FC Bayern Munich
|Full name||Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V.|
|Nickname(s)||Der FCB (The FCB)
Die Bayern (The Bavarians)
Stern des Südens (Star of the South)
Die Roten (The Reds)
|Founded||27 February 1900|
|Website||Club home page|
|Active departments of FC Bayern Munich|
|Football (Men's)||Football II (Men's)||Football JT (Men's)|
Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V., commonly known as FC Bayern München, FCB (German pronunciation: [ʔɛf t͡seː ˈbaɪ̯ɐn ˈmʏnçn̩]), Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, and is the most successful club in German football history, having won a record 25 national titles and 17 national cups.
FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by eleven football players led by Franz John. Although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932, the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963. The club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, it won the European Cup three times in a row (1974–76). Overall, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most recently winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Bayern has also won one UEFA Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup and two Intercontinental Cups, making it one of the most successful European clubs internationally. Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football with 25 titles and has won 7 of the last 11 titles. They have traditional local rivalries with TSV 1860 München and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as a contemporary rivalry with Borussia Dortmund.
Since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena. Previously the team had played at Munich's Olympiastadion for 33 years. The team colours are red and white, and the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria. In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany and the third biggest football club in the world, generating €487.5 million for the 2013–2014 season. Bayern is the second-biggest club in the world in membership terms, after Benfica, with over 251,000 members. There are more than 3,800 officially-registered fan clubs with over 285,000 members. The club has other departments for chess, handball, basketball, gymnastics, bowling, table tennis, referees, and senior football with more than 1,100 active members.
- 1 History
- 2 Colours
- 3 Crest
- 4 Stadiums
- 5 Supporters
- 6 Rivalries
- 7 Organization and finance
- 8 Social engagement and charity
- 9 Training facility
- 10 Honours
- 11 Players
- 12 Coaches
- 13 Current board
- 14 Statistics
- 15 Other departments
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Early years (1900–65)
FC Bayern Munich was founded by members of a Munich gymnastics club (MTV 1879). When a congregation of members of MTV 1879 decided on 27 February 1900 that the footballers of the club would not be allowed to join the German Football Association (DFB), eleven members of the football division left the congregation and on the same evening founded Fußball-Club Bayern München. Within a few months Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all local rivals, including a 15–0 win against FC Nordstern, and reached the semifinals of the 1900–01 South German championship. In the following years the club won some local trophies and in 1910–11 Bayern joined the newly founded "Kreisliga", the first regional Bavarian league. They won this league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in 1914, which halted all football activities in Germany.
In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions, before winning their first South German championship in 1926, an achievement repeated two years later. Their first national title was gained in 1932, when coach Richard "Little Dombi" Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2–0 in the final.
The advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayern's development. The president, Kurt Landauer and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country. Many others in the club were also purged. Bayern was taunted as the "Jew's club", while local rival 1860 München gained much support. Josef Sauter, who was inaugurated 1943, was the only NSDAP member as president. As some Bayern players greeted Landauer, who was watching a friendly in Switzerland lead to continued discrimination. Bayern was also affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again. In the following years Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, achieving mid-table results in its regional league instead.
After the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, which was split five ways at that time. Bayern struggled, hiring and firing 13 coaches between 1945 and 1963. Landauer returned from exile in 1947 and was once again appointed club president, the tenure lasted until 1951. He remains as the club's president with the longest accumulated tenure. Landauer has been deemed as inventor of Bayern as a professional club and his memory is e.g. being upheld by the Bayern ultras Schickeria. In 1955 they were relegated, but returned to the Oberliga in the following season and won the DFB-Pokal for the first time, beating Fortuna Düsseldorf 1–0 in the final. The club struggled financially though, verging on bankruptcy at the end of the 1950s. Manufacturer Roland Endler provided the necessary funds and was rewarded with four years at the helm of the club. In 1963, the Oberligas in Germany were consolidated into one national league, the Bundesliga. Five teams from the Oberliga South were admitted. Bayern finished third in that year's southern division, but another Munich team, TSV 1860 München, had won the championship. As the DFB preferred not to include two teams from one city, Bayern was not chosen for the Bundesliga. They gained promotion two years later, fielding a team with young talents like Franz Beckenbauer, Gerd Müller, and Sepp Maier — who would later be collectively referred to as the axis.
Golden years (1965–79)
In their first Bundesliga season, Bayern finished third and also won the DFB-Pokal. This qualified them for the following year's European Cup Winners' Cup, which they won in a dramatic final against Scottish club Rangers, when Franz Roth scored the decider in a 1–0 extra time victory. In 1967, Bayern retained the DFB-Pokal, but slow overall progress saw Branko Zebec take over as coach. He replaced Bayern's offensive style of play with a more disciplined approach, and in doing so achieved the first league and cup double in Bundesliga history in 1969. Bayern Munich are one of four German clubs to win the Bundesliga and DFB-Pokal in the same season along with Borussia Dortmund, 1. FC Köln, and SV Werder Bremen. Zebec used only 13 players throughout the season.
