Founded in 2009 by former Romanian internationalGheorghe Hagi, the club is particularly known for promoting young talents from its academy, hence the nickname "Hagi's Kids". Viitorul had its first major success in 2017, when they became the first club from Constanța County to win the national title.
During the team's first season in Romanian football, they achieved mathematical promotion to the 2010–11Liga II after round 33, being in a fierce run with ACS Berceni near the end of the campaign. In the 2011–12 Liga II, Viitorul finished second in the table and prepared to compete in the top-flight.
In the 2012–13 season, Viitorul Constanța made its first appearance in the Liga I in club history. With 8 victories, 12 draws, and 13 defeats (36 points) they finished on the 13th place and avoided relegation. The club's first major victories were against Steaua București (5–2) and Dinamo București (3–2). Viitorul would move to avoid relegation in the next 2 seasons.
In 2016, Viitorul achieved their best performance, qualifying for the championship play-offs and finishing 5th place, thus earning a place in the third qualifying round of the UEFA Europa League, where they were drawn against Belgian side Gent. In their first European match, at Ghelamco Stadium, Viitorul suffered a bitter 0–5 defeat.
On 13 May 2017, Viitorul Constanța managed to win the Liga I, the first major trophy in their history, after a 1–0 home victory over CFR Cluj. They subsequently earned a place in the third qualifying round of the 2017–18 UEFA Champions League.