|Full name||Football Club Twente|
Pride of the East
|Founded||1 July 1965|
|Ground||De Grolsch Veste|
|Chairman||Paul van der Kraan|
|Head coach||Ron Jans|
|2021–22||Eredivisie, 4th of 18|
Football Club Twente (Dutch pronunciation: [ɛfˈseː ˈtʋɛntə]) is a Dutch professional football club from the city of Enschede, sometimes known internationally as Twente Enschede. The club was formed in 1965 by the merger of 1926 Dutch champions Sportclub Enschede with Enschedese Boys. It was the holder of the 2011 KNVB Cup and Johan Cruyff Shield trophies, and was Eredivisie champion in the 2009–10 season; the club has also finished as Eredivisie runner-up twice, was runner-up in the 1974–75 UEFA Cup, and has won the KNVB Cup three times. Twente's home ground since 1998 is De Grolsch Veste. Since 2019, the team have played in the Eredivisie, the top division of Dutch football.
Foundation and early years
The club was formed in 1965 as a merger of two professional clubs, Sportclub Enschede and the Enschedese Boys. One of such predecessors, SC Enschede, had also won a single Dutch championship in 1926.
The first successes of the club started just after the merger of 1965, under the innovative coach Kees Rijvers. Twente finished third in 1969, fourth in 1970, fifth in 1971, third in 1972 and again in 1973. The team's key figures were local heroes, such as Epi Drost, Eddy Achterberg, Kick van der Vall and Theo Pahlplatz. Their finest Eredivisie season was 1973–74, in which Twente battled for the Dutch championship with Feyenoord. A head-to-head confrontation in the final game of the season, in Rotterdam, where Feyenoord prevailed 3–2, sealed Twente's fate in second. Nonetheless, this earned the side a position in the UEFA Cup.
The Tukkers (as people from the Dutch region of Twente are generally called) nearly made the very most out of that UEFA Cup ticket—after beating Juventus in the semi-finals, Twente lost to German side Borussia Mönchengladbach in the finals (0–0, 1–5).
The 1980s and 1990s
After enjoying some success in the 1970s, prospects went downhill for Twente, with the club ultimately suffering relegation to the Eerste Divisie, the Dutch second division, in 1983. However, Twente returned to the top flight a year later, but the club soon became known for their "impressive" amount of 1–1 and 0–0 draws. This new reputation as "boring Twente" overshadowed the fact that the club kept qualifying for European football on a fairly regular basis, with five times since 1985.
Re-establishment then followed in the 1990s: German coach Hans Meyer led Twente to third-place in the Eredivisie of 1997 and into the third round of the 1997–98 UEFA Cup the next season. On 24 May 2001, Twente clinched their second triumph in the KNVB Cup after beating PSV in the final after being 3–1 down in the penalty shoot-out. The season after, Twente crashed out of the Cup at the hands of Ajax's second team. Additionally, results in the league were poor, with hardcore Twente fans Ultras Vak-P eventually going on a rampage at the club's brand-new stadium, De Grolsch Veste, out of frustration.
From bankruptcy to national champions (2002–2011)
The club's mother corporation (FC Twente '65) was declared bankrupt in the 2002–03 season, almost leading to the club's going out of existence. The club, now chaired by ambitious businessman Joop Munsterman, survived such problems and made it to another KNVB Cup final in 2004, and then finished in fourth place in the league table in 2006–07. In the 2007–08 season, Twente placed fourth and won the play-offs for a ticket to the Champions League qualifiers by defeating Ajax in the play-off finals.
In the 2008–09 season, Twente hired former England manager Steve McClaren as its new head coach. Under his tenure, unseeded Twente entered the draw for the third qualifying round of the Champions League, being drawn against seeded Arsenal. The two legs were played at home on 13 August and away on 27 August 2008. Twente lost 6–0 on aggregate, resulting in their elimination from the Champions League and subsequent entry of the 2008–09 UEFA Cup first round. At the domestic level, Twente finished second in the Eredivisie, 11 points behind champions AZ, and again secured entry to the Champions League qualifying rounds as Dutch runners-up, as well as KNVB Cup finalists (defeated by Heerenveen).