Udo Lattek took charge in 1970. After winning the DFB-Pokal in his first season, Lattek led Bayern to their third German championship. The deciding match in the 1971–72 season against Schalke 04 was the first match in the new Olympiastadion, and was also the first live televised match in Bundesliga history. Bayern beat Schalke 5–1 and thus claimed the title, also setting several records, including points gained and goals scored. Bayern also won the next two championships, but the zenith was their triumph in the 1974 European Cup Final against Atlético Madrid, which Bayern won 4–0 after a replay. This title – after winning the Cup Winners' trophy 1967 and two semi-finals (1968 and 1972) in that competition – marked the club's breakthrough as a force on the international stage. During the following years, the team was unsuccessful domestically but defended their European title by defeating Leeds United in the 1975 European Cup Final when Roth and Müller secured victory with late goals. "We came back into the game and scored two lucky goals, so in the end we were the winners but we were very, very lucky", stated Franz Beckenbauer. Billy Bremner believed the French referee was "very suspicious." Leeds fans then rioted in Paris and were banned from European Football for three years. A year later in Glasgow, AS Saint-Étienne were defeated by another Roth goal and Bayern became the third club to win the trophy in three consecutive years. The final trophy won by Bayern in this era was the Intercontinental Cup, in which they defeated Brazilian club Cruzeiro over two legs. The rest of the decade was a time of change and saw no further titles for Bayern. In 1977, Franz Beckenbauer left for New York Cosmos and, in 1979, Sepp Maier and Uli Hoeneß retired while Gerd Müller joined the Fort Lauderdale Strikers. Bayerndusel was coined during this period as an expression of either contempt or envy about the sometimes narrow and last-minute wins against other teams.
From FC Breitnigge to FC Hollywood (1979–98)
The 1980s were a period of off-field turmoil for Bayern, with many changes in personnel and financial problems. On the field, Paul Breitner and Karl-Heinz Rummenigge, termed FC Breitnigge, led the team to Bundesliga titles in 1980 and 1981. Apart from a DFB-Pokal win in 1982, two relatively unsuccessful seasons followed, after which Breitner retired and former coach Udo Lattek returned. Bayern won the DFB-Pokal in 1984 and went on to win five Bundesliga championships in six seasons, including a double in 1986. However, European success was elusive during the decade; Bayern managed to claim the runners-up spot in the European Cup in 1982 and 1987.
Jupp Heynckes was hired as coach in 1987, but after two consecutive championships in 1988–89 and 1989–90 Bayern's form dipped. After a second place in 1990–91 the club finished just five points above the relegation places in 1991–92. In the season of 1993–94, Bayern lost out in the UEFA Cup second round to the Premier League team Norwich City, who remain the only English football club to beat them at the Olympiastadion. Success returned when Franz Beckenbauer took over for the second half of the 1993–94 season, winning the championship again after a four-year gap. Beckenbauer was then appointed club president.
His successors as coach, Giovanni Trapattoni and Otto Rehhagel, both finished trophyless after a season, not meeting the club's high expectations. During this time Bayern's players frequently appeared in the gossip pages of the press rather than the sports pages, resulting in the nickname FC Hollywood. Franz Beckenbauer briefly returned at the end of the 1995–96 season as caretaker coach and led his team to victory in the UEFA Cup, beating Bordeaux in the final. For the 1996–97 season, Trapattoni returned to win the championship. In the following season, Bayern lost the title to newly promoted Kaiserslautern and Trapattoni had to take his leave for the second time.
Renewed international success (1998–present)
After his success at Borussia Dortmund, Bayern were coached by Ottmar Hitzfeld from 1998 to 2004. In Hitzfeld's first season, Bayern won the Bundesliga and came close to winning the Champions League, losing 2–1 to Manchester United in injury time after leading for most of the match. The following year, in the club's centenary season, Bayern won the third league and cup double in its history. A third consecutive Bundesliga title followed in 2001, won with a stoppage time goal on the final day of the league season. Days later, Bayern won the Champions League for the fourth time after a 25-year gap, defeating Valencia CF on penalties. The 2001–02 season began with a win in the Intercontinental Cup, but ended trophyless otherwise. In 2002–03, Bayern won their fourth double, leading the league by a record margin of 16 points. Hitzfeld's reign ended in 2004, with Bayern underperforming, including defeat by second division Alemannia Aachen in the DFB-Pokal.
Felix Magath took over and led Bayern to two consecutive doubles. Prior to the start of the 2005–06 season, Bayern moved from the Olympiastadion to the new Allianz Arena, which the club shares with TSV 1860 München. On the field their performance in 2006–07 was erratic. Trailing in the league and having lost to Alemannia Aachen in the cup yet again, coach Magath was sacked shortly after the winter break.
Hitzfeld returned as trainer in January 2007, but Bayern finished the 2006–07 season fourth, thus failing to qualify for the Champions League for the first time in more than a decade. Additional losses in the DFB-Pokal and the DFB-Ligapokal left the club with no honours for the season.
For the 2007–08 season, Bayern made drastic squad changes to help rebuild. They signed a total of eight new players and sold, released or loaned out nine of their players. Among new signings were 2006 World Cup stars such as Franck Ribéry, Miroslav Klose and Luca Toni. Bayern went on to win the Bundesliga, being on top of the standings on every single week of play, and the DFB-Pokal against Borussia Dortmund.
