doi:10.1093/dnares/7.4.271. PMID 10997877. 
  2. ^ Meetei AR, Medhurst AL, Ling C, et al. (September 2005). "A human ortholog of archaeal DNA repair protein Hef is defective in Fanconi anemia complementation group M". Nat. Genet. 37 (9): 958–63. doi:10.1038/ng1626. PMC 2704909Freely accessible. PMID 16116422. 
  3. ^ Coulthard R, Deans AJ, Swuec P, Bowles M, Costa A, West SC, McDonald NQ (September 2013). "Architecture and DNA Recognition Elements of the Fanconi Anemia FANCM-FAAP24 Complex". Structure. 21 (9): 1648–58. doi:10.1016/j.str.2013.07.006. PMID 23932590. 
  4. ^ Gari K, Décaillet C, Stasiak AZ, Stasiak A, Constantinou A (January 2008). "The Fanconi anemia protein FANCM can promote branch migration of Holliday junctions and replication forks". Mol. Cell. 29 (1): 141–8. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.11.032. PMID 18206976. 
  5. ^ Deans AJ, West SC (December 2009). "FANCM connects the genome instability disorders Bloom's Syndrome and Fanconi Anemia". Mol. Cell. 36 (6): 943–53. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.12.006. PMID 20064461. 
  6. ^ Meetei AR, Sechi S, Wallisch M, Yang D, Young MK, Joenje H, Hoatlin ME, Wang W (May 2003). "A multiprotein nuclear complex connects Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (10): 3417–26. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.10.3417-3426.2003. PMC 164758Freely accessible. PMID 12724401. 
  7. ^ Johanna I. Kiiski; Liisa M. Pelttari; Sofia Khan; Edda S. Freysteinsdottir; Inga Reynisdottir; Steven N. Hart; Hermela Shimelis; Sara Vilske; Anne Kallioniemi; Johanna Schleutker; Arto Leminen; Ralf Bützow; Carl Blomqvist; Rosa B. Barkardottir; Fergus J. Couch; Kristiina Aittomäki; Heli Nevanlinna (Oct 2014). "Exome sequencing identifies FANCM as a susceptibility gene for triple-negative breast cancer.". PNAS. 111 (42): 15172–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1407909111. PMC 4210278Freely accessible. PMID 25288723. 
  8. ^ a b c Séguéla-Arnaud M, Crismani W, Larchevêque C, Mazel J, Froger N, Choinard S, et al. (2015). "Multiple mechanisms limit meiotic crossovers: TOP3α and two BLM homologs antagonize crossovers in parallel to FANCM". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112 (15): 4713–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.1423107112. PMC 4403193Freely accessible. PMID 25825745. 
  9. ^ a b Crismani W, Girard C, Froger N, Pradillo M, Santos JL, Chelysheva L, et al. (2012). "FANCM limits meiotic crossovers". Science. 336 (6088): 1588–90. doi:10.1126/science.1220381. PMID 22723424. 
  10. ^ Lorenz A, Osman F, Sun W, Nandi S, Steinacher R, Whitby MC (2012). "The fission yeast FANCM ortholog directs non-crossover recombination during meiosis". Science. 336 (6088): 1585–8. doi:10.1126/science.1220111. PMC 3399777Freely accessible. PMID 22723423. 

External links[edit]