The 2009–10 season started with Twente being knocked out of the 2009–10 UEFA Champions League third qualifying round after a 1–1 aggregate draw against Sporting CP, which sent the Portuguese side through on away goals. The club was then admitted to the Europa League, where it enjoyed a relatively successful path that ended in a 4–2 aggregate defeat at the hands of Werder Bremen in the round of 32. At the domestic level, Twente won its first Eredivisie title at the end of a campaign in which they lost just twice, winning 16 of 17 at home. The championship was confirmed on the final day of the season when they beat NAC 2–0 away, making Steve McClaren the first Englishman to guide a Dutch team to a national title since Bobby Robson in 1992. The victory qualified Twente for the 2010–11 UEFA Champions League group stage, the club's first appearance in the competition. At the end of the season, McClaren resigned as the manager, moving to German side VfL Wolfsburg, and was replaced by the Belgian Michel Preud'homme. Twente continued their success by having a good run during the 2010–11 KNVB Cup, reaching the final on 8 May 2011 at De Kuip. Twente recovered from 2–0 down to defeat Ajax 3–2 in extra time with a winner from Marc Janko, which claimed the club's third KNVB Cup title. One week later, the two teams faced each other in Amsterdam in the final round of matches in the Eredivisie, with Twente leading by a point. However, Ajax gained revenge for the Cup defeat by winning 3–1, to claim their first title in seven years.
The start of the 2011–12 season, under Preud'homme's successor Co Adriaanse, featured another clash between the duo in the Amsterdam Arena, this time with Twente winning 2–1 in their second successive Johan Cruijff Shield supercup victory.
Financial problems and relegation (2014–2019)
During the 2014–15 Eredivisie season, Twente found themselves in financial trouble again, forcing the Royal Dutch Football Association (KNVB) to deduct the club three points from the side in March 2015. Club President Munsterman, who had announced to leave the club at the end of the season, then already quit the club on 1 April 2015 over allegations of financial mismanagement. The team fired 18 employees and stopped with their scouting department after they received a second three-point penalty in April 2015. They also decided to withdraw Jong Twente from the Eerste Divisie for the 2015–16 season and the women's professional team was relocated in a separate foundation. On 18 May 2016 the KNVB declared its intent to relegate FC Twente to the Eerste Divisie. This was however still subject to appeal by FC Twente and on 17 June 2016 the KNVB appeal committee decided that Twente can remain in the Eredivisie. At the end of the 2017–18 Eredivisie season, Twente relegated to the Eerste Divisie by finishing at the bottom of the table at the end of the season, after having fired two managers that season. The 2018–19 Eerste Divisie season was the first outside of the top flight for 34 years. Commercial director Jan van Halst felt partly responsible and then stepped down.
Back to Europe
In the Eerste Divisie, Twente had a season marked by ups and downs. From December 2018, however, through a 15-game stretch, not a single loss was recorded, giving the club a big lead over the competition. On 22 April 2019, the title and promotion were secured. Twente drew 0–0 at home against Jong AZ, but because the last remaining competitor Sparta Rotterdam lost, Twente could no longer be reached.
Despite promotion, manager Marino Pušić was dismissed and his assistant Gonzalo García was promoted to head coach and was put in charge of Twente's first season back in the Eredivisie. After a strong start, a 3–2 home defeat to archrivals Heracles Almelo was the start of a lesser period. Twente dropped to the bottom regions of the Eredivisie and after an impressive victory over AZ, three more defeats followed. However, after a 1–0 defeat against Vitesse, the Eredivisie season was abandoned due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands. As a result, Twente finished the 2019–20 season in fourteenth place, safe of relegation.
At the beginning of the 2020–21 season, García was also dismissed to be succeeded by the experienced Ron Jans. At the same time, Jan Streuer became technical director as a replacement for the Ted van Leeuwen who had resigned. Streuer brought in players such as Queensy Menig and Václav Černý, who would both become key players in the following season. After an excellent first half of the season, the results in the second half of the season were disappointing. Twente missed play-offs for European football and finished in tenth place. As a result of this season, Streuer wanted to bring more experienced players to the club, and signed Robin Pröpper and Ricky van Wolfswinkel. In addition, youth players were increasingly integrated in the first team with Mees Hilgers, Ramiz Zerrouki and Daan Rots becoming starters. Jody Lukoki was also signed, but he was seriously injured shortly after his arrival, which meant that he never played a match for Twente. Lukoki's contract was terminated on 17 February 2022 after being convicted of domestic violence.  Three months later, on 9 May 2022, Lukoki died of cardiac arrest after being beaten by family members.