On 11 January 2008 Jürgen Klinsmann was named as Hitzfeld's successor, taking charge on 1 July 2008. He signed a two-year contract. Bayern Munich lost the DFL-Supercup 1–2 against Borussia Dortmund in 2008. Bayer Leverkusen eliminated Bayern in quarter-finals of the DFB-Pokal. In the Champions League Bayern also reached the quarter-finals after winning Group F and defeating Sporting Clube de Portugal in the first knockout round, achieving a Champions League record aggregate of 12–1. On 27 April, two days after a home defeat against Schalke which saw Bayern drop to the third place in the table, Klinsmann was fired. Former trainer Jupp Heynckes was named as caretaker until the end of the season. Bayern eventually finished second, thus qualifying directly for the Champions League in 2009–10.
Bayern then signed Dutch manager Louis van Gaal for the 2009–10 season. Multi-million signings of Arjen Robben and Mario Gómez also followed in a bid to return Bayern to the top of the European scene. On 8 May 2010, Bayern Munich won the 2009–10 Bundesliga after a 3–1 win at Hertha BSC. Bayern then won the DFB-Pokal on 15 May 2010 to secure the domestic double. Bayern also reached the 2010 UEFA Champions League Final but were beaten 2–0 by Internazionale, failing to become the first German club to complete the treble.
In the 2010–11 season, Bayern were eliminated in the first round of the Champions League knockout phase by Internazionale on the away goals rule and finished third in the Bundesliga. Van Gaal was fired by Bayern in April 2011.
In the 2011–12 season, Heynckes returned to coach Bayern for a second permanent spell but the team was to end the season without a trophy for the second season running. Domestically they finished second in the Bundesliga and lost the DFB-Pokal final 2–5, both times finishing runner-up to Borussia Dortmund. They also reached the final of the Champions League in their home stadium, but lost to Chelsea on penalties (3–4), in what was only their second defeat to an English team in Munich, and their first at the Allianz Arena.
In the 2012–13 season, Bayern won the 2012 DFL-Supercup 2–1 against rivals Borussia Dortmund. FC Bayern became the first team in history to win their first eight matches in the Bundesliga after their 5–0 away win to Fortuna Düsseldorf. On 6 April 2013, Bayern won the 2012–13 Bundesliga after a 1–0 win at Eintracht Frankfurt with six games left, setting a new record for being the earliest ever Bundesliga winners. Other Bundesliga records set by Bayern in the 2012–13 season include most points in a season (91), highest league winning points margin (25), most wins in a season (29) and fewest goals conceded in a season (18). Bayern also equaled the record for fewest defeats in a season, losing once to Bayer 04 Leverkusen. Bayern also reached the Champions League final for the third time in four seasons, winning the club's fifth European Cup with a 2–1 defeat of domestic rivals Borussia Dortmund at Wembley Stadium. On 1 June 2013, Bayern beat VfB Stuttgart 3–2 in the 2013 DFB-Pokal Final to become the first German club in men's football to complete the treble; Bayern had missed out on trebles in 1999 and 2010.
On 1 July 2013, Pep Guardiola took over as manager ahead of the 2013–14 season. Bayern also completed the signing of Mario Götze from Borussia Dortmund for €37m, who became the most expensive German player in history (this was later surpassed by Mesut Özil's transfer from Real Madrid to Arsenal for €50m). On 24 July 2013, it was reported that Bayern had become the first German club with over 200,000 members. On 27 July 2013, Bayern Munich lost against rivals Borussia Dortmund 2–4 in the 2013 DFL-Supercup at Signal Iduna Park. On 30 August 2013, Bayern won the UEFA Super Cup against Chelsea. On 9 November 2013, Bayern set a new record for most successive Bundesliga matches without defeat, breaking Hamburger SV's thirty-year-old record of 36 matches. This record was eventually extended to 53 matches, before Bayern lost 1–0 to FC Augsburg in April 2014. On 27 November 2013, Bayern became the first team to win ten consecutive Champions League matches with a 3–1 away victory over CSKA Moscow. On 21 December 2013, Bayern beat Raja Casablanca 2–0 at the Stade de Marrakech to win the 2013 FIFA Club World Cup.
After almost a year of investigations against Uli Hoeneß, Bayern's former player, former long time general manager, and president at the time, he was convicted of tax evasion on 13 March 2014. Hoeneß resigned as president the next day, and Karl Hopfner was elected president on 2 May. Just days after Hoeneß conviction, on 25 March, Bayern won their 24th Bundesliga title by beating Hertha BSC 3–1 at the Olympiastadion in Berlin. With seven matches remaining in the season, it was the earliest the championship had been won in Bundesliga history, breaking the record Bayern had set in the previous season. At the end of the season Bayern beat Borussia Dortmund 2–0 in the 2014 DFB-Pokal Final to give the club the tenth league and cup double in its history.
In the original club constitution, Bayern's colours were named as white and blue, but the club played in white shirts with black shorts until 1905, when Bayern joined MSC. MSC decreed that the footballers would have to play in red shorts. Also the younger players were called red-shorts, which was meant as an insult. For most of the club's early history, Bayern had primarily worn white and maroon home kits. In 1968–69 season, Bayern changed to red and blue striped shirts, with blue shorts and socks. Between 1969 and 1973, the team wore a home strip of red and white striped shirts with either red or white shorts and red socks. In the 1973–74 season, the team switched to an all white kit featuring single vertical red and blue stripes on the shirt. From 1974 onwards, Bayern have mostly worn an all red home kit, with white trim. Bayern revived the red and blue striped colour scheme between 1995 and 1997. In 1997, blue was the dominant colour for the first time when Adidas released an all navy blue home kit with a red chest band. In 1999, Bayern returned to a predominantly red kit, which featured blue sleeves, and in 2000 the club released a traditional all red kit with white trim to be worn for Champions League matches. Bayern also wore a Rotwein coloured home kits in Bundesliga matches between 2001 and 2003, and during the 2006–07 Champions League campaign, in reference to their first choice colours prior to the late 1960s.
The club's away kit has had a wide range of colours over the years, including white, black, blue, and gold-green. Bayern also features a distinct international kit. During the 2013–14 season, Bayern have used an all red home kit with a Bavarian flag diamond watermark pattern, a Lederhosen inspired white and black Oktoberfest away kit, and an all navy blue international kit.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Bayern used a special away kit when playing at 1. FC Kaiserslautern, representing the Brazilian colours blue and yellow, a superstition borne from the fact that the club found it hard to win there.
1973–74 Bundesliga winners
European Cup Final
1993–94 Bundesliga winners
1996 UEFA Cup Final
1996 UEFA Cup Final
1998–99 Bundesliga winners
2013 UEFA Champions League Final Winners
Bayern's crest has changed several times. Originally it consisted of the stylised letters F, C, B, M, which were woven into one symbol. The original crest was blue. The colours of Bavaria were included for the first time in 1954.
The modern version of the crest has changed from the 1954 version in several steps. While the crest consisted of a single colour only for most of the time, namely blue or red, the current (2008) crest is blue, red, and white. It has the colours of Bavaria in its centre and FC Bayern München is written in white on a red ring enclosing the Bavarian colours.
Bayern played its first training games at the Schyrenplatz in the centre of Munich. The first official games were held on the Theresienwiese. In 1901, Bayern moved to a field of its own, located in Schwabing at the Clemensstraße. After joining the Münchner Sport-Club (MSC) in 1906, Bayern moved in May 1907 to MSC's ground at the Leopoldstraße. As the crowds gathering for Bayern's home games increased at the beginning of the 1920s, Bayern had to switch to various other premises in Munich.
From 1925, Bayern shared the Grünwalder Stadion with 1860 Munich. Until World War II, the stadium was owned by 1860 Munich, and is still colloquially known as Sechz'ger ("Sixties") Stadium. It was destroyed during the war, and efforts to rebuild it resulted in a patchwork. Bayern's record crowd at the Grünwalder Stadion is reported as more than 50,000 in the home game against 1. FC Nürnberg in the 1961–62 season. In the Bundesliga era the stadium had a maximum capacity of 44,000 which was reached on several occasions, but the capacity has since been reduced to 21,272. As was the case at most of this period's stadiums, the vast majority of the stadium was given over to terracing. Today the second teams of both clubs play in the stadium.
For the 1972 Summer Olympics the city of Munich built the Olympiastadion. The stadium, renowned for its architecture, was inaugurated in the last Bundesliga match of the 1971–72 season. The match drew a capacity crowd of 79,000, a total which was reached again on numerous occasions. The stadium was, in its early days, considered to be one of the foremost stadia in the world and played host to numerous major finals, such as that of 1974 FIFA World Cup. In the following years the stadium underwent several modifications, such as an increase in seating space from approximately 50% to ca. 66% [clarification needed]. Eventually the stadium had a capacity of 63,000 for national matches, and 59,000 for international occasions such as European Cup competitions. Many people, however, began to feel that the stadium was too cold in winter, with half the audience exposed to the weather due to lack of cover. A further complaint was the distance between the spectators and the pitch, the stadium betraying its track and field heritage. Modification of the stadium proved impossible as the architect Günther Behnisch vetoed major modifications of the stadium.
After much discussion, the city of Munich, the state of Bavaria, FC Bayern, and TSV 1860 jointly decided at the end of 2000 to build a new stadium. While Bayern had wanted a purpose-built football stadium for several years, the awarding of the 2006 FIFA World Cup to Germany stimulated the discussion as the Olympiastadion no longer met the FIFA criteria to host a World Cup game. Located on the northern outskirts of Munich, the Allianz Arena has been in use since the beginning of the 2005–06 season. Its initial capacity of 66,000 fully covered seats has since been increased for matches on national level to 69,901 by transforming 3,000 seats to terracing in a 2:1 ratio. Since August 2012, 2,000 more seats were added in the last row of the top tier increasing the capacity to 71,000. In January 2015, a proposal to increase the capacity was approved by the city council so now Allianz Arena has a capacity of 75,000 (70,000 in Champions League).
The most prominent feature of the stadium is the translucent outer layer, which can be illuminated in different colours for impressive effects. Usually, red lighting is used for Bayern home games, blue for TSV 1860 München games and white for German national team home games.
In May 2012, Bayern opened a museum about its history, FC Bayern Erlebniswelt, inside the Allianz Arena.