After a strong season, Twente finished in fourth place in the league table and qualified for the third qualifying round of the 2022–23 UEFA Europa Conference League; their first return to Europe in eight years.
The following clubs are affiliated with Twente:
- Dayton Dutch Lions
- Heracles Almelo
- Go Ahead Eagles
De Grolsch Veste, formerly named Arke Stadion, is the official stadium of FC Twente and is owned by the club. It is located at the Business & Science Park, near the University of Twente and between the city centers of Enschede and Hengelo. It has a spectator capacity of 30,205 with a standard pitch heating system and has a promenade instead of fences around the stands.
De Grolsch Veste replaced the old Diekman Stadion as Twente's home ground on 22 March 1998. Initially, plans had been afoot to expand and renovate the old and now demolished Diekman stadium. However, with a growing fan capacity and with arguments that the location of the Diekman stadium was not strategic enough, the idea was conceived to build a new arena for the Twente fans. The Diekman ground also faced problems with its seating plans as a result of the FIFA regulations, which impose a requirement to construct a seating stand behind each goal.
The cost of the construction is estimated to be around 33 million guilders, and the stadium took 14 months to complete, with its foundation stone having been laid on 31 January 1997. Due to the tight budget available, the layout of the stadium was constructed so that future expansions are possible without the necessity to tear down entire existing stands.
Initially, the Grolsch Veste had a capacity of 13,500 spectators, which was later reduced to 13,250. As of the start of the 2008–09 season, the stadium has been expanded with a partial second ring increasing the capacity to 24,000 seats. After a second expansion, completed in 2011, the current capacity became 30,205.
- As of 01 August 2022
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
- Eerste Divisie
- Winners: 2018–19
- KNVB Cup
- Johan Cruyff Shield
Below is a table with Twente's domestic results since the introduction of the Eredivisie in 1956.
|Assistant Managers||Ivar van Dinteren|
|First-Team Coachs||Jeffrey de Visscher |
|Goalkeeper Coach||Sander Boschker|
|Fitness Coach||Nick Segers|
|Chief Scout||Patrick Busby|
|Scout||Evert Bleuming |
|Youth Scout||Jan Kemkens|
|Director of youth department||Dominique Scholten|
|Coordinator of talent management||Iddo Roscher|
|Technical Director||Jan Streuer|
- Friedrich Donenfeld (1 July 1965 – 30 June 1966)
- Kees Rijvers (1 July 1966 – 30 June 1972)
- Spitz Kohn (1 July 1972 – 30 September 1979)
- Hennie Hollink (1980–81)
- Rob Groener (1981–82)
- Spitz Kohn (1 November 1982 – 30 June 1983)
- Fritz Korbach (1 July 1983 – 30 June 1986)
- Theo Vonk (1 July 1986 – 30 June 1992)
- Rob Baan (1 July 1992 – 30 June 1994)
- Issy ten Donkelaar (1 July 1994 – 19 November 1995)
- Fred Rutten (interim) (16 November 1995 – 15 January 1996)
- Hans Meyer (15 January 1996 – 5 September 1999)
- Fred Rutten (6 September 1999 – 30 June 2001)
- John van 't Schip (1 July 2001 – 10 July 2002)
- René Vandereycken (24 July 2002 – 17 May 2004)
- Rini Coolen (1 July 2004 – 1 February 2006)
- Jan van Staa (interim) (1 February 2006 – 30 June 2006)
- Fred Rutten (1 July 2006 – 30 June 2008)
- Steve McClaren (20 June 2008 – 30 June 2010)
- Michel Preud'homme (1 July 2010 – 30 June 2011)
- Co Adriaanse (1 July 2011 – 3 January 2012)
- Steve McClaren (5 January 2012 – 26 February 2013)
- Alfred Schreuder (interim) (26 February 2013 – 1 April 2013)
- Michel Jansen (interim) (1 April 2013 – 30 June 2014)
- Alfred Schreuder (1 July 2014 – 31 August 2015)
- René Hake (31 August 2015 – 18 October 2017)
- Marino Pušić (interim) (18 October 2017 – 29 October 2017)
- Gertjan Verbeek (29 October 2017 – 26 March 2018)
- Marino Pušić (26 March 2018 – 31 May 2019)
- Gonzalo Recoba (1 July 2019 – 1 June 2020)
- Ron Jans (17 June 2020 – present)
Notable (former) players
The players below had senior international cap(s) for their respective countries. Players whose name is listed in bold represented their countries while playing for FC Twente.