Bayern considers itself a national club. The club has more than 187,000 members and 3,202 fanclubs, making it the club with the largest number of organised supporters in Germany. Owing partly to the club having supporters all over the country, all of Bayern's away games have been sold out in recent years. Their following is mainly recruited from the aspiring middle class and regional Bavaria. Despite a large proportion of their supporters having to travel more than 200 km (ca. 120 miles) regularly, the club's home matches in the Allianz Arena have almost always been sold out. According to a study by Sport+Markt Bayern is the fifth-most popular football club in Europe with 20.7 million supporters, and the most popular football club in Germany with 10 million supporters.
Bayern Munich is also renowned for its well-organised ultra scene. The most prominent groups are the Schickeria München, the Inferno Bavaria, the Red Munichs '89, the Südkurve '73, the Munichmaniacs 1996, the Red Angels, and the Red Sharks. The ultras scene of Bayern Munch has been recognized for certain groups taking stance against right-wing extremism, racism and homophobia, and in 2014 the group Schickeria München received the Julius Hirsch Award by the DFB for its commitment against antisemitism and discrimination.
The club also has quite a number of high-profile supporters, among them Pope Benedict XVI, Boris Becker, retired German tennis player, Wladimir Klitschko, Ukrainian boxer, Horst Seehofer and Edmund Stoiber, former Minister-President of Bavaria, to name just a few.
Bayern Munich has a rivalry with Borussia Dortmund. Bayern and Dortmund have competed against each other for many Bundesliga titles. Bayern and Dortmund have played against each other in the DFB-Pokal final in 2008, 2012, and 2014. The 2–5 loss against Dortmund in the 2012 DFB-Pokal final was Bayern's worst ever loss in a final. Bayern and Dortmund have also played against each other in the DFL-Supercup in 1989, 2008, 2012, 2013 and 2014. The height of the rivalry was when Bayern defeated Dortmund, 2–1 in the final of the 2013 UEFA Champions League.
Bayern is one of three professional football clubs in Munich. Bayern's main local rival is TSV 1860 München, who were the more successful club in the 1960s, winning a cup and a championship. In the 1970s and 1980s, TSV 1860 moved between the first and the third division, but lately have settled in the second division. The Munich derby is still a much anticipated event, getting a lot of extra attention from supporters of both clubs. 1860 is considered more working-class, and therefore suffers from a diminishing fan base in a city where the manufacturing sector is declining. Bayern is considered the establishment club, which is reflected by many board members being business leaders[dubious ] and including the former Bavarian minister president, Edmund Stoiber. Despite the rivalry, Bayern has repeatedly supported 1860 in times of financial disarray.
Since the 1920s, 1. FC Nürnberg has been Bayern's main and traditional rival in Bavaria. Philipp Lahm said that playing Nürnberg is "always special" and is a "heated atmosphere". Both clubs played in the same league in the mid-1920s, but in the 1920s and 1930s, Nürnberg was far more successful, winning five championships in the 1920s, making the club Germany's record champion. Bayern took over the title more than sixty years later, when they won their tenth championship in 1987, thereby surpassing the number of championships won by Nürnberg. The duel between Bayern and Nürnberg is often referred to as the Bavarian Derby.
Bayern also enjoys a strong rivalry with the 1. FC Kaiserslautern, originating in parts from a game in 1973, when Bayern lost 7–4 after leading 4–1, but also from the two clubs competing for German championship honours at various times in the Bundesliga as well as the city of Kaiserslautern together with the surrounding Palatinate having been part of Bavaria until a plebiscite after the end of the Second World War.
Since the 1970s, Bayern's main rivals have been the clubs who put up the strongest fight against its national dominance. In the 1970s this was Borussia Mönchengladbach, in the 1980s the category expanded to include Hamburger SV. In the 1990s, Borussia Dortmund, Werder Bremen, and Bayer Leverkusen emerged as the most ardent opponents. Recently Borussia Dortmund, Schalke, and Werder Bremen have been the main challengers in the Bundesliga.
Amongst Bayern's chief European rivals are Real Madrid, A.C. Milan, and Manchester United due to many classic wins, draws and losses. Real Madrid versus Bayern is the match that has historically been played most often in the Champions League with 14 matches and the European Cup with 19 matches. Real's biggest loss at home in the Champions League came at the hands of Bayern on 29 February 2000 (2–4). Due to Bayern being traditionally hard to beat for Madrid, Madrid supporters often refer to Bayern as the "Bestia negra" ("Black Beast"). Despite the number of duels, Bayern and Real have never met in the final of a Champions League or European Cup. The two teams met in the 2011–12 Champions League semi-finals which resulted in 3–3 on aggregate, forcing extra time and penalties. Bayern won 3–1 on penalties to reach their first ever home Champions League final. They then again met in 2013–14 UEFA Champions League semi-finals, a rematch of the 2012 semi-final, with Real Madrid winning 5–0 on aggregate.
Organization and finance
Bayern is led mostly by former club players. The club presidency is currently vacant after the resignation of Uli Hoeneß who had been President from 1979 to 2014; Hoeneß resigned after being convicted of tax fraud. Karl-Heinz Rummenigge is the chairman of the executive board of the AG. The supervisory board of nine consists mostly of managers of big German corporations. They are Herbert Hainer (CEO adidas), Uli Hoeneß, Timotheus Höttges, Helmut Markwort, Dieter Rampl, Fritz Scherer, Rupert Stadler, Edmund Stoiber, and Martin Winterkorn.
Professional football at Bayern is run by the spin-off organization FC Bayern München AG. AG is short for Aktiengesellschaft, and Bayern is run like a joint stock company, a company whose stock are not listed on the public stock exchange, but is privately owned. 81.8% of FC Bayern München AG is owned by the club, the FC Bayern München e. V. (e. V. is short for Eingetragener Verein, which translates into "Registered Club") and 9.1% by sports goods manufacturer Adidas and 9.1% by automobile company Audi. Adidas acquired its shares in 2002 for €77m. The money was designated to help finance the Allianz Arena. In 2009 Audi paid €90m for their share. The capital will be used to repay the loan for the Allianz Arena quicker than originally planned. Bayern's other sports departments are run by the club.
Bayern's main advertising partner and current holder of the jersey rights is Deutsche Telekom. The main supplier of the club is Adidas. The premium partners include Audi, HypoVereinsbank, Imtech, Lufthansa, MAN, Paulaner Brewery, Samsung, DHL and Yingli Solar. Classic sponsors include Coca-Cola, Siemens, Hublot, Henkel, Flyeralarm, Nestle Schoeller, Adelholzener, Fitness First, Schaeffler Group, s.Oliver, Viagogo, Trentino, Thomas Sabo and Starwood Hotels and Resorts. Food sponsors include Albi, BiFi, Ehrmann and MF. In previous years the jersey rights were held by Adidas (1974–78), Magirus Deutz and Iveco (trucks / 1978–84), Commodore (computers / 1984–89) and Opel (cars / 1989–2002).
Bayern is an exception in professional, international football, having generated profits in nine of the last ten seasons. Other clubs often report losses, realizing transfers via loans, whereas Bayern always uses current assets. Also Bayern differs from other European top clubs in their income composition. While other clubs derive more than 35% of their revenues from broadcasting right, Bayern earn only 22% of their revenues that way. This is often accounted for by Bayern not marketing their broadcasting right themselves. Instead the Deutsche Fußball Liga negotiates broadcasting rights for the whole Bundesliga.
In 2011–12, Bayern reported revenues of €373.4 million, marking the eighth consecutive time that Bayern has topped their previous record earnings. According to the 2013 edition of Deloitte's annual Football Money League, Bayern was the fourth richest club in the world in 2012, generating revenues of €368.4 million.
While other European clubs have mainly marketed to international audiences, Bayern has focused on Germany. Forbes ranks Bayern as the world's fifth most valuable football club in their annual list, estimating the club's at value $1.235 billion. As a result of Bayern's finals appearance in the 2012 UEFA Champions League, the club's brand value has reached $786 million USD which is up 59 percent from the previous year. Among European teams this is ahead of Real Madrid's $600 million USD and behind first place Manchester United whose brand is valued at $853 million USD. In 2013, Bayern overtook Manchester United to take first place in brand valuation.
Social engagement and charity
Bayern has been involved with charitable ventures for a long time, helping other football clubs in financial disarray as well as ordinary people in misery. In the wake of the 2004 Tsunami the "FC Bayern – Hilfe e.V." was founded, a foundation that aims to concentrate the social engagements of the club. At its inception this venture was funded with €600,000, raised by officials and players of the club. The money was amongst other things used to build a school in Marathenkerny, Sri Lanka and to rebuild the area of Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. In April 2007 it was decided that the focus of the foundation would shift towards supporting people in need locally.
The club has also time and again shown to have a soft spot for clubs in financial disarray. Repeatedly the club has supported its local rival 1860 Munich with gratuitous friendlies, transfers at favourable rates, and direct money transfers. Also when St. Pauli threatened to lose its license for professional football due to financial problems, Bayern met the club for a friendly game free of any charge, giving all revenues to St. Pauli. More recently when Mark van Bommel's home club Fortuna Sittard was in financial distress Bayern came to a charity game at the Dutch club. Another well known example was the transfer of Alexander Zickler in 1993 from Dynamo Dresden. When Bayern picked up Zickler for 2.3 Million DM many considered the sum to be a subvention for the financially threatened Dresdeners. In 2003, Bayern provided a 2 Million Euro loan without collateral to the nearly bankrupt Borussia Dortmund which has since been repaid. On 14 July 2013, Bayern played a charity game against financially threatened third division Hansa Rostock. The game raised about €1 million, securing Hansa's licence.
In the summer of 2013 Bayern was the first club to give financial support to the Magnus Hirschfeld National Foundation. The foundation researches the living environment LGBT people, and developed an eductation concept to facilitate unbiased dealing with LGBT themes in football.
FC Bayern Munich training facilities, for both the professional and the Junior Team, are located at the Bayern Munich Headquarters. There are four grass pitches, one of which has undersoil heating, one artificial grass field and a multi-functional sports hall. After the closure of Munich American High School, FC Bayern purchased the DoDDS adjacent sporting fields that previously held MAHS's football pitch and baseball field. A new grass pitch was placed over the existing football pitch while an artificial turf field was placed over the baseball diamond.
The players' quarters opened in 1990 and were reconstructed after the 2007–08 season on suggestions by the new coach, Jürgen Klinsmann, who took inspiration from various major sports clubs. The quarters are now called the performance centre and feature a weights and fitness area, a massage unit, dressing rooms, the coaches' office, and a conference room with screening facilities for video analysis. A café, a library, an e-Learning room, and a family room are also included.