- Lindon Selahi
- Ramiz Zerrouki
- Marko Arnautović
- Marc Janko
- Roland Kollmann
- David Carney
- Jason Čulina
- Nikita Rukavytsya
- Luke Wilkshire
- Dedryck Boyata
- Jurgen Cavens
- Nacer Chadli
- Stein Huysegems
- Frédéric Peiremans
- Nikolay Mihaylov
- Rahim Ouédraogo
- Cristian Cuevas
- Felipe Gutiérrez
- Bryan Ruiz
- Dario Vujičević
- Václav Černý
- Hans Aabech
- Michael Birkedal
- Andreas Bjelland
- Kasper Kusk
- Claus Nielsen
- Kenneth Perez
- Jan Sørensen
- Per Steffensen
- Përparim Hetemaj
- Fredrik Jensen
- Mika Lipponen
- Antti Sumiala
- Helmut Rahn
- Peter Niemeyer
- Rico Steinmann
- Giorgi Aburjania
- Giorgi Gakhokidze
- Prince Polley
- Konstantinos Loumpoutis
- Antal Nagy
- Arnar Viðarsson
- Nashat Akram
- Cheick Tioté
- Ryo Miyaichi
- Spitz Kohn
- Jesús Corona
- Luka Đorđević
- Karim El Ahmadi
- Ismaïl Aissati
- Faouzi El Brazi
- Anouar Diba
- Adil Ramzi
- Hakim Ziyech
- Otman Bakkal
- Ronald de Boer
- Sander Boschker
- John Bosman
- Paul Bosvelt
- Edson Braafheid
- Wout Brama
- Arnold Bruggink
- Romano Denneboom
- Epi Drost
- Eljero Elia
- Orlando Engelaar
- Leroy Fer
- Kees van Ierssel
- Theo Janssen
- Collins John
- Ola John
- Luuk de Jong
- René van de Kerkhof
- Willy van de Kerkhof
- Denny Landzaat
- Adam Maher
- Andy van der Meyde
- Michael Mols
- Arnold Mühren
- Youri Mulder
- René Notten
- Arthur Numan
- Heini Otto
- Niels Oude Kamphuis
- Theo Pahlplatz
- Marcel Peeper
- Quincy Promes
- Fred Rutten
- Dick Schoenaker
- Theo Snelders
- Frans Thijssen
- Kick van der Vall
- Dwight Tiendalli
- Orlando Trustfull
- Jan Vennegoor of Hesselink
- Paul Verhaegh
- Sander Westerveld
- Peter Wisgerhof
- Tyronne Ebuehi
- Hallvar Thoresen
- Renato Tapia
- Mateusz Klich
- Daniel Fernandes
- Dmitri Bulykin
- Scott Booth
- Slobodan Rajković
- Dušan Tadić
- Miroslav Stoch
- Haris Vučkić
- Kamohelo Mokotjo
- Bernard Parker
- Emir Bajrami
- Kennedy Bakırcıoğlu
- Rasmus Bengtsson
- Daniel Majstorović
- Sharbel Touma
- Blaise Nkufo
- Oguchi Onyewu
- Roberto Rosales
- Zvonko Bego
- Spira Grujić
- Mitar Mrkela
- Spasoje Samardžić
The women's section of Twente was founded in 2007 for the creation of the Eredivisie as new top-level league in the Netherlands. Twente played the opening match of the league. After three midfield positions in the first three years, Twente won the championship in 2010–11 and played the UEFA Women's Champions League in 2011–12.
- Netherlands – Champions – RSSSF
- Netherlands Cup Finals – RSSSF
- "McClaren woe as FC Twente exit Champions League". ESPNsoccernet. ESPN. 4 August 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- "First title for Twente". ESPNsoccernet. ESPN. 2 May 2010. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "Twente Have Made History – Steve McClaren". Goal.com. Ellinton Invest Inc. 3 May 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- "Dutch Cup glory for FC Twente". TEAMtalk. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011.
- "Barcelona Moves Within a Point of Third Straight Spanish Title; Inter Wins". Bloomberg.
- "Twente clinch the cup". ESPN.
- "Ajax end seven-year itch by lifting title". The Independent. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Ten-man Twente claim second Dutch Super Cup By Berend Scholten on UEFA.com". 30 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
- KNVB straft FC Twente met puntenaftrek – NOS (in Dutch)
- Joop Munsterman alsnog per direct weg bij FC Twente – RTV Oost (in Dutch)
- FC Twente: Ontslag voor 18 medewerkers – Tubantia (in Dutch)
- FC Twente stopt ook profscouting – AD (in Dutch)
- FC Twente stopt met beloftenteam in Jupiler League – FOXSports (in Dutch)
- FC Twente face eredivisie relegation of finances – skysports.com
- "Zeister Jan van Halst stapt op bij FC Twente". RTV Utrecht (in Dutch). 1 May 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- "Trots FC Twente wacht ook na promotie lange weg richting herstel". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). 22 April 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- "García García nieuwe hoofdtrainer FC Twente". Voetbal International (in Dutch). 16 May 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- "KNVB beslist: Ajax nummer één, geen promotie/degradatie". NOS (in Dutch). 24 April 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- "Jans tekent voor één seizoen bij FC Twente: Er wacht een grote klus". NU (in Dutch). 17 June 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- "Jan Streuer voor één jaar technisch directeur FC Twente". RTV Oost (in Dutch). 6 June 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- Voorde, Leon ten (25 December 2020). "FC Twente in 2020: De topscorer, de topkeeper en de pijn van tv kijken". Tubantia (in Dutch). Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- "Twente biedt precies wat van hersenoperatie herstelde Van Wolfswinkel gelukkig maakt". NOS (in Dutch). 5 November 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- Ten Voorde, Leon (17 February 2022). "FC Twente en Jody Lukoki gaan uit elkaar na huiselijk geweld". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 June 2022.
- Sijtsma, Het Parool/Thomas (9 May 2022). "Van beenamputatie tot coma en vroege dood: ruzie met familie wordt Jody Lukoki (29) fataal". Het Parool.
- "Ex-Ajax player Jody Lukoki dies after being beaten by his family". MARCA. 11 May 2022.
- "DR Congo international Lukoki dies aged 29". BBC Sport.
- "Wij gaan Europa in!". FC Twente (in Dutch). 11 May 2022. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
- "Dutch Lions Ink 5-Year Partnership". www.uslsoccer.com. 17 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- "DDL & FC Twente 5 Year Contract". www.dutchlionsfc.com. 17 January 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- Samenwerking met Dutch Lions FC getekend Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, officiële website (14 januari 2011)
- Карабах и Твенте будут сотрудничать. Azerisport.com (in Russian). Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- "Qarabağ" "Tvente" ilə əməkdaşlıq edəcək Archived 1 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine (in Azerbaijani)
- `Qarabağ` – `Tvente` : iki qardaş, bir yumruq! Archived 2 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine (in Azerbaijani)
- Samenwerking met Koz Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, officiële website (2 juni 2010)
- Samenwerking jeugdopleiding voortgezet, officiële website (16 juni 2009)
- FC Twente stadium collapses, killing one and hospitalising 10
- "Selectie FC Twente - FC Twente". Retrieved 1 August 2022.
- Official websites
- FCTwente.nl Archived 21 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine Official website of FC Twente (in Dutch, English, and German)
- FC Twente TV Official website FC Twente TV (No membership required)
- UEFA.com The FC Twente Story
- General fan sites
- FC Twente Online (in Dutch)
- FC Twente Online English Section
- Vak-P (in Dutch)
- Twentefans (in Dutch)
- FC Twente.nu Archived 19 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine (in Dutch)
- News sites