Located at the headquarters is also the Youth academy, which houses up to 13 young talents from outside the city. While being part of Bayern's Junior Team they can work there on their development as footballers. Former residents of the Youth House include Owen Hargreaves, Michael Rensing, and Bastian Schweinsteiger.
Bayern is historically the most successful team in German football, as they have won the most championships and the most cups. They are also Germany's most successful team in international competitions, having won eleven trophies. Bayern is one of only four clubs to have won all three major European competitions and also the last club to have won the European Cup three times in a row, entitling them to wear a multiple-winner badge during Champions League matches.
- German Champions
- UEFA Champions League / European Cup
- UEFA Europa League / UEFA Cup
- Winner: 1995–96
- UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
- Winner: 1966–67 (shared German record)
- UEFA Super Cup
- Winner: 2013 (German record)
- Intercontinental Cup
- FIFA Club World Cup
- Winner: 2013 (German record)
- Southern German football championship
- Champions (2): 1925–26, 1927–28
- Runners-up (4): 1909–10, 1910–11, 1928–29, 1931–32
- Southern German Cup
- Champions: 1957
- Runners-up: 1923
- Ostkreis-Liga (I) champions: 1910, 1911; runners-up: 1912, 1913, 1917, 1918 (record)
- Kreisliga Südbayern (I) champions: 1920, 1923 (shared record); runners-up: 1922
- Bezirksliga Bayern (I) champions: 1925–26
- Bezirksliga Südbayern (I) champions: 1927–28, 1928–29, 1929–30, 1930–31, 1931–32, 1932–33 (record)
- Gauliga Südbayern (I) champions: 1943–44
- Regionalliga Süd (II)
- Champions: 1964–65
- Runners-up: 1963–64
- As of 8 June 2015
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Players out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
- For recent transfers, see List of German football transfers summer 2015.
- See also: Bayern Munich II, Bayern Munich Junior Team
Notable past players
|The "Greatest Ever" squad chosen by more than 79,901 fans, in 2005. The coach chosen was Ottmar Hitzfeld.|
- Franz Beckenbauer (DF)
- Gerd Müller (FW)
- Uli Hoeneß (FW)
- Paul Breitner (MF)
- Sepp Maier (GK)
- Hans-Georg Schwarzenbeck (DF)
- Franz Roth (MF)
|1965–70||Werner Olk (DF)|
|1970–77||Franz Beckenbauer (DF)|
|1977–79||Sepp Maier (GK)|
|1979||Gerd Müller (FW)|
|1979–80||Georg Schwarzenbeck (DF)|
|1980–83||Paul Breitner (MF)|
|1983–84||Karl-Heinz Rummenigge (FW)|
|1984–91||Klaus Augenthaler (DF)|
|1991–94||Raimond Aumann (GK)|
|1994–96||Lothar Matthäus (DF)|
|1997–99||Thomas Helmer (DF)|
|1999–02||Stefan Effenberg (MF)|
|2002–08||Oliver Kahn (GK)|
|2008–11||Mark van Bommel (MF)|
|2011–||Philipp Lahm (DF)|
|Pep Guardiola||Head coach|
|Manel Estiarte||Personal assistant|
|Hermann Gerland||Assistant coach|
|Domènec Torrent||Assistant coach|
|Toni Tapalović||Goalkeeping coach|
|Lorenzo Buenaventura||Fitness coach|
|Andreas Kornmayer||Fitness coach|
|Thomas Wilhelmi||Fitness coach|
|Matthias Sammer||Sport director|
|Carles Planchart||Match analyst|
|David Rosenkranz||Video analyst|
|Michael Niemeyer||Video analyst|
|Vitus Angerer||Video analyst|
|Paul Breitner||Chief scout|
|Holger Broich||Physiotherapist/Fitness coach|
|Mona Nemmer||Nutrition adviser|
Coaches since 1963
Bayern had 17 coaches since its promotion to the Bundesliga in 1965. Udo Lattek, Giovanni Trapattoni, Ottmar Hitzfeld and Jupp Heynckes served two terms as head coach. Franz Beckenbauer served one term as head coach and one as caretaker. Lattek was the club's most successful coach, having won six Bundeslige titles, two DFB Cups and the European Cup; following closely is Ottmar Hitzfeld, who won five Bundeslige titles, two DFB cups and the Champions League. The club's least successful coach was Søren Lerby, who won less than a third of his matches in charge and presided over the club's near-relegation in the 1991–92 campaign.
The present manager, since July 2013, is Josep Guardiola, Barcelona's former coach.
|1||Zlatko Čajkovski||1 July 1963||30 June 1968||1096||3||two Cups, one European Cup Winners' Cup|
|2||Branko Zebec||1 July 1968||13 March 1970||621||2||one Championship, one Cup|
|3||Udo Lattek||14 March 1970||2 January 1975||1756||5||three Championships, one Cup, one European Cup|
|4||Dettmar Cramer||16 January 1975||1 December 1977||1051||3||two European Cups, one Intercontinental Cup|
|5||Gyula Lóránt||2 December 1977||28 February 1979||454||0|
|6||Pál Csernai||1 March 1979||16 May 1983||1538||3||two Championships, one Cup|
|7||Reinhard Saftig*||17 May 1983||30 June 1983||45||0|
|8||Udo Lattek||1 July 1983||30 June 1987||1461||5||three Championships, two Cups|
|9||Jupp Heynckes||1 July 1987||8 October 1991||1561||4||two Championships, two SuperCups|
|10||Søren Lerby||9 October 1991||11 March 1992||155||0|
|11||Erich Ribbeck||12 March 1992||27 December 1993||656||0|
|12||Franz Beckenbauer||7 January 1994||30 June 1994||175||1||one Championship|
|13||Giovanni Trapattoni||1 July 1994||30 June 1995||365||0|
|14||Otto Rehhagel||1 July 1995||27 April 1996||302||0|
|15||Franz Beckenbauer*||29 April 1996||30 June 1996||63||1||one UEFA Cup|
|16||Giovanni Trapattoni||1 July 1996||30 June 1998||730||3||one Championship, one Cup, one League Cup|
|17||Ottmar Hitzfeld||1 July 1998||30 June 2004||2192||11||four Championships, two Cups, three League Cups, one Champions League, one Intercontinental Cup|
|18||Felix Magath||1 July 2004||31 January 2007||945||5||two Championships, two Cups, one League Cup|
|19||Ottmar Hitzfeld||1 February 2007||30 June 2008||516||3||one Championship, one Cup, one League Cup|
|20||Jürgen Klinsmann||1 July 2008||27 April 2009||302||0|
|21||Jupp Heynckes*||27 April 2009||31 May 2009||35||0|
|22||Louis van Gaal||1 July 2009||10 April 2011||648||3||one Championship, one Cup, one SuperCup|
|23||Andries Jonker*||10 April 2011||26 June 2011||61||0|
|24||Jupp Heynckes||1 July 2011||25 June 2013||725||4||one SuperCup, one Championship, one Champions League, one Cup|
|25||Pep Guardiola||26 June 2013||738||5||one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup, two Championships, one Cup|
* Served as caretaker coach.
|Karl Hopfner||President Bayern Munich e.V. and Chairman of the board|||
|Herbert Hainer||Vice-Chairman of the board and Adidas AG chairman|||
|Rupert Stadler||Vice-Chairman of the board and Audi AG chairman|||
|Helmut Markwort||Publisher of FOCUS Magazine|||
|Dieter Rampl||UniCredit Group advisory board chairman|||
|Dr. Edmund Stoiber||Former Minister-President of Bavaria, Bayern Munich e.V. advisory board chairman|||
|Timotheus Höttges||Telekom AG chairman|||
|Prof. Dr. Martin Winterkorn||Volkswagen AG chairman|||
|Jan-Christian Dreesen||Executive board member (Finance)|||
|Matthias Sammer||Executive board member (Sport)|||
|Andreas Jung||Executive board member (Marketing)|||
|Jörg Wacker||Executive board member (Strategy)|||
For a list of former presidents see List of FC Bayern Munich records and statistics#Presidents
As of 28 April 2015[update]. Rank = Rank in the Bundesliga; P = Played; W = Win; D = Draw; L = Loss; F = Goals for; A = Goals against; GD = Goal difference; Pts = Points; Cup = DFB-Pokal; EL = UEFA Europa League; CL = UEFA Champions League.
in = Still in competition; — = Not attended; 1R = 1st round; 2R = 2nd round; 3R = 3rd round; R16 = Round of sixteen; QF = Quarterfinals; SF = Semifinals.
As of 16 February 2015[update]:
|UEFA Champions League / European Cup||293||166||64||63||56.66|||
|UEFA Europa League / UEFA Cup||68||39||13||16||57.35|
|UEFA Cup Winners' Cup||39||19||14||6||48.72|
|UEFA Super Cup||6||1||1||4||16.67|
FC Bayern II
The reserve team serves mainly as the final stepping stone for promising young players before being promoted to the main team. Bayern II is coached by Erik ten Hag, assisted by Gerd Müller and Rainer Ulrich. Since the inception of the Regionalliga in 1994, the team played in the Regionalliga Süd, after playing in the Oberliga since 1978. In the 2007–08 season they qualified for the newly founded 3rd Liga, where they lasted until 2011, when they were relegated to the Regionalliga. This ended 33 consecutive years of playing in the highest league that the German Football Association permits the second team of a professional football team to play.
The Bayern Munich Junior Team has produced some of Europe's top football players, including Owen Hargreaves, Thomas Hitzlsperger, Philipp Lahm, Thomas Müller and Bastian Schweinsteiger. The division was founded in 1902 and is run by Werner Kern and Björn Andersson. It consists of eleven teams with more than 170 players, the youngest being under ten.
The women's football team which is led by head coach Thomas Wörle features several members of the German national youth team. In the 2008–09 season the team finished second in the women's Bundesliga. The division was founded in 1970 and consists of four teams with 90 players. Their greatest success was winning the championship in 1976.
Bayern has other departments for:
since 1984 with 46 players in 4 teams
since 1908 with 97 players in 8 teams
European Club Cup 1992
German champion 1983, 1985, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 and 1995
German Fast chess champion 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995 (record)
since 1974 with 35 gymnasts in 1 team
German champion 1983, 1986, 1987 and 1988
since 1945 with 3000 players in 10 teams
since 1946 with 160 players in 12 teams
since 1919 with 115 referees
since 2001 with 135 players in 5 teams